### Citations

107 |
Engineering classification of rock masses for the design of tunnel support.
- Barton, Lien, et al.
- 1974
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...al relationships for estimating the value of an isotropic rock mass deformation modulus on the basis of classification schemes such as the Rock Mass Rating (RMR) [1], the Tunnelling Quality Index (Q) =-=[2]-=- and the Geological Strength Index (GSI) [3]. limit the predicted rock mass modulus for massive rock by using a third power curve and this was also adopted by Barton [8]. The intact rock modulus (Ei) ... |

68 |
Practical estimates of rock mass strength.
- Hoek, Brown
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... an isotropic rock mass deformation modulus on the basis of classification schemes such as the Rock Mass Rating (RMR) [1], the Tunnelling Quality Index (Q) [2] and the Geological Strength Index (GSI) =-=[3]-=-. limit the predicted rock mass modulus for massive rock by using a third power curve and this was also adopted by Barton [8]. The intact rock modulus (Ei) has been included in the equations proposed ... |

54 | Hoek-Brown failure criterion-2002 edition”, in
- Hoek, Carranza-Torres, et al.
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...eira [4] Bieniawski [5] Stephens and Banks [6] Bieniawski [5] Serafim and Pereira [4] Þ;Ei 50GPa Nicholson and Bieniawski [12] Mitri et al [9] Read et al. [7] Barton [8] 0; sci 100MPa Hoek et al. =-=[13]-=- =9Þ; Sonmez et al. [10] RMR Þ Carvalho [11] Diederichs and Kaiser [14] ARTICLE IN PRESS Fig. 2. Set-up for a plate jacking test with a multi-point extensometer installed in the rock mass and deform... |

7 |
The effect of sample disturbance on laboratory properties of Lac du Bonnet granite. Can Geotechn J
- DM, Stimpson
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... PRESS E. Hoek, M.S. Diederichs / International Journal of Rockon strength and, hence, the intact rock strength, when available, can usually be considered more reliable. Data from Martin and Stimpson =-=[23]-=- show that severe sample damage (micro-cracking) due to stress relaxation, even in visibly intact rock (GSI 100), can reduce the elastic modulus by up to 50% compared to undamaged samples and compar... |

4 |
Consideration of the geomechanical classification of Bieniawski
- JL, JP
- 1983
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tunnel, the deformations of the rock mass surrounding the tunnel are important and a numerical analysis of Most authors have based their predictions on field test data reported by Serafim and Pereira =-=[4]-=- and Bieniawski [5] and, in some cases, by Stephens and Banks [6]. These data together with the most widely known equations are plotted in Fig. 1 and listed in Table 1. While most of these equations g... |

4 |
Finite element modeling of cablebolted stopes in hard rock ground mines
- HS, Edrissi, et al.
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...he predicted rock mass modulus for massive rock by using a third power curve and this was also adopted by Barton [8]. The intact rock modulus (Ei) has been included in the equations proposed by Mitri =-=[9]-=-, Sonmez et al. [10] and Carvalho [11] but these equations give relatively poor fits to the full range of data included in Fig. 1. Some other authors have proposed equations relating rock mass modulus... |

4 |
Bieniawski ZT. A nonlinear deformation modulus based on rock mass classification
- GA
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...National Laboratory for Civil Engineering in Lisbon in ig. 1 Serafim and Pereira [4] Bieniawski [5] Stephens and Banks [6] Bieniawski [5] Serafim and Pereira [4] Þ;Ei 50GPa Nicholson and Bieniawski =-=[12]-=- Mitri et al [9] Read et al. [7] Barton [8] 0; sci 100MPa Hoek et al. [13] =9Þ; Sonmez et al. [10] RMR Þ Carvalho [11] Diederichs and Kaiser [14] ARTICLE IN PRESS Fig. 2. Set-up for a plate jackin... |

4 | The deformation modulus of rock masses - comparisons between in situ tests and indirect estimates, Tunn Undergr Sp Tech,
- Palmström, Singh
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ne 15 put p e tim hav schem reme k as r 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. these deformations requires an estimate of the rock mass poorly defined asymptotes. Read et al. [7] attempted to as RMi =-=[15]-=- and RQD [16] which are not readily accommodated in the discussion presented here. However, Zhang and Einstein’s paper [16] is interesting in ARTICLE IN PRESS Corresponding author. that, based on a p... |

4 |
Using RQD to estimate the deformation modulus of rock masses
- Zhang, HH
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... tim hav schem reme k as r 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. these deformations requires an estimate of the rock mass poorly defined asymptotes. Read et al. [7] attempted to as RMi [15] and RQD =-=[16]-=- which are not readily accommodated in the discussion presented here. However, Zhang and Einstein’s paper [16] is interesting in ARTICLE IN PRESS Corresponding author. that, based on a paper by Kulha... |

3 | Determining rock mass deformability—experience from case histories - ZT - 1978 |

3 |
Some new Q value correlations to assist in site characterisation and tunnel design. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 2002;39:185–216
- Barton
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e Tunnelling Quality Index (Q) [2] and the Geological Strength Index (GSI) [3]. limit the predicted rock mass modulus for massive rock by using a third power curve and this was also adopted by Barton =-=[8]-=-. The intact rock modulus (Ei) has been included in the equations proposed by Mitri [9], Sonmez et al. [10] and Carvalho [11] but these equations give relatively poor fits to the full range of data in... |

3 |
Gokceoglu C, Ulusay R. Indirect determination of the modulus of deformation of rock masses based
- Sonmez
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ass modulus for massive rock by using a third power curve and this was also adopted by Barton [8]. The intact rock modulus (Ei) has been included in the equations proposed by Mitri [9], Sonmez et al. =-=[10]-=- and Carvalho [11] but these equations give relatively poor fits to the full range of data included in Fig. 1. Some other authors have proposed equations relating rock mass modulus to other classifica... |

3 |
A new method for the determination of deformability in rock masses,
- Rocha, JN
- 1970
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ement on the loading plates. Fig. 3. In situ jacking test in an exploration adit for the New Tienlun hydroelectric project in Taiwan. E. Hoek, M.S. Diederichs / International Journal of Rockthe 1960s =-=[19]-=- and this was used in several large dams in Portugal and its African territories. This method involved cutting a deep slot into the rock mass by means of a diamond impregnated saw as shown in Fig. 5. ... |

2 |
Engineering classification of rock masses
- ZT
- 1973
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... several authors have proposed empirical relationships for estimating the value of an isotropic rock mass deformation modulus on the basis of classification schemes such as the Rock Mass Rating (RMR) =-=[1]-=-, the Tunnelling Quality Index (Q) [2] and the Geological Strength Index (GSI) [3]. limit the predicted rock mass modulus for massive rock by using a third power curve and this was also adopted by Bar... |

2 |
Moduli for deformation studies of the foundation and abutments of the Portugues Dam—Puerto Rico. In: Rock mechanics as a guide for efficient utilization of natural resources
- RE, DC
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...are important and a numerical analysis of Most authors have based their predictions on field test data reported by Serafim and Pereira [4] and Bieniawski [5] and, in some cases, by Stephens and Banks =-=[6]-=-. These data together with the most widely known equations are plotted in Fig. 1 and listed in Table 1. While most of these equations give reasonable fits to the field data, all of the exponential equ... |

2 |
Perrin ND. Applicability of the Hoek–Brown failure criterion to New Zealand greywacke rocks
- SAL, LR
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...of .S r, Br l, Kin 9 Ju ne 15 put p e tim hav schem reme k as r 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. these deformations requires an estimate of the rock mass poorly defined asymptotes. Read et al. =-=[7]-=- attempted to as RMi [15] and RQD [16] which are not readily accommodated in the discussion presented here. However, Zhang and Einstein’s paper [16] is interesting in ARTICLE IN PRESS Corresponding a... |

2 |
Estimation of rock mass modulus
- Carvalho
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ssive rock by using a third power curve and this was also adopted by Barton [8]. The intact rock modulus (Ei) has been included in the equations proposed by Mitri [9], Sonmez et al. [10] and Carvalho =-=[11]-=- but these equations give relatively poor fits to the full range of data included in Fig. 1. Some other authors have proposed equations relating rock mass modulus to other classification schemes suchK... |

2 |
Geomechanical model for rock foundation settlement
- FH
- 1978
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ich are not readily accommodated in the discussion presented here. However, Zhang and Einstein’s paper [16] is interesting in ARTICLE IN PRESS Corresponding author. that, based on a paper by Kulhawy =-=[17]-=-, they plot a family of curves showing the rate of increase in rock 1365-1609/$ - see front matter r 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.ijrmms.2005.06.005 E-mail addresses: ehoek@at... |

2 |
mass deformability; in situ tests, their interpretation and typical results in Italy
- Rock
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...losure of gaps between the plates and the rock mass and closure of cracks in the blast damaged and stress relieved rock under the loading plates. This question has been examined in detail by Ribacchi =-=[18]-=- ARTICLE IN PRESS Fig. 1. Empirical equations for predicting rock mass deformation in F 22:82Þ 0GPa MPa D 100Þ GSI 00Þ=9 E. Hoek, M.S. Diederichs / International Journal of Rock Mechanics & Mining S... |

2 |
Study of stratified rock masses by means of large scale tests with an hydraulic pressure chamber
- Oberti, Coffi, et al.
- 1983
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...mation. While this method gave reliable results, it was time consuming and expensive and it has not been used in recent years. Large-scale tests using pressure chambers were proposed by Oberti et al. =-=[20]-=- in 1983 but these have only been used Fig. 4. Alternative definitions for the deformability of a rock mass. (1) Initial tangent modulus, (2) elastic tangent modulus, (3) recovery modulus and (4) modu... |

2 |
Contribution to discussion in proceedings of the paris conference on analysis of tunnel stability by the convergence–confinement method
- Tanimoto
- 1980
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s 43 (2006) 203–215 205on a few projects because of the time and expense involved. Similarly, a detailed back analysis of deformation associated with an advancing tunnel face was reported by Tanimoto =-=[21]-=- but, as far as the authors are aware, only one such study was conducted. The details of this test are shown in Fig. 7 in which deformation measurements were made using a strain-gauged aluminium tube ... |

2 |
Chapter 1: geological considerations
- DU
- 1968
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...trength of the intact rock (sci). This information permits a more detailed analysis in which the ratio of mass to intact modulus (Erm=Ei) can be included. Using the modulus ratio MR proposed by Deere =-=[22]-=- (modified by the authors based in part on this data set and also on additional correlations from Palmstrom and Singh [15]) it is possible to estimate the intact modulus from Ei MRsci. (3) This relat... |

2 |
Power caverns of the Mingtan Pumped Storage Project
- Cheng, SC
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nce appears to be in accordance with practical observations and engineering reasoning. The disturbance of the rock mass will vary with distance from a free face due to blast damage and stresson Deere =-=[24]-=- and Palmstrom and Singh [15] Mechanics & Mining Sciences 43 (2006) 203–215relief and, in some cases, to stress induced fracturing. In a recent tunnel design project the authors assumed that the value... |