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## Real-coded genetic algorithms, virtual alphabets, and blocking (1990)

Citations: | 105 - 7 self |

### Citations

2597 |
Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization and Machine Learning
- Goldberg
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...d evolutionary search schemes, and their use as of late seems to be on the rise. This rising usage has been somewhat surprising to researchers familiar with fundamental genetic algorithm (GA) theory (=-=Goldberg, 1989-=-a; Holland, 1975), because simple analyses seem to suggest that enhanced schema processing is obtained by using alphabets of low cardinality, a seemingly direct contradiction of empirical findings tha... |

1097 |
Adaptation in natural and artificial systems. Ann Arbor
- Holland
- 1975
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...arch schemes, and their use as of late seems to be on the rise. This rising usage has been somewhat surprising to researchers familiar with fundamental genetic algorithm (GA) theory (Goldberg, 1989a; =-=Holland, 1975-=-), because simple analyses seem to suggest that enhanced schema processing is obtained by using alphabets of low cardinality, a seemingly direct contradiction of empirical findings that real codings h... |

607 | Numerical Optimization of Computer Models - Schwefel - 1981 |

374 | Messy genetic algorithms: Motivation, analysis, and first results - Goldberg, Korb, et al. - 1989 |

246 | Training feedforward neural networks using genetic algorithms - Montana, Davis - 1989 |

177 |
Sizing populations for serial and parallel genetic algorithms
- Goldberg
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... of authors have suggested the use of Gray codes to overcome such problems (Bethke, 1981; Caruana & Schaffer, 1988), but doing so introduces higher order nonlinearities with respect to recombination (=-=Goldberg, 1989-=-c). A simple solution to this problem exists. Simply use both bitwise and decision-variable-wise mutation operators in binary-coded GAs. Some thought should be given to the proper proportion of each, ... |

176 |
Genetic algorithms and Walsh functions: Part II, deception and its analysis
- Goldberg
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... of authors have suggested the use of Gray codes to overcome such problems (Bethke, 1981; Caruana & Schaffer, 1988), but doing so introduces higher order nonlinearities with respect to recombination (=-=Goldberg, 1989-=-c). A simple solution to this problem exists. Simply use both bitwise and decision-variable-wise mutation operators in binary-coded GAs. Some thought should be given to the proper proportion of each, ... |

176 |
Outline for a logical theory of adaptive systems
- Holland
- 1962
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...henberg's (1986) bibliography. Schwefel's (1981) text relates various Evolutionsstrategien to random search schemes and traditional optimization procedures. Holland's contributions date back to 1962 (=-=Holland, 1962-=-), and from the start he took a discrete view of genetic processing. It wasn't until Weinberg's (1970) thesis departed from this discrete tradition that a suggestion for real genes arose out of the Mi... |

104 | Evolutionary operation: A method for increasing industrial productivity - Box |

71 | Messy genetic algorithms revisited: Studies in mixed size and scale - Goldberg, Deb, et al. - 1990 |

46 |
62) - Optimization through evolution and recombination
- Bremermann
- 1962
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...id not reemerge until the 1970s and 80s, including GA-hard problems (he called them lethally dependent), scaling, the importance of populations, and a number of advanced operators. Bremermann's work (=-=Bremermann, 1962-=-, 1968; Bremermann & Rogson, 1964; Bremermann, Rogson, & Salaff, 1966) considered binary, integer, and real genes. The earliest work concentrated on selection and mutation, and later studies included ... |

40 |
Genetic Algorithms as Function Optimizers, Doctoral dissertation
- Bethke
- 1981
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... bits to reach the optimum 100. Such changes are unlikely---they are of O(p 3 m )---and require long waiting times. A number of authors have suggested the use of Gray codes to overcome such problems (=-=Bethke, 1981-=-; Caruana & Schaffer, 1988), but doing so introduces higher order nonlinearities with respect to recombination (Goldberg, 1989c). A simple solution to this problem exists. Simply use both bitwise and ... |

36 |
Zen and the Art of Genetic Algorithms
- Goldberg
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...d evolutionary search schemes, and their use as of late seems to be on the rise. This rising usage has been somewhat surprising to researchers familiar with fundamental genetic algorithm (GA) theory (=-=Goldberg, 1989-=-a; Holland, 1975), because simple analyses seem to suggest that enhanced schema processing is obtained by using alphabets of low cardinality, a seemingly direct contradiction of empirical findings tha... |

31 |
Binary and floating-point function optimization using messy genetic algorithms (IlliGAL Report No. 91004 and doctoral dissertation
- Deb
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... not the other or in a manner such that part of the problem can be solved in one space and part of the problem can be solved in the other. Messy floating-pointed GAs have been partially investigated (=-=Deb, 1991-=-). This approach may be viewed as a hybrid, combining aspects of both real-coded and binary-coded GAs. Messy GAs use variable numbers of mantissa bits and exponent bits together with parameter-ending ... |

29 |
Genetic Algorithms and Communication Link Speed Design
- Davis, Coombs
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ng history of real-coded genes and the volume of ES work. A particularly vocal U.S. proponent of real genes has been L. Davis. His study of communication network design (Coombs & Davis, 1987; Davis & =-=Coombs, 1987-=-) coded a discrete set of five communication speeds directly as a single gene and used an adjacency mutation operator (called creep). This flirtation with bigger-than-binary alphabets has progressed t... |

27 | Global properties of evolution processes - Bremermann, Rogson, et al. - 1966 |

20 |
Hierarchical descriptions of universal spaces and adaptive systems
- Holland
- 1968
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...conjugate-gradient techniques. Some analysis of individual operators was performed, but these efforts worked directly with the real codings and did not attempt to incorporate Holland's schema theory (=-=Holland, 1968-=-, 1975). Since these early efforts, the torch for real-coded genes has largely been carried by the German school, and these efforts are too numerous to mention individually. Lately, there has been a g... |

9 | Comparison of genetic algorithms with conjugate gradient methods - Bosworth - 1972 |

9 | Applications of genetic algorithms in chemometrics - Lucasius, Kateman - 1989 |

7 | Numerical optimization procedures derived from biological evolution processes,” in: Cybernetic Problems in Bionics, (edited by - Bremermann - 1968 |

7 | Representation and Hidden Bias: Gray versus Binary Coding for Genetic Algorithms - Caruana, Schaffer - 1988 |

7 | Digital Simulation of Evolutionary Process - Friedman - 1959 |

5 | An Evolution-Type Search Method for Convex Sets - Bremermann, Rogson - 1964 |

2 | Algebraic, geometric, and stochastic aspects of genetic operators - Foo, Bosworth - 1972 |

2 | Computer simulation of a living cell (Doctoral dissertation, University of Michigan - Weinberg - 1970 |

1 |
Cybernetic solution path of an experiment problem (Royal Aircraft Establishment Translation
- Rechenberg
- 1965
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...er studies included recombination (shuffle or uniform crossover). Rechenberg's hardware-based studies are surveyed in a brief paper in English (1984), although the work dates back to the early 1960s (=-=Rechenberg, 1965-=-). A fairly complete listing of the ES literature is available in Rechenberg's (1986) bibliography. Schwefel's (1981) text relates various Evolutionsstrategien to random search schemes and traditional... |

1 | Literaturnachweis zur evolutionsstrategie [Bibliography for the evolution strategy ]. Unpublished manuscript, Technische Univesitat Berlin, Fachgebiet Bionik und Evolutionstechnik - Rechenberg - 1986 |