### Abstract

Transversal gates and spatial dimension In fault-tolerant quantum computation [1], quantum information is protected from noise by encoding it in somewhat non-local degrees of freedom, thus distributing it among many smaller subsystems, typically qubits. This makes sense under the physically relevant as-sumption that interactions with the environment have a local nature. The implementation of gates, consequently, must be also as local as possible to preserve the structure of noise. This is naturally achieved with transversal gates, i.e. unitary operators that transform en-coded states by acting separately on suitable subsystems, in the simplest case independently on each qubit. Unfortunately, no code admits a universal transversal set of gates [2]. Topological quantum error correcting codes [3] introduce a richer notion of locality by considering the spatial location of the physical qubits, which are assumed to be arranged on a lattice. They come in families parametrized with a lattice size, for a fixed spatial dimension. Their defining features are (i) that the measurements needed to recover information about errors only involve a few neighbouring qubits and (ii) that no encoded information can be recovered without access to a number of physical qubits comparable to the system size. Rather than sticking to the above definition of transversality, for topological codes it is natural to consider instead quantum circuits of fixed depth with geometrically local gates [4, 5]. Remarkably, it has been recently shown that spatial dimension imposes constraints on the transversal gates that are allowed [5]. In particular, this is true in the case of topological stabilizer codes, where it has been found that transversal gates on D-dimensional codes have to belong to certain sets PD. A first main result of this work [6] is that codes that saturate these bounds can be constructed for every D, in the sense that they admit at least a transversal gate in PD (not belonging to PD−1). In particular, the result applies to color codes [7, 8, 9, 10], where the single-qubit gate RD:=

### Keyphrases

transversal gate gauge color code spatial dimension physical qubits topological quantum error quantum information unitary operator main result lattice size relevant as-sumption result applies fixed depth local gate universal transversal set suitable subsystem topological code certain set pd system size topological stabilizer code neighbouring qubits en-coded state spatial location local nature non-local degree fixed spatial dimension defining feature fault-tolerant quantum computation encoded information d-dimensional code single-qubit gate rd quantum circuit