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### Citations

12231 |
Elements of Information Theory,
- Cover, Thomas
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... best strategy for the attack is known to be independent of the input. A similar problem has been discussed in the communication with the intentional jamming scenario in the book of Cover and Thomas, =-=[17]-=-. Dr. Servetto refers to this problem for the solution of the hiding capacity. The analysis of the hiding game is surprisingly simple. A payoff function for the information hiding game is defined: J(W... |

2195 | Data networks,”
- Bertsekas, Gallager
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...mbedding w/o localization Image Authentication Methods transform Appending w/ localization w/o localization w/ localization pixel Embedding w/o localization Appending w/ localization w/o localization =-=[3,4]-=- [5,8,12] * [1,2,13] * [7] * Figure 40: Authentication Algorithms in the Literature Two checkbits are embedded per block. One checkbit is derived from the block and the other one is assigned by the se... |

1080 | Secure spread spectrum watermarking for multimedia.
- Cox, Kilian, et al.
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...n information (a single bit embedded to justify ownership) is modulated by a sequence of randomly generated bits and the modulated bits are algebraically added to the original image in the DCT domain =-=[18]-=-. At the detection step, the inner product (matched filter) of the modulation vector and the received signal minus the original signal is evaluated and the result is thresholded. The method depends on... |

1026 | Writing on Dirty Paper,” - Costa - 1983 |

820 |
Understanding Molecular Simulation. From Algorithms to Applications, 2nd ed.
- Frenkel, Smit
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...lled the iGLE was developed to describe nonstationary process [58]. The details of this model will be introduced in chapter II. 1.3.2.2 Dissipated Particle Dynamics Dissipated Particle Dynamics (DPD) =-=[59, 60]-=- is a relatively new method initially developed by Hoogerbrugge and Koelman to simulate the hydrodynamic behavior of colloidal suspensions [61, 62]. The DPD is a coarse-graining procedure that leads t... |

493 | Quantization Index Modulation: A Class of Provably Good Methods for Digital Watermarking and Information Embedding‖.
- Chen, Wornell
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...icality. The proofs of the channel coding theory (error coding) and the rate-distortion theory (source coding) heavily depends on the typicality of the sequences 1 . We quote the following lines from =-=[14]-=-. At this part of the paper, Chen et. al. discuss the optimality of the data encoding: 1) Hidden QIM: As we show in this subsection, one can achieve the capacity by a type of “hidden” QIM, i.e., QIM t... |

490 |
Stochastic processes in physics and chemistry.
- Kampen
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...of motion will become the Langevin equation. The chemical reaction can be described as an effective particle moving on a potential characterized by two (or more) adjacent wells separated by a barrier =-=[24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29]-=-. In Kramer’s model [24], a particle is trapped in a one-dimensional well which is separated from another well by a barrier height. He assumed that the particle is immersed in a medium such that the m... |

203 |
The Chemical Langevin equation,”
- Gillespie
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...udied by Kurtz [79]. He takes explicitly into account the volume of the reaction system. Later, Gillespie derived the chemical Langevin equation from the chemical master equation with two assumptions =-=[80]-=-. The assumption of Gillespie provides a new perspective on the origin and magnitude of noise in a chemical reaction system. Recently, the chemical langevin equation has been used for numerical simula... |

158 |
Reaction-rate theory: fifty years after Kramers Rev.
- Hanggi, Talkner, et al.
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... is the Kramer turnover problem. He did realize that there is a maximal rate for a intermediate friction. Many attempts have been made to provide a single expression to link these two friction limits =-=[30, 31]-=-. In 1986, Pollak found that the Kramer’s expression can be derived from transition 8sstate theory (TST) which leads to the solution of the Kramer’s turnover problem [32, 30, 33]. Transition state the... |

140 | Simulating microscopic hydrodynamic phenomena with dissipative particle dynamics
- Hoogerbrugge, Koelman
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...Particle Dynamics Dissipated Particle Dynamics (DPD) [59, 60] is a relatively new method initially developed by Hoogerbrugge and Koelman to simulate the hydrodynamic behavior of colloidal suspensions =-=[61, 62]-=-. The DPD is a coarse-graining procedure that leads to a structure similar to the LE containing random and dissipative force terms. The difference between DPD and the LE is that the random force and t... |

111 |
1828] ”A brief account of microscopical observations made in the months of
- Brown
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...of motion will become the Langevin equation. The chemical reaction can be described as an effective particle moving on a potential characterized by two (or more) adjacent wells separated by a barrier =-=[24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29]-=-. In Kramer’s model [24], a particle is trapped in a one-dimensional well which is separated from another well by a barrier height. He assumed that the particle is immersed in a medium such that the m... |

95 |
The relationship between stochastic and deterministic models for chemical reactions
- Kurtz
- 1972
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... this reaction is: 4.2 Chemical Langevin Equation (CLE) dXA = ξPois(radt) − ξPois(rddt) . (71) The relationship between stochastic and deterministic models for chemical reactions was studied by Kurtz =-=[79]-=-. He takes explicitly into account the volume of the reaction system. Later, Gillespie derived the chemical Langevin equation from the chemical master equation with two assumptions [80]. The assumptio... |

93 |
On the movement of small particles suspended in stationary liquids required by the molecular-kinetic theory of heat. Annalen der Physik
- Einstein
- 1905
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...of motion will become the Langevin equation. The chemical reaction can be described as an effective particle moving on a potential characterized by two (or more) adjacent wells separated by a barrier =-=[24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29]-=-. In Kramer’s model [24], a particle is trapped in a one-dimensional well which is separated from another well by a barrier height. He assumed that the particle is immersed in a medium such that the m... |

87 |
Statistical mechanics of fluid mixtures
- Kirkwood
- 1935
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... either through the friction kernel, or more accurately, through g(t), or/and through modifying the potential of mean force. The Potential of Mean Force (PMF) was first introduced by Kirkwood in 1935 =-=[72]-=-. For a system with N molecules, the average force acting on a particle j is dependent on the density and configurations of all the other molecules. The definition of the PMF is: −∇jw n (q1,q2 · · · q... |

87 | Compression tolerant image authentication.
- Bhattacharjee
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ng w/o localization Image Authentication Methods transform Appending w/ localization w/o localization w/ localization pixel Embedding w/o localization Appending w/ localization w/o localization [3,4] =-=[5,8,12]-=- * [1,2,13] * [7] * Figure 40: Authentication Algorithms in the Literature Two checkbits are embedded per block. One checkbit is derived from the block and the other one is assigned by the sender. The... |

86 | On the duality between information embedding and source coding with side information and some applications
- Barron, Chen, et al.
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...t elegant results [43]. Recently the duality between the source coding with side information at the receiver and data hiding (source coding with side information at the transmitter) has been explored =-=[15, 3]-=-. In here, we give a discussion of the claim above and establish the linkage between the claim and the other results given by Moulin et. al. and Chen et. al. [35, 13]. After visiting this relation, we... |

73 |
Thermodynamics of the Polymerization of Protein
- Oosawa, Asakura
- 1975
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...polymerization and the equilibrium concentration of initiator are the important measurable quantities. Equilibrium polymerization can be considered to be a phase transition. This was proved by Oosawa =-=[40, 41, 42]-=-, Ivin [43], Semenchenko [44] and Wheeler [45]. Monomers in the solvent are in one phase, and polymers in equilibrium with monomers in solvent are in another phase. As the system moves back and forth ... |

71 |
Sur la théorie du mouvement brownien
- Langevin
- 1908
(Show Context)
Citation Context |

66 | Hierarchical watermarking for secure image authentication with localization,”
- Celia, Sharma, et al.
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context .... The initial image authentication systems are designed to operate at the pixel domain [53]. The shortcomings of the first techniques have been analyzed [26] and some improved ones have been proposed =-=[12]-=-. The pixel domain authentication techniques cannot be used at communication applications. Such techniques are more suitable for storage applications, or for some 105sother applications requiring high... |

65 |
Thermodynamics of High Polymer Solutions
- Flory
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...in another phase. As the system moves back and forth between these two phases, polymer length increases or decreases. The thermodynamic properties of amorphous polymer phases were calculated by Flory =-=[46]-=-, Meyer [47], and Huggins [48] using statistical mechanical methods. These calculations count the number of conformations of each polymer and the number of configurations of a specified polymer. Flory... |

46 |
collective motion, and Brownian motion,” Prog
- Mori, “Transport
- 1965
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...d Langevin equations to describe the stochastic motion along a projected coordinate assumes that the environment is stationary during the dynamic process and obeys the fluctuation-dissipation theorem =-=[64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69]-=-. But in most cases, the response of the environment is not the same and changes during the reaction. To include this non-stationary environment response, one can use the irreversible generalized Lang... |

42 |
The fluctuation-dissipation theorem,” Rep
- Kubo
- 1966
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...d Langevin equations to describe the stochastic motion along a projected coordinate assumes that the environment is stationary during the dynamic process and obeys the fluctuation-dissipation theorem =-=[64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69]-=-. But in most cases, the response of the environment is not the same and changes during the reaction. To include this non-stationary environment response, one can use the irreversible generalized Lang... |

39 |
Memory effects in irreversible thermodynamics
- Zwanzig
- 1961
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...d Langevin equations to describe the stochastic motion along a projected coordinate assumes that the environment is stationary during the dynamic process and obeys the fluctuation-dissipation theorem =-=[64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69]-=-. But in most cases, the response of the environment is not the same and changes during the reaction. To include this non-stationary environment response, one can use the irreversible generalized Lang... |

39 |
Design and Analysis of Digital Watermarking, Information Embedding and Data Hiding Systems
- Chen
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...le bit of hidden information. This technique is the earliest information hiding idea in the literature. Transform Domain Quantization (Chen’s Quantization Index Modulation): The algorithm of Dr. Chen =-=[13]-=- generalizes the scalar quantization in pixel domain to the vector quantization in transform domain. This generalization is especially interesting to us because of its theoretical foundation and becau... |

37 |
A theory of linear and helical aggregations of macromolecules.
- Oosawa, Kasai
- 1962
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...polymerization and the equilibrium concentration of initiator are the important measurable quantities. Equilibrium polymerization can be considered to be a phase transition. This was proved by Oosawa =-=[40, 41, 42]-=-, Ivin [43], Semenchenko [44] and Wheeler [45]. Monomers in the solvent are in one phase, and polymers in equilibrium with monomers in solvent are in another phase. As the system moves back and forth ... |

37 | On the duality between distributed source coding and data hiding
- Chou, Pradhan, et al.
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...odeword which is jointly typical with the received signal. The jointly 16stypical codeword is the decoded output and the index of the codebook in which the codeword resides is the hidden information, =-=[13, 16, 15, 35]-=-. We would like to note that our data hiding method described in the next chapter operates on very similar principles. Instead of finding the universal codebook, we use the JPEG codebook. And we parti... |

27 |
Dynamics of Polymeric Liquids. Vol.1. Fluid Mechanics,
- Bird, Armstrong, et al.
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...lt. As a result, it has been customary for polymer scientists to resort to mechanical models to simulate the mechanical behavior of the macromolecules.” 7sThe above statement made in 1987 by Hassager =-=[23]-=- told us that it is not necessary to include all degrees of freedom and chemical interactions of a realistic chain to simulate polymer systems. To make the simulation possible, one has to reduce the c... |

23 |
Nature of the glass transition and the glassy state
- Gibbs, DiMarzio
- 1958
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tramolecular nearest neighbors [49, 50] and Gibbs got a more general formula to describe the properties of polymers which incorporates the chain stiffness and the variation of volume with temperature =-=[51, 52]-=-. Except these quasilattice models for fixed-length polymers, there are also some approaches to study the growth of polymers and polymers with variable bond lengths [39]. N→ 0 vector model[45] and Fre... |

17 |
Statistical Thermodynamics of Semi-Flexible Chain Molecules
- Flory
- 1955
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nformations of each polymer and the number of configurations of a specified polymer. Flory studied semi-flexible linear chains whose stiffness arises exclusively from intramolecular nearest neighbors =-=[49, 50]-=- and Gibbs got a more general formula to describe the properties of polymers which incorporates the chain stiffness and the variation of volume with temperature [51, 52]. Except these quasilattice mod... |

14 |
Phase equilibria in solutions of rodlike particles
- Flory
- 1956
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nformations of each polymer and the number of configurations of a specified polymer. Flory studied semi-flexible linear chains whose stiffness arises exclusively from intramolecular nearest neighbors =-=[49, 50]-=- and Gibbs got a more general formula to describe the properties of polymers which incorporates the chain stiffness and the variation of volume with temperature [51, 52]. Except these quasilattice mod... |

12 |
A hidden markov model for transcriptional regulation in single cells
- Goutsias
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...n the origin and magnitude of noise in a chemical reaction system. Recently, the chemical langevin equation has been used for numerical simulations such as the analysis of cellular systems in biology =-=[81]-=-. Compared to chemical kinetics (deterministic), the chemical Langevin equation was used to describe the time evolution of a well-stirred chemical reactive system, taking into account stochasticity. I... |

10 |
Exponents for the excluded volume problem as derived by the wilson method
- GENNES
- 1972
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... In 1972, de Gennes proved that the partition function for a very long polymer chain in a good solvent is equivalent to the partition function for a magnet that has a magnetic moment with 0 dimension =-=[53]-=-. In 1975, des Cloizeaus also showed that the two partition functions are equivalent in an 10sexternal magnetic field when n→ 0 [54]. The relation between the “magnetic” problem and the polymer proble... |

9 |
Polymerization Initiated by Electron Transfer to Monomer. A New Method of Formation of Block Polymers
- Szwarc, Levy, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...on. viiisCHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The term “living polymers” was first suggested by M. Szwarc in 1956 in the anionic polymerization of styrene with an alkali metal/naphthalene system in tetrohydrofuran =-=[5, 6]-=-. He found that viscosity increases as the reaction proceeds, reaching a maximal value for a fixed amount of monomers. The addition of monomers will continue the reaction and the viscosity will increa... |

9 |
Dynamic Simulation of Hard Sphere Suspensions Under Steady
- Koelman, Hoogerbrugge
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...Particle Dynamics Dissipated Particle Dynamics (DPD) [59, 60] is a relatively new method initially developed by Hoogerbrugge and Koelman to simulate the hydrodynamic behavior of colloidal suspensions =-=[61, 62]-=-. The DPD is a coarse-graining procedure that leads to a structure similar to the LE containing random and dissipative force terms. The difference between DPD and the LE is that the random force and t... |

8 |
Some Properties of Solutions of Long-chain Compounds
- Huggins
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...m moves back and forth between these two phases, polymer length increases or decreases. The thermodynamic properties of amorphous polymer phases were calculated by Flory [46], Meyer [47], and Huggins =-=[48]-=- using statistical mechanical methods. These calculations count the number of conformations of each polymer and the number of configurations of a specified polymer. Flory studied semi-flexible linear ... |

6 |
Theory of activated rate processes: A new derivation of Kramers’ expression
- Pollak
- 1986
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...these two friction limits [30, 31]. In 1986, Pollak found that the Kramer’s expression can be derived from transition 8sstate theory (TST) which leads to the solution of the Kramer’s turnover problem =-=[32, 30, 33]-=-. Transition state theory (TST) uses the flux over population method to derive the rate of passage over the barrier. TST theory relates the reactant with product through the barrier height. This works... |

6 |
Systematic hybrid analog/digital signal coding
- Barron
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...0100 10011 011 01100 01011 10010 10101 3.2.3.3 Information Theoretic Interpretation An information theoretical interpretation of the described decoder is given in this section. Readers should consult =-=[35, 13, 2]-=- for more information on data hiding theory. A standard tool of information theory is the concept of typicality. The proofs of the channel coding theory (error coding) and the rate-distortion theory (... |

5 |
Langevin dynamics simulations of polymer translocation through nanopores
- Huopaniemi, Luo, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... by the fluctuation-dissipation theorem: 〈ξ(t)ξ(t ′ )〉 = 2kBTγ0δ(t − t ′ ) . (11) 13sAlthough the Langevin equation is a simple model, it has been used to study polymer translocation through nanopores=-=[56]-=-, dynamics of semi-flexible polymers in a flow field, [57] etc. The Langevin equation was generalized by modifying the friction kernel to account for more complex interactions with the environment. It... |

5 |
Adiabatic elimination for systems of brownian particles with nonconstant damping coefficients
- Sancho, Miguel, et al.
- 1982
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...procedure consists of setting the time derivative of the fast variables equal to zero. If the random force is position dependent, then it is necessary to consider an alternative elimination procedure =-=[74]-=-. The iGLE shown in Eq. 13 is a general form. To describe polymerization reaction, g(t) has to be a function of the polymer length R and is written as g(R(t)). The iGLE becomes the irreversible Langev... |

5 |
Invertible Authentication Watermark for
- Fridrich, Goljan, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...thentication algorithms in Table 12 to compare the performance of the proposed algorithm. Table 12: Comparison of the Authentication Algorithms in Literature Method [58] [59] [53] [12] [34] [31] [20] =-=[22]-=- [33] [5] [57] [54] [56] Proposed Embedding × √ √ √ √ √ √ √ × × √ × √ √ Localization √ √ √ √ √ √ × × √ √ √ √ √ √ Compression Domain × × × × √ (Wavelet) √ (Wavelet) √ √ √ √ √ (Wavelet) √ √ √ Security ×... |

4 |
W.: Living polymerization methods
- Webster
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ue the reaction and the viscosity will increase again. After his remarkable discovery, a lot of techniques such as cationic polymerization, free radical polymerization and ring-opening polymerization =-=[7]-=- have been developed in the last fifty years to study this “livingness” —a special feature of living polymers [8, 9]. Living polymerization [10, 11] is a powerful technique for synthesizing homopolyme... |

4 |
Theoretical reaction kinetics of reversible living polymerization
- Miyake, Stockmayer
- 1965
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ibution when the initial distribution is not the equilibrium distribution. They assumed that the rate constants are independent of chain length. Based on their results, in 1965, Miyake and Stockmayer =-=[13]-=- obtained a complete analytic solution for a living polymer system without transfer and termination reactions provided the monomer concentration was constant. In 1997, Milchev studied the molecular we... |

4 |
Theory of activated rate processes for arbitrary frequency dependent friction: Solution of the turnover problem
- Pollak, Grabert, et al.
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... is the Kramer turnover problem. He did realize that there is a maximal rate for a intermediate friction. Many attempts have been made to provide a single expression to link these two friction limits =-=[30, 31]-=-. In 1986, Pollak found that the Kramer’s expression can be derived from transition 8sstate theory (TST) which leads to the solution of the Kramer’s turnover problem [32, 30, 33]. Transition state the... |

4 |
Meshkov, Theory of activated rate processes: Exact solution of the Kramers problem
- Mel’nikov
- 1986
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...these two friction limits [30, 31]. In 1986, Pollak found that the Kramer’s expression can be derived from transition 8sstate theory (TST) which leads to the solution of the Kramer’s turnover problem =-=[32, 30, 33]-=-. Transition state theory (TST) uses the flux over population method to derive the rate of passage over the barrier. TST theory relates the reactant with product through the barrier height. This works... |

4 |
Theory of activated rate processes: position dependent friction
- Carmeli, Nitzan
- 1983
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... all the same size in the system, then one has to consider the memory effect. The Langevin equation can be generalized by taking into account this variation by introduction of spacedependent friction =-=[34, 35, 36, 37]-=-. Besides modifying the friction kernel, another way to include more complex interactions with the environment is to modify the potential of mean force (PMF). 1.3 Polymerization Dynamics 1.3.1 Equilib... |

4 |
Physical Chemistry of Equilibrium Polymerization
- Greer
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...as micelles, networks, and other kinds of clustering processes and collective assembles. The term “equilibrium polymerization” includes reversible polymerization and processes approaching equilibrium =-=[38]-=-. According to Tobolsky [39], polymerization equilibrium processes can classified as equilibrium polymerization reaction whether the reaction requires initiators or not. The polymerization of e-caprol... |

4 |
The Lagrangian Theory of Polymer Solution at Intermediate Concentrations
- Cloizeaux, J
- 1975
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...n function for a magnet that has a magnetic moment with 0 dimension [53]. In 1975, des Cloizeaus also showed that the two partition functions are equivalent in an 10sexternal magnetic field when n→ 0 =-=[54]-=-. The relation between the “magnetic” problem and the polymer problem was also addressed by Sarma [55]. For a system of N vector spins located on the sites of a three-dimensional lattice, the Hamilton... |

4 | A new interpretation of data hiding capacity
- Candan, Jayant
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...d. 3.1 Hiding Capacity of the Compressed Images We present a new interpretation for data hiding capacity which is in agreement with the existing works in the literature, [43, 13, 35]. You may consult =-=[8]-=- for details. The main claim can be stated as follows: Claim: The amount of information that can be imperceptibly hidden in a media carrier is the difference between the bit rate used in the compressi... |

3 |
Living Polymers
- Szwarc
- 1956
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...on. viiisCHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The term “living polymers” was first suggested by M. Szwarc in 1956 in the anionic polymerization of styrene with an alkali metal/naphthalene system in tetrohydrofuran =-=[5, 6]-=-. He found that viscosity increases as the reaction proceeds, reaching a maximal value for a fixed amount of monomers. The addition of monomers will continue the reaction and the viscosity will increa... |

3 |
Molecular weight distribution of ”living” polymers
- Brown, Szwarc
- 1958
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ymers with the molecular weight of Mi. The ratio of the weight-average and number-average molecular weights can be used to describe the polydispersity of the polymers (PDI). In 1958, Brown and Szwarc =-=[12]-=- derived the equilibrium molecular weight distribution of living polymers and the rate of change of the distribution when the initial distribution is not the equilibrium distribution. They assumed tha... |

3 |
Solutions of Flexible Polymers: Neutron Experiments and Interpretation” by
- Deoud, Cotton, et al.
- 1975
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...showed that the two partition functions are equivalent in an 10sexternal magnetic field when n→ 0 [54]. The relation between the “magnetic” problem and the polymer problem was also addressed by Sarma =-=[55]-=-. For a system of N vector spins located on the sites of a three-dimensional lattice, the Hamiltonian is: H = −J � <i,j> SiSj − m0H � i S (1) i , (4) where Si, Sj are the nearest neighbor spins, and S... |

3 |
The theory of reactions in solution
- Hynes
- 1985
(Show Context)
Citation Context |

3 |
Chemical reaction dynamics in solution, Annu
- Hynes
- 1985
(Show Context)
Citation Context |

3 |
Stochastic Dynamics in Irreversible Nonequilibrium Environments, 1. The Fluctuation–Dissipation Relation
- Hernandez, Jr
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... correlation are equivalent to the projected iGLE [70]. This model has been used to study the dynamics of thermosetting polymerization where polymerization ends due to the diffusion-limited mechanism =-=[71]-=-. In this model, the nonstationary environment response was included by a R dependent dissipation term through g(t). Without an extension of the iGLE, it is impossible to describe living polymerizatio... |

3 |
Non-Markovian activated rate processes: comparison of current theories with numerical simulation data’.
- Straub, Borkovec, et al.
- 1986
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...(2E † + + fbE † + − 2E† � + 1 + fbl) −1/2 , (18) where l is the monomer length and E † is the barrier height in the forward reaction. This PMF is an extension of the double well model of Straub et.al =-=[73]-=-. Also included in the PMF is the self-similarity of the polymer. Without the barrier height, the polymer PMF becomes a biased potential. To connect the iGLE with living polymerization, we have to mod... |

3 | Lossless authentication of MPEG-2 video
- Du, Fridrich
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...in authentication algorithms in Table 12 to compare the performance of the proposed algorithm. Table 12: Comparison of the Authentication Algorithms in Literature Method [58] [59] [53] [12] [34] [31] =-=[20]-=- [22] [33] [5] [57] [54] [56] Proposed Embedding × √ √ √ √ √ √ √ × × √ × √ √ Localization √ √ √ √ √ √ × × √ √ √ √ √ √ Compression Domain × × × × √ (Wavelet) √ (Wavelet) √ √ √ √ √ (Wavelet) √ √ √ Secur... |

2 |
Living poly(α-methylstyrene) near the polymerization line. VII. molecular weight distribution in a good solvent
- Zhuang, Das, et al.
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...concentration of initial monomer. r is the ratio of moles initiator to moles initial monomer. Te is the equilibrium temperature for the polymerization. The data listed in the table is taken from Ref. =-=[1]-=-. The rate constants are obtained using the simple kinetic model of Ref. [1]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 1 Batch samples of living poly(α-methylstyrene) in tetrahydrofuran. x 0... |

2 |
The Ultrasensitivity of Living Polymers
- O'Shaughnessy, Vavylonis
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s cationic polymerization, free radical polymerization and ring-opening polymerization [7] have been developed in the last fifty years to study this “livingness” —a special feature of living polymers =-=[8, 9]-=-. Living polymerization [10, 11] is a powerful technique for synthesizing homopolymers and copolymers/block polymers. Block copolymers have found great applications in drug delivery, photonics and fue... |

2 |
Macromolecular architectures by living and controlled/living polymerizations, Prog
- Hadjichristidis, Latrou, et al.
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e radical polymerization and ring-opening polymerization [7] have been developed in the last fifty years to study this “livingness” —a special feature of living polymers [8, 9]. Living polymerization =-=[10, 11]-=- is a powerful technique for synthesizing homopolymers and copolymers/block polymers. Block copolymers have found great applications in drug delivery, photonics and fuel cells. One example is polystyr... |

2 |
Mechanistic transformations involving living and controlled/living polymerization methods, Prog
- Yagci, Tasdelen
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e radical polymerization and ring-opening polymerization [7] have been developed in the last fifty years to study this “livingness” —a special feature of living polymers [8, 9]. Living polymerization =-=[10, 11]-=- is a powerful technique for synthesizing homopolymers and copolymers/block polymers. Block copolymers have found great applications in drug delivery, photonics and fuel cells. One example is polystyr... |

2 |
The relaxation spectrum of polymer length distribution
- Turner, Cates
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...and finally reaches Flory-Schulz distribution after a long time. The Flory-Schulz distribution becomes the exponential distribution predicted by the Flory-Huggins lattice model [16] and kinetic study =-=[17]-=- when the number average degree of polymerization is large. The ideal, living, irreversible polymerization usually gives a narrow, sharp Poisson distribution. This is shown in appendix A. The non-unif... |

2 |
Recent advance in living anionic polymerization of functionalized styrene derivatives, Prog
- Hirao, Loykulnant, et al.
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ture for a 1M solution is 27 ± 3 degrees Celsius. The kinetic study shows that the apparent rate constant is: log kp = −1.83 ∗ 10 3 /T + 5.741/mols , (3) and the activation energy is 3.6±0.2 kcal/mol =-=[19]-=- which is a little bit smaller than the activation of α-methylstyrene because of the electron-withdrawing group. The rate of polymerization is much slower than that of α-methylstyrene due to the use o... |

2 |
Brownian motion in a field of force and the diffusional model of chemical reactions
- Kramers
- 1940
(Show Context)
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A theory for the thermally activated rate constant in systems with spatially dependent friction, Chem
- Haynes, Voth, et al.
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... all the same size in the system, then one has to consider the memory effect. The Langevin equation can be generalized by taking into account this variation by introduction of spacedependent friction =-=[34, 35, 36, 37]-=-. Besides modifying the friction kernel, another way to include more complex interactions with the environment is to modify the potential of mean force (PMF). 1.3 Polymerization Dynamics 1.3.1 Equilib... |

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A theory for the activated barrier crossing rate constant in systems influenced by space and time dependent friction
- Haynes, Voth, et al.
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... all the same size in the system, then one has to consider the memory effect. The Langevin equation can be generalized by taking into account this variation by introduction of spacedependent friction =-=[34, 35, 36, 37]-=-. Besides modifying the friction kernel, another way to include more complex interactions with the environment is to modify the potential of mean force (PMF). 1.3 Polymerization Dynamics 1.3.1 Equilib... |

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The projection of a mechanical system onto the irreversible generalized Langevin equation (iGLE
- Hernandez
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... Using a similar construction as that used for the projection of a stationary open Hamiltonian system onto the GLE, a generalized model called the iGLE was developed to describe nonstationary process =-=[58]-=-. The details of this model will be introduced in chapter II. 1.3.2.2 Dissipated Particle Dynamics Dissipated Particle Dynamics (DPD) [59, 60] is a relatively new method initially developed by Hoogerb... |

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Effects of diffusion-controlled reactions on atom-transfer radical polymerization
- Delgadillo-Velazquez, Vivaldo-Lima, et al.
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...RAFT) demonstrate that diffusion-controlled radical termination and radical addition accelerate the polymerization rate, while diffusion-controlled propagation decreases the livingness of the polymer =-=[78]-=-. In this chapter, we study the diffusion effects on anionic living polymerization by including the diffusion coefficients in a stochastic model. 4.1 Chemical Stochastic Equation (CSE) A stochastic pr... |

2 | A minimum distortion data hiding technique for compressed images
- Candan, Jayant
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...n capability. A technique similar to ours have been proposed by Wu and Liu [56]. The method of Wu modifies the quantized DCT coefficients of the image to embed checkbits. 106sw/ localization wavelet: =-=[6,9,11]-=- DCT:[10] Embedding w/o localization Image Authentication Methods transform Appending w/ localization w/o localization w/ localization pixel Embedding w/o localization Appending w/ localization w/o lo... |

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Living poly(alpha - methylstyrene) near the polymerization line: IV. Extent of polymerization as a function of temperature
- Das, S, et al.
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... poly(α-methylstyrene) in tetrahydrofuran, the table lists the data of temperature, barrier height, extent of conversion and the corresponding ζ value. The first and third columns are taken from Ref. =-=[2]-=-. Temperature(K) BarrierHeight(KBT) Conversion ζ 284.753 9.41 0.29 ± 0.02 4.8 282.350 9.487 0.41 ± 0.01 3.0 280.264 9.569 0.39 ± 0.01 3.2 278.317 9.623 0.54 ± 0.01 1.9 275.707 9.715 0.55 ± 0.01 1.85 2... |

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Welldefined poly(4-vinylbenzocyclobutene): Synthesis by living anionic polymerization and characterization
- Sakellariou, Baskaran, et al.
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s the extent of polymerization, Mn is the number average molecular weight, i1, i2 and i3 are the polymer length obtained using different experimental data. The first three columns are taken from Ref. =-=[3]-=-. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 4 The molecular weight and polymer length of polystyrene. The first three columns data are taken from Ref. [4]. . . . . . . .... |

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Molecular weight distribution of polystyrene made by anionic polymerizaton
- Lee, Lee, et al.
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...yclohexane. 3.3 Experimental System three: styrene Polymerization of styrene with initiator sec-butyllithium in cyclohexane was studied by Schubert using a commercial automated synthesizer[22]. Chang =-=[4]-=- studied the molecular weight distribution of this experimental system using SEC and temperature gradient interaction chromatography (TGIC) and found the TGIC method is more accurate. The polymer leng... |

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A Monte Carlo study of thermodynamic relaxation in living polymers
- Milchev, Rouault
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tribution MWD using Monte Carlo methods on a two-dimensional lattice and confirmed the cross over from Schulz-Zimm to exponential distributions as the system moved from the dilute to semi-dilute case =-=[14]-=-. For reversible, equilibrium polymerization, there are three stages for which the MWD has been predicted by theory and experiment [12, 15]. In the initial stage, the initial MWD 3sis a Poisson distri... |

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Lattice model of living polymerization
- Dudowicz, Freed, et al.
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...olymer is established, and finally reaches Flory-Schulz distribution after a long time. The Flory-Schulz distribution becomes the exponential distribution predicted by the Flory-Huggins lattice model =-=[16]-=- and kinetic study [17] when the number average degree of polymerization is large. The ideal, living, irreversible polymerization usually gives a narrow, sharp Poisson distribution. This is shown in a... |

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Anionic polymerization of monomers containing functional groups. 8. Anionic living polymerization of 4-cyano-α-methylstyrene
- Ishizone, Okazawa, et al.
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...α-methylstyrene Figure 1: Repeat unit of α-methylstyrene The living anionic polymerization of 4-cyano-α-methylstyrene was carried out in tetrohydrofuran at -78 degrees Celsius with various initiators =-=[18]-=- and shows similar behavior to the reversible polymerization of α-methylstyrene. The heat of polymerization is −7.64±0.5 kcal/mol and the corresponding entropy is −25.5 ± 1 kcal/molK. The ceiling temp... |

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p-Chlorophenyldiazonium Hexafluorophosphate as a catalyst in the polymerization of tetrahydrofuran and other cyclic ethers
- Dreyfuss, Dreyfuss
- 1966
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ylstyrene Polymerization of tetrahydrofuran using the catalyst p-chlorophenyldiazoinum hexafluorohosphate (p − ClC6H4N2PF6) has proved to be a cationic polymerization without termination and transfer =-=[20]-=-. Dreyfuss has studied the conversion as a function of time and temperature. Compared to α-methylstyrene, this polymerization only requires one initiator molecule to form the propagating species. By u... |

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Synthesis of narrow distribution polytetrahydrofuran
- Roucher, Wetton
- 1976
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...Flory distribution with a larger polydispersity. The possible factors that affect the distribution are: equilibrium effects, chain transfer reactions, slow initiation reactions and ion pair structure =-=[21]-=-. The activation energy for this reaction is 51kJ/mol. 1.1.2.4 4-vinylbenzocyclobutene Polymerization of 4-vinylbenzocyclobutene with the initiator sec-butyllithium at room temperature was studied by ... |

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Automated parallel anionic polymerizations:enhancing the possibilities of a widely used technique in polymer synthesis
- Guerrero-Sanchez, Abeln, et al.
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tyrene Figure 3: Repeat unit of 4-vinylbenzocyclobutene Polymerization of styrene with initiator sec-butyllithium in cyclohexane in a temperature range of 10-60 degree Celsius was studied by Schubert =-=[22]-=-. The activation energy for this reaction is 63KJ/mol. Chang [4] also studied this experimental system using SEC and temperature gradient interaction chromatography (TGIC) and found the TGIC method is... |

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Thermal relaxation of systems with quadratic heat bath coupling
- Lindenberg, Cortés
- 1984
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Transition phenomena in equilibrium polymerization
- Tobolsky, Eisenberg
- 1962
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ther kinds of clustering processes and collective assembles. The term “equilibrium polymerization” includes reversible polymerization and processes approaching equilibrium [38]. According to Tobolsky =-=[39]-=-, polymerization equilibrium processes can classified as equilibrium polymerization reaction whether the reaction requires initiators or not. The polymerization of e-caprolactam initiated by water, am... |

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G-F transition of actin as a fibrous condensation
- Oosawa, Asakura, et al.
- 1959
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...polymerization and the equilibrium concentration of initiator are the important measurable quantities. Equilibrium polymerization can be considered to be a phase transition. This was proved by Oosawa =-=[40, 41, 42]-=-, Ivin [43], Semenchenko [44] and Wheeler [45]. Monomers in the solvent are in one phase, and polymers in equilibrium with monomers in solvent are in another phase. As the system moves back and forth ... |

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Thermodynamics of addition polymerization processes, in Reactivity, Mechanism, and structure in polymer chemistry
- Ivin
- 1974
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...the equilibrium concentration of initiator are the important measurable quantities. Equilibrium polymerization can be considered to be a phase transition. This was proved by Oosawa [40, 41, 42], Ivin =-=[43]-=-, Semenchenko [44] and Wheeler [45]. Monomers in the solvent are in one phase, and polymers in equilibrium with monomers in solvent are in another phase. As the system moves back and forth between the... |

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Thermodynamics of polymers. 5. phase transiton in liquid sulfur
- Semenchenko, Soldatova
- 1966
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ncentration of initiator are the important measurable quantities. Equilibrium polymerization can be considered to be a phase transition. This was proved by Oosawa [40, 41, 42], Ivin [43], Semenchenko =-=[44]-=- and Wheeler [45]. Monomers in the solvent are in one phase, and polymers in equilibrium with monomers in solvent are in another phase. As the system moves back and forth between these two phases, pol... |

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The n → 0 vector model and equilibrium polymerization, Phys
- Wheeler, Pfeuty
- 1981
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...itiator are the important measurable quantities. Equilibrium polymerization can be considered to be a phase transition. This was proved by Oosawa [40, 41, 42], Ivin [43], Semenchenko [44] and Wheeler =-=[45]-=-. Monomers in the solvent are in one phase, and polymers in equilibrium with monomers in solvent are in another phase. As the system moves back and forth between these two phases, polymer length incre... |

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The compound entropies of systems with long-chain compounds and their statistical explanation
- Meyer
- 1939
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...hase. As the system moves back and forth between these two phases, polymer length increases or decreases. The thermodynamic properties of amorphous polymer phases were calculated by Flory [46], Meyer =-=[47]-=-, and Huggins [48] using statistical mechanical methods. These calculations count the number of conformations of each polymer and the number of configurations of a specified polymer. Flory studied sem... |

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Chain stiffness and the lattice theory of polymer phases
- DiMarzio, Gibbs
- 1958
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tramolecular nearest neighbors [49, 50] and Gibbs got a more general formula to describe the properties of polymers which incorporates the chain stiffness and the variation of volume with temperature =-=[51, 52]-=-. Except these quasilattice models for fixed-length polymers, there are also some approaches to study the growth of polymers and polymers with variable bond lengths [39]. N→ 0 vector model[45] and Fre... |

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Dynamics of semiflexible polymers in a flow field, Phys
- Munk, Hallatschek, et al.
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...kBTγ0δ(t − t ′ ) . (11) 13sAlthough the Langevin equation is a simple model, it has been used to study polymer translocation through nanopores[56], dynamics of semi-flexible polymers in a flow field, =-=[57]-=- etc. The Langevin equation was generalized by modifying the friction kernel to account for more complex interactions with the environment. It can be used to model the dynamics of a reactive coordinat... |

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Novel methods in soft matter simulations
- Groot
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...lled the iGLE was developed to describe nonstationary process [58]. The details of this model will be introduced in chapter II. 1.3.2.2 Dissipated Particle Dynamics Dissipated Particle Dynamics (DPD) =-=[59, 60]-=- is a relatively new method initially developed by Hoogerbrugge and Koelman to simulate the hydrodynamic behavior of colloidal suspensions [61, 62]. The DPD is a coarse-graining procedure that leads t... |

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Living poly(α-methylstyrene) near the polymerization line: II. Phase diagram in methylcyclohexane
- Zheng, Greer, et al.
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... polydispersity index (PDI) have been captured by these models. The thermodynamics and kinetics of the living polymerization system α-methylstyrene has been extensively studied by Greer and coworkers =-=[63, 2, 1]-=-. They measured phase equilibrium, the extent of polymerization, the chemical kinetics and molecular weight distribution. It is the best example for the study of reversible equilibrium polymerization.... |

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Activated rate processes in condensed phases: The Kramers theory revisited
- Nitzan
- 1988
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An idealized model for nonequilibrium dynamics in molecular systems
- Vogt, Hernandez
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...iltonian system [58], and numerical simulations of this mechanical system indicate that the time-dependent observed total energy and the solvent force correlation are equivalent to the projected iGLE =-=[70]-=-. This model has been used to study the dynamics of thermosetting polymerization where polymerization ends due to the diffusion-limited mechanism [71]. In this model, the nonstationary environment res... |

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Polymerization/Depolymerization mechanism for “living” sodium poly-α-Methylstyryl and sodium polystyryl
- Kalnin’sh
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...the barrier height which is the ratio of the activation energy over thermal energy. The activation energy for this polymerization process is about 20kJ/mol and and the deactivation energy is 29kJ/mol =-=[75]-=-. The ratio of the barrier height over kBT is about 9 and kBT is in a units of kJ/mol. The reference temperature is 120K (kBT0 = 1). These values will be used in the following simulations. In order to... |

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Kinetic analysis of controlled/living radical polymerizations by simulations. 1. The importance of diffusion-controlled reactions
- Shipp, Matyjaszewski
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...efficients. Diffusion-controlled phenomena such as auto-acceleration and the glass effect in conventional free-radical polymerization have been studied for a long time and proved to be very important =-=[76, 77]-=-. The effects of diffusion-controlled reactions on atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and reversible addition-fragmentation transfer polymerization (RAFT) demonstrate that diffusion-controlle... |

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Nonstationary stochastic dynamics & applications to chemical physics
- Hernandez, Somer
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ibrium properties. Specifically, we want to investigate whether or not the equilibrium position of the double-well particles is affected by the asymmetry in the nonstationary friction. In former work =-=[82]-=-, it has been shown that the average position of a stochastic particle in a double well is different for two different environments. If the environment is stationary, the average position is zero no m... |

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nth-nearest-neighbor distribution functions of an interacting fluid from the pair correlation function: A hierarchical approach, Phys
- Bhattacharjee
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... no monomers exist interior to r (denoted by dpno(r;ri)) times the probability that a monomer does exist between r and r +dr (denoted by dpyes(r;r)), where L < ri < r and L is the size of the monomer =-=[84]-=-. In dense solution, dpyes(r;r) = 4πr 2 C(m)dr, so dpno(r;ri) = 1 − dpyes(r;r). The probability to find the first closest particle at r with dr is: Thus: dP(1,r) = ∞� dpno(r;ri)dpyes(r;r) . (163) i=1 ... |

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Theory and Applications of Data Hiding in Still Images
- Alturki
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... AIAA Comp uting in Aerosp ace, pp. 314-318, San Diego, CA, 1993. Figure 21: Watson’s Human Visual System Model Shuffling: The idea of shuffling has appeared in the literature before. You can look at =-=[1, 55]-=- for different usages of shuffling. Dr. Faisal Al-Turki uses the idea of shuffling to increase the security of the watermarking system. Dr. Wu uses it for the payload equalization. We use shuffling to... |

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A survey of information hiding,” Qualification Exam Report
- Candan
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...n capability. A technique similar to ours have been proposed by Wu and Liu [56]. The method of Wu modifies the quantized DCT coefficients of the image to embed checkbits. 106sw/ localization wavelet: =-=[6,9,11]-=- DCT:[10] Embedding w/o localization Image Authentication Methods transform Appending w/ localization w/o localization w/ localization pixel Embedding w/o localization Appending w/ localization w/o lo... |

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A multiple description coding scheme based on the chinese remainder theorem
- Candan
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...age Authentication Methods transform Appending w/ localization w/o localization w/ localization pixel Embedding w/o localization Appending w/ localization w/o localization [3,4] [5,8,12] * [1,2,13] * =-=[7]-=- * Figure 40: Authentication Algorithms in the Literature Two checkbits are embedded per block. One checkbit is derived from the block and the other one is assigned by the sender. The derived and assi... |

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A data hiding based secure authentication technique for jpeg compressed images with tampering localization capability
- Candan, Jayant
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ch area. Message authentication and identity verification is an important application sub-group of the multimedia security. In this chapter we present a data hiding based image authentication method, =-=[11]-=-. The roots of the need for multimedia security applications can be associated with the existing computer network infrastructure which has been built without the guiding of a central authority, on a s... |

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Ieee signal processing society best paper award at image and multidimensional signal processing
- Cox, Killian, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... A very similar synchronization problem occurs in the communication context. If the synchronization can be achieved, the spread spectrum embedding method works very well under many attack conditions, =-=[19]-=-. Adaptive Methods: Different from the random embedding approach of the spread spectrum method, the adaptive methods adjusts the embedded signal to the local features of the original image. In [47] th... |

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is the future for watermarking (part 1
- Forum
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...valuation (cryptographic security) is one of the lagging research subareas of watermarking research. The following is taken from a watermarking forum at which the future of watermarking is discussed, =-=[21]-=-. At this Forum Dr. Memon pointed out that “However, we are still far from being able to quantify or even analyze the security of current watermarking systems. It would be naive to expect provable sec... |