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## A Non-Stationary Wideband Channel Model for Massive MIMO Communication Systems (2014)

### Citations

680 |
Introduction to Space-Time Wireless Communications
- Paulraj, Nabar, et al.
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...LTIPLE-input multiple-output (MIMO) technologyhas been attracting researchers’ attention for its capability of providing improved link reliability and system capacity without extra spectral resources =-=[1]-=-. MIMO has been deployed in a number of advanced wireless communication systems such as Worldwide Interoperability for the Microwave Access (WiMAX) [2] and the Long Term Evolution (LTE). The latest LT... |

217 |
Balanis, Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design, 3rd ed
- A
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...A NON-STATIONARY WIDEBAND CHANNEL MODEL FOR MASSIVE MIMO COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS 1435 models solely assume that the distance between a scatterer and an antenna array is far beyond the Rayleigh distance =-=[29]-=-, [30], i.e., 2M2/λ, where M is the dimension of the antenna array and λ is the carrier wavelength. Namely, the farfield and plane wavefront assumptions were usually applied to simplifying the channel... |

214 | Applications of antenna arrays to mobile communications, part I: performance improvement, feasibility, and system considerations
- Godara
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...T = π/2, λ = 0.15 m, δR = 0.5λ, fmax = 0 Hz, LOS K = 3 dB, λG = 32/m, λR = 4/m, PF = 0.3). WINNER II model. The AoAs are estimated using the wellknown multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm =-=[46]-=-, [47] with a sliding window formed by 3 consecutive antennas. This sliding window is shifted by 1 antenna at a time, from the first antenna to the last antenna. Therefore, for a 32-element antenna ar... |

204 |
Antennas and Propagation for Wireless Communication Systems
- Saunders, Aragon-Zavala
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...STATIONARY WIDEBAND CHANNEL MODEL FOR MASSIVE MIMO COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS 1435 models solely assume that the distance between a scatterer and an antenna array is far beyond the Rayleigh distance [29], =-=[30]-=-, i.e., 2M2/λ, where M is the dimension of the antenna array and λ is the carrier wavelength. Namely, the farfield and plane wavefront assumptions were usually applied to simplifying the channel model... |

165 | Overview of spatial channel models for antenna array communication systems - Ertel, Cardieri, et al. - 1998 |

103 | A space-time correlation model for multielement antenna systems in mobile fading channels
- Abdi, Kaveh
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ere both of them follow the exponential distributions. AoAs of clusters to the receive array center are assumed to be von Mises distributed. The von Mises distribution can be characterized by its PDF =-=[43]-=- pαRn ( αRn ) = exp [ κ cos ( αRn − ᾱRn )] 2πI0(κ) αRn ∈ [−π, π] (58) where I0(·) is the zero-th order modified Bessel function, ᾱRn is the mean and κ ≥ 0 controls the width of the distribution. The... |

77 |
Massive MIMO for next generation wireless systems,” arXiv preprint arXiv:1304.6690
- Larsson, Tufvesson, et al.
- 2013
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...st 8 antennas at the base station (BS) and 8 antennas at the mobile station (MS). A massive MIMO system is equipped with much more antennas, typically tens or hundreds, than conventional MIMO systems =-=[4]-=-–[7]. With such a massive number of antennas, it has been demonstrated that a massive MIMO system is able to provide many benefits, such as greatly increasing the capacity, simplifying scheduling desi... |

71 |
A geometrically based model for line-of-sight multipath radio channels
- Liberti, Rappaport
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...been widely studied in the literature. Extensive geometry-based stochastic models (GBSMs) for conventional MIMO channels known as one-ring model, two-ring model, and ellipse model can be found in [8]–=-=[12]-=-. Also, a combined ellipse and two-ring model was proposed in [13] and [14], a multiple circular-ring model was proposed in [15], and three-dimensional (3-D) concentriccylinder models can be found in ... |

71 | A Parametric Model for the Distribution of the Angle of Arrival and the Associated Correlation Function and Power Spectrum at the Mobile Station
- Abdi
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...a (14). Since mean power is related to delay in [20], the mean power of a cluster is then related to the size of its corresponding ellipse. In addition, AoAs are modeled as the von Mises distribution =-=[41]-=-. As von Mises distribution can be easily adapted to other distributions such as uniform distribution and wrapped Gaussian distribution, it is widely utilized in the literature [8], [13], [14] to mode... |

57 |
An interim channel model for beyond-3G systems
- Baum, Salo, et al.
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ization of non-stationarities was investigated in [33]–[36], where the appearance and disappearance of clusters on the time axis were modeled using the birth-death or Markov processes. The authors in =-=[37]-=- and [38] analyzed time-variant geometrical properties such as AoA and angles of departure (AoD), but they ignored the evolution of clusters. However, [33]–[38] only took non-stationarities on the tim... |

40 |
A Markov Model for the Mobile Propagation Channel
- Babich, Lombardi
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...and disappearance, angle of arrival (AoA) shifts, as well as non-stationarities were observed on the antenna array axis [27], [28]. The characterization of non-stationarities was investigated in [33]–=-=[36]-=-, where the appearance and disappearance of clusters on the time axis were modeled using the birth-death or Markov processes. The authors in [37] and [38] analyzed time-variant geometrical properties ... |

37 | A stochastic multipath channel model including path directions for indoor environments - Zwick, Fischer, et al. - 2002 |

23 | BAn adaptive geometry-based stochastic model for non-isotropic mimo mobile-to-mobile channels
- Cheng, Wang, et al.
- 2009
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ochastic models (GBSMs) for conventional MIMO channels known as one-ring model, two-ring model, and ellipse model can be found in [8]–[12]. Also, a combined ellipse and two-ring model was proposed in =-=[13]-=- and [14], a multiple circular-ring model was proposed in [15], and three-dimensional (3-D) concentriccylinder models can be found in [16] and [17]. The authors in [18] proposed a twin-cluster model w... |

17 |
et al., “Scaling Up MIMO: Opportunities and Challenges with Very Large Arrays
- Rusek
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... is able to provide many benefits, such as greatly increasing the capacity, simplifying scheduling design in the frequency domain [4], and averaging interference according to the large number theorem =-=[5]-=-. Generally speaking, a massive MIMO system can be considered as an enhanced version of conventional MIMO by utilizing an enormous number of antennas. As a result, its system performance, in terms of ... |

17 | A Deterministic Equivalent for the Capacity Analysis of Correlated Multi-user
- Couillet, Debbah, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ized. Besides, correlation-based conventional MIMO channel models such as the Kronecker model and the Weichselberger model were used to investigate the performance of massive MIMO systems in [25] and =-=[26]-=-. However, according to the measurement observations in [27] and [28], the above mentioned MIMO channel models [8]–[26] are not sufficient to accurately capture certain characteristics of massive MIMO... |

17 |
Channel measurements and analysis for very large array systems at 2.6
- Payami, Tufvesson
- 2012
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...odels such as the Kronecker model and the Weichselberger model were used to investigate the performance of massive MIMO systems in [25] and [26]. However, according to the measurement observations in =-=[27]-=- and [28], the above mentioned MIMO channel models [8]–[26] are not sufficient to accurately capture certain characteristics of massive MIMO channels. First, conventional MIMO channel 1536-1276 © 2014... |

16 |
Spatial-temporal correlation properties of the 3GPP spatial channel model and the Kronecker MIMO channel model
- Wang, Hong, et al.
- 2007
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...l (3-D) concentriccylinder models can be found in [16] and [17]. The authors in [18] proposed a twin-cluster model which concerned only the first and the last bounces. The spatial channel model (SCM) =-=[19]-=-, WINNER II model [20], IMT-A model [21], COST 273 model [22], and COST 2100 model [23], [24] have also been widely utilized. Besides, correlation-based conventional MIMO channel models such as the Kr... |

16 |
A Stochastic Spatial Channel Model Based on Wave-Progagation Modeling
- Zwick, Fischer, et al.
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ance and disappearance, angle of arrival (AoA) shifts, as well as non-stationarities were observed on the antenna array axis [27], [28]. The characterization of non-stationarities was investigated in =-=[33]-=-–[36], where the appearance and disappearance of clusters on the time axis were modeled using the birth-death or Markov processes. The authors in [37] and [38] analyzed time-variant geometrical proper... |

13 | Cooperative MIMO channel modeling and multi-link spatial correlation properties
- Cheng, Wang, et al.
- 2012
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s one-ring model, two-ring model, and ellipse model can be found in [8]–[12]. Also, a combined ellipse and two-ring model was proposed in [13] and [14], a multiple circular-ring model was proposed in =-=[15]-=-, and three-dimensional (3-D) concentriccylinder models can be found in [16] and [17]. The authors in [18] proposed a twin-cluster model which concerned only the first and the last bounces. The spatia... |

12 |
Measured propagation characteristics for very-large MIMO at 2.6 GHz
- Gao, Tufvesson, et al.
- 2012
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...efront MIMO channel models. Also, the received power difference on the array axis increases as the correlation factor reduces. Similar conclusions on received power imbalance can be found in [27] and =-=[28]-=-. The absolute receiver space CCFs of the wideband ellipse model with different birth-death process configurations is illustrated in Fig. 12. It can be observed that the correlation with cluster evolu... |

9 |
On the sum-rate of multiuser MIMO uplink channels with jointly-correlated Rician fading
- Wen, Jin, et al.
- 2011
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...dely utilized. Besides, correlation-based conventional MIMO channel models such as the Kronecker model and the Weichselberger model were used to investigate the performance of massive MIMO systems in =-=[25]-=- and [26]. However, according to the measurement observations in [27] and [28], the above mentioned MIMO channel models [8]–[26] are not sufficient to accurately capture certain characteristics of mas... |

9 |
Øien, “Design of capacity-optimal high-rank line-of-sight MIMO channels
- Bøhagen, Orten, et al.
- 2007
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...efront assumption is not fulfilled for massive MIMO channels. Instead, a spherical wavefront channel model should be considered. Spherical wavefront models and plane wavefront models were compared in =-=[31]-=- and [32]. The authors in [31] pointed out that the plane wavefront assumption underestimates the rank of the channel matrix. However, [31] and [32] only focused on short range or constant distance co... |

8 | An overview of massive MIMO: Benefits and challenges
- Lu, Li, et al.
- 2014
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... antennas at the base station (BS) and 8 antennas at the mobile station (MS). A massive MIMO system is equipped with much more antennas, typically tens or hundreds, than conventional MIMO systems [4]–=-=[7]-=-. With such a massive number of antennas, it has been demonstrated that a massive MIMO system is able to provide many benefits, such as greatly increasing the capacity, simplifying scheduling design i... |

8 |
Wideband MIMO mobile-to-mobile channels: geometry-based statistical modeling with experimental verification
- Zajic, Stuber, et al.
- 2009
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... combined ellipse and two-ring model was proposed in [13] and [14], a multiple circular-ring model was proposed in [15], and three-dimensional (3-D) concentriccylinder models can be found in [16] and =-=[17]-=-. The authors in [18] proposed a twin-cluster model which concerned only the first and the last bounces. The spatial channel model (SCM) [19], WINNER II model [20], IMT-A model [21], COST 273 model [2... |

7 | A novel wideband dynamic directional indoor channel model based on a Markov process - Chong, Tan, et al. - 2005 |

5 |
Wideband channel modeling and ICI cancellation for vehicle-to-vehicle communication systems
- Cheng
- 2013
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...in this section. The normalized space CCF ρkl,k′l′,n(δT , δR; t) between the link connecting AntRk and AntTl and the link connecting AntRk′ and AntTl′ of the n-th cluster at time t is defined as [8], =-=[42]-=- ρkl,k′l′,n(δT , δR; t) = E ⎡ ⎣ hkl,n(t)h∗k′l′,n(t) |hkl,n(t)| ∣∣∣h∗k′l′,n(t)∣∣∣ ⎤ ⎦ (25) where h∗k′l′,n(t) denotes the conjugate of hk′l′,n(t). The LOS component and the NLOS components are independe... |

4 | Envelope level crossing rate and average fade duration of nonisotropic vehicleto-vehicle Ricean fading channels
- Cheng, Wang, et al.
- 2014
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...models (GBSMs) for conventional MIMO channels known as one-ring model, two-ring model, and ellipse model can be found in [8]–[12]. Also, a combined ellipse and two-ring model was proposed in [13] and =-=[14]-=-, a multiple circular-ring model was proposed in [15], and three-dimensional (3-D) concentriccylinder models can be found in [16] and [17]. The authors in [18] proposed a twin-cluster model which conc... |

4 | A twin-cluster MIMO channel model
- Hofstetter, Molisch, et al.
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... two-ring model was proposed in [13] and [14], a multiple circular-ring model was proposed in [15], and three-dimensional (3-D) concentriccylinder models can be found in [16] and [17]. The authors in =-=[18]-=- proposed a twin-cluster model which concerned only the first and the last bounces. The spatial channel model (SCM) [19], WINNER II model [20], IMT-A model [21], COST 273 model [22], and COST 2100 mod... |

4 |
The COST 273 MIMO channel model: Three kinds of clusters
- Czink, Oestges
- 2008
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...7]. The authors in [18] proposed a twin-cluster model which concerned only the first and the last bounces. The spatial channel model (SCM) [19], WINNER II model [20], IMT-A model [21], COST 273 model =-=[22]-=-, and COST 2100 model [23], [24] have also been widely utilized. Besides, correlation-based conventional MIMO channel models such as the Kronecker model and the Weichselberger model were used to inves... |

4 |
2100 - Pervasive Mobile and Ambient Wireless Communications
- Verdone, Ed
- 2011
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... a twin-cluster model which concerned only the first and the last bounces. The spatial channel model (SCM) [19], WINNER II model [20], IMT-A model [21], COST 273 model [22], and COST 2100 model [23], =-=[24]-=- have also been widely utilized. Besides, correlation-based conventional MIMO channel models such as the Kronecker model and the Weichselberger model were used to investigate the performance of massiv... |

3 |
Mobile Radio Channels, 2nd ed
- Patzold
- 2012
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ave been widely studied in the literature. Extensive geometry-based stochastic models (GBSMs) for conventional MIMO channels known as one-ring model, two-ring model, and ellipse model can be found in =-=[8]-=-–[12]. Also, a combined ellipse and two-ring model was proposed in [13] and [14], a multiple circular-ring model was proposed in [15], and three-dimensional (3-D) concentriccylinder models can be foun... |

3 | X.Ge et al., “Cooperative MIMO channel models: A survey - Wang - 2010 |

2 | Novel 3D geometry-based stochastic models for non-isotropic MIMO vehicle-tovehicle channels
- Yuan, Wang, et al.
- 2014
(Show Context)
Citation Context .... Also, a combined ellipse and two-ring model was proposed in [13] and [14], a multiple circular-ring model was proposed in [15], and three-dimensional (3-D) concentriccylinder models can be found in =-=[16]-=- and [17]. The authors in [18] proposed a twin-cluster model which concerned only the first and the last bounces. The spatial channel model (SCM) [19], WINNER II model [20], IMT-A model [21], COST 273... |

2 |
et al., “The COST 2100 MIMO channel model
- Liu
- 2012
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...oposed a twin-cluster model which concerned only the first and the last bounces. The spatial channel model (SCM) [19], WINNER II model [20], IMT-A model [21], COST 273 model [22], and COST 2100 model =-=[23]-=-, [24] have also been widely utilized. Besides, correlation-based conventional MIMO channel models such as the Kronecker model and the Weichselberger model were used to investigate the performance of ... |

2 | A nonstationary 3D wideband twin-cluster model for 5G massive MIMO channels
- Wu, Wang, et al.
- 2014
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...teristics of cluster appearance and disappearance were not studied in detail, and non-stationarities on the time axis were not included. A 3-D non-stationary twincluster channel model was proposed in =-=[40]-=- for massive MIMO systems considering spherical wavefront and non-stationarities on both time and array axes. However, AoAs and AoDs were assumed independent, channel characteristics such as power imb... |

2 |
Dynamic Simulation Model of Indoor Wideband Directional Channels
- Chen, Dubey
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context .... In this section, we will model the dynamic properties of clusters, i.e., the appearance and disappearance of clusters on the array axis, using a birth-death process. In previous literature [33] and =-=[44]-=-, the birth-death process was deployed to model the channel non-stationarity along the time axis, describing the cluster variations in terms of the change of time. For massive MIMO systems, the time a... |

1 | Massive MIMO channel models: A survey,” Hindawi Int - Zheng, Ou, et al. - 2014 |

1 | A non-stationary wideband MIMO channel model for high-mobility intelligent transportation systems - Ghazal, Wang, et al. - 2015 |

1 |
Modeling of line-of-sight 2x2 MIMO channels spherical versus plane waves
- Bohagen, Orten, et al.
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...sumption is not fulfilled for massive MIMO channels. Instead, a spherical wavefront channel model should be considered. Spherical wavefront models and plane wavefront models were compared in [31] and =-=[32]-=-. The authors in [31] pointed out that the plane wavefront assumption underestimates the rank of the channel matrix. However, [31] and [32] only focused on short range or constant distance communicati... |

1 |
A time-variant wideband spatial channel model based on the 3GPP model
- Xiao, Burr, et al.
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...f non-stationarities was investigated in [33]–[36], where the appearance and disappearance of clusters on the time axis were modeled using the birth-death or Markov processes. The authors in [37] and =-=[38]-=- analyzed time-variant geometrical properties such as AoA and angles of departure (AoD), but they ignored the evolution of clusters. However, [33]–[38] only took non-stationarities on the time axis in... |