#### DMCA

## An embedded bottom boundary layer formulation for z-coordinate ocean models (2000)

Venue: | J. Ocean Atmos. Tech |

Citations: | 5 - 1 self |

### Citations

211 | A numerical method for the study of the circulation of the world ocean.
- Bryan
- 1969
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nssone of the mostschallenging problems so far for ocean modelers (Robertssand Woods1997; Winton et al. 1998).sThe most widely used type of ocean model in large-scale modeling is the Bryan-Cox models(=-=Bryan 1969-=-;sCox 1984), in which the ocean bottom topography is approximated steplike bysfixed vertical levels. In reality, much of the dense outflow takes place through narrow sills orschannels, which are subgr... |

198 | Hydrostatic, quasihydrostatic, and nonhydrostatic ocean modeling. - Hill, Perelman, et al. - 1997 |

122 | The great ocean conveyor”. - Broecker - 1991 |

115 | Representation of topography by shaved cells in a height coordinate ocean - Adcroft, Hill, et al. - 1997 |

109 | Salinity-driven thermocline transients in a wind-and thermohaline-forced isopycnic coordinate model of the North Atlantic. - Bleck, Rooth, et al. - 1992 |

108 |
The production of North Atlantic Deep Water: sources, rates and pathways
- Dickson, Brown
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...bout five Sv (one Sv equalssone million cubicsmeters of watersper second) throughsa descent of 3 km or more (Whitehead 1989), and aresbelieved to contribute significantly tosthe deep-water formation (=-=Dickson and Brown 1994-=-;sJungclaus and Backhaus 1994), andsthereby tosthe global thermohalinescirculation.sThere alsoshas been considerable interest recently in flow through narrow gaps since many of these smallschannels co... |

84 |
A primitive equation, 3-dimensional model of the ocean
- Cox
- 1984
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e mostschallenging problems so far for ocean modelers (Robertssand Woods1997; Winton et al. 1998).sThe most widely used type of ocean model in large-scale modeling is the Bryan-Cox models(Bryan 1969;s=-=Cox 1984-=-), in which the ocean bottom topography is approximated steplike bysfixed vertical levels. In reality, much of the dense outflow takes place through narrow sills orschannels, which are subgrid-scale i... |

82 |
A semi-implicit ocean circulation model using a generalized topography-following coordinate system,
- Song, Haidvogel
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ignificantlysmoresrealisticsplumesspreading than thesexisting BBLsscheme of KillworthsandsEdwardss(1998)sandsisscomparable to the resultssfrom a topography-following coordinate model (SCRUM, Song and =-=Haidvogel 1994-=-),swhichsissbelieved to besmore suitable for such a problem.sCalculation of the momentumsbudgetsdemonstrates thatsthe improvedsrepresentation ofsdown-slope pressuresgradientsformulationsplayssan impor... |

76 |
Outflows and deep water production by marginal seas, Progr
- Price, Baringer
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... been considerable interest recently in flow through narrow gaps since many of these smallschannels control large-scale features in the ocean, such as thesStrait of Gibraltars(BrydensandsKinder 1991; =-=Price and Baringer 1994-=-), and the Drake and Indonesian Passages (Broeckers1991).sNumerical models are widely used in oceanographic research, andsare now beginning tosreach the point where realistic models on basin- to globa... |

68 |
A method for improved representation of dense water spreading over topography in geopotential-coordinate models
- Beckman, Doscher
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...loped to improve thesbottom topographic representation in z-coordinate ocean general circulation models.sThe EBBL scheme is based on the combined techniques of an embedded topography-sfollowing slab (=-=Beckmann and Doscher 1997-=-; Gnanadesikan et al. 1998), an explicitsturbulent bottom boundary layer (BBL) (Killworth and Edwards 1998), and a gener-salized pressure gradient formulation (Song 1998). The coupling between the int... |

59 |
On the Pressure Gradient Force over Steep Topography in Sigma Coordinate Ocean Models
- Haney
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...sformulated in a careful way. However, it is found that the difficulty of maintaining thesdensity signal as the plume descends the slopesis the main impediment to accurate simulationsin ocean models (=-=Haney 1991-=-; Winton et al. 1998).sFor example, in a-coordinate models, the pressure gradient force is traditionally deter-smined by the sum of two terms (Arakawa and Suarez 1983)) i.e.,sa psa a psahsd xsh a a a ... |

53 |
The development of a free-surface Bryan-Cox-Semtner ocean model
- Killworth, Stainforth, et al.
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...eneralizedspressure gradientsformulation (Song 1998). The paper is organized as follows. In section 2 wesdescribe our EBBL scheme and the numerical implementationsinto a free surface Bryan-Coxsmodel (=-=Killworth et al. 1991-=-). Section 3 presents thestest problem results and comparisonsswithsresultssfrom the existing BBL of Killworth and Edwards (1998; hereafter referred to assK&E ) andsfrom SCRUM (Song andsHaidvogell994)... |

38 | On the structure and dynamics of the oceanic bottom boundary layer. - Weatherly, Martin - 1978 |

34 |
Simulation of density-driven frictional downslope flow in z-coordinate ocean models
- Winton, Hallberg, et al.
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... Gnanadesikan et al. 1998, Killworthsand Edwards 1998), realistically representing thesbottom topographysremainssone of the mostschallenging problems so far for ocean modelers (Robertssand Woods1997; =-=Winton et al. 1998-=-).sThe most widely used type of ocean model in large-scale modeling is the Bryan-Cox models(Bryan 1969;sCox 1984), in which the ocean bottom topography is approximated steplike bysfixed vertical level... |

33 |
A turbulent bottom boundary layer code for use in numerical ocean models
- Killworth, Edwards
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...The EBBL scheme is based on the combined techniques of an embedded topography-sfollowing slab (Beckmann and Doscher 1997; Gnanadesikan et al. 1998), an explicitsturbulent bottom boundary layer (BBL) (=-=Killworth and Edwards 1998-=-), and a gener-salized pressure gradient formulation (Song 1998). The coupling between the interiorsz-levelsmodelsand the EBBLsmodelsissachievedsbysexchanging entrainment/detrainmentsandspressuresgrad... |

28 | Modeling the Gulf Stream system, how far from reality? Geophys - Chao, Gangopadliyay, et al. - 1996 |

27 | Modeling the oceanic general circulation - McWilliams - 1996 |

20 | Topographic sensitivity studies with a Bryan-Cox-type ocean model,” - Roberts, Wood - 1997 |

20 | Topographic influence on wind-driven stratified flow in a -plane channel: An idealized model for the Antarctic Circumpolar Current - Treguier, McWilliams - 1990 |

19 | H.: Steady two-layer exchange through the - Bryden, Kinder - 1991 |

19 |
Modeling Ocean Circulation
- Semtner
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...al models are widely used in oceanographic research, andsare now beginning tosreach the point where realistic models on basin- to global-scale are possible (Haidvogel andsBryan 1992; McWilliams 1997; =-=Semtner 1995-=-). It is therefore importantsto have the dynamicssof the numericalsmodel represent the dynamics of the real ocean assaccurately as possible.sAs topography is one of the most important factors in contr... |

17 | Application of a transient reduced gravity plume model to the Denmark Strait overflow - Jungclaus, Backhaus - 1994 |

12 | Numerical models of the coastal ocean - Haidvogel, Beckmann - 1998 |

12 | A general pressure gradient formulation for ocean models. part *1*: Scheme design and diagnostic analysis, - Song - 1998 |

6 |
Representing the bottom boundary layer in the GFDL ocean model: Model framework, dynamical impacts, and parameter
- Gnanadesikan
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... topographic representation in z-coordinate ocean general circulation models.sThe EBBL scheme is based on the combined techniques of an embedded topography-sfollowing slab (Beckmann and Doscher 1997; =-=Gnanadesikan et al. 1998-=-), an explicitsturbulent bottom boundary layer (BBL) (Killworth and Edwards 1998), and a gener-salized pressure gradient formulation (Song 1998). The coupling between the interiorsz-levelsmodelsand th... |

5 |
The evolution of the bottom boundary layer on the sloping continental shelf: A numerical study
- Middleton, Ramsden
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ssassociated with coastal density fronts and dense water plumes have been investigated in recentsyears with a variety of numerical oceansmodels (Jungclaussand Backhaus 1994; Whelless andsKlinck 1995; =-=Middleton and Ramsden 1996-=-). The dense coastal water at the bottom issexpected to flow downslope,sbeingsself-advected tosthe right and forming a plume. Details ofsthe plume shape and translational speed of the plume head will ... |

2 |
Vertical Differencing of the Primitive Equations
- Arkawa, Suarez
- 1982
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...diment to accurate simulationsin ocean models (Haney 1991; Winton et al. 1998).sFor example, in a-coordinate models, the pressure gradient force is traditionally deter-smined by the sum of two terms (=-=Arakawa and Suarez 1983-=-)) i.e.,sa psa a psahsd xsh a a a xs(2.14)swhere a z / h .sThe first term on the right involves the variation of pressure along a constantsa-surface and the secondsinvolves the usual vertical variatio... |

1 | A warning about topography in the Cox code, Ocean Modeling , 106, unpublished manuscript - Hughes - 1995 |

1 |
The evolution of density-driven circulation over sloping bottom topography
- Whelless, Klinck
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...g momentum budget analysis. The principal dynamical balance for the baroclinicsvelocities is between the pressure, Coriolis, and the bottom drag. The other terms in thesequation are relatively small (=-=Whelless and Klinck 1995-=-), and are therefore not analyzedshere. The importance of thesbottom pressure gradient force is best revealed by examiningsthe momentum balance in the bottom layer at a given longitude section. Figure... |

1 |
Giant Ocean Cataracts, Scientific American
- Whitehead
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...inental shelf of the Weddell Sea. These denseswaters form giant ocean cataractssandscarrysabout five Sv (one Sv equalssone million cubicsmeters of watersper second) throughsa descent of 3 km or more (=-=Whitehead 1989-=-), and aresbelieved to contribute significantly tosthe deep-water formation (Dickson and Brown 1994;sJungclaus and Backhaus 1994), andsthereby tosthe global thermohalinescirculation.sThere alsoshas be... |