@TECHREPORT{Fodor02asurvey, author = {Imola Fodor}, title = {A Survey of Dimension Reduction Techniques}, institution = {}, year = {2002} }

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Abstract

this paper, we assume that we have n observations, each being a realization of the p- dimensional random variable x = (x 1 , . . . , x p ) with mean E(x) = = ( 1 , . . . , p ) and covariance matrix E{(x )(x = # pp . We denote such an observation matrix by X = i,j : 1 p, 1 n}. If i and # i = # (i,i) denote the mean and the standard deviation of the ith random variable, respectively, then we will often standardize the observations x i,j by (x i,j i )/ # i , where i = x i = 1/n j=1 x i,j , and # i = 1/n j=1 (x i,j x i )