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## Research Article Linear Predictive Detection for Power Line Communications Impaired by Colored Noise

### Citations

1842 |
Adaptive filter theory
- Haykin
- 2008
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... linear predictive estimates of r2k and r2k−1,respectively; likewise, the conditional variances σ 2 r2k and σ2 r2k−1 are interpretable as the relevant minimum mean square prediction errors (MMSPEs) =-=[36]-=-. Note that, for a given value of ν, the number of prediction coefficients changes with respect to the number of past samples defined in the conditioning event, that is, r2k−1 is evaluated using the ... |

538 |
Channel coding with multilevel/phase signals
- Ungerboeck
- 1982
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... described through a trellis diagram, in which there are a fixed number of exiting branches from each state: this number will depend on the number of subsets in which the constellation is partitioned =-=[34]-=-. The 4D-TCM code symbol Ck(ak, μk) = (c2k−1(ak, μk), c2k(ak, μk)), with 2D components belonging to a QAM constellation, is a function of the encoder state μk and the information symbol ak at the inpu... |

166 | Per-survivor processing: A general approach to MLSE in uncertain environments
- Raheli, Polydoros
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...he computational load of the linear predictive receiver, we apply reduced-state sequence detection techniques [26–29] suchas“trellisfolding by set partitioning” [30] and per-survivor processing (PSP) =-=[29]-=-, and demonstrate the robustness of the proposed scheme in terms of BER and complexity with respect to standard solutions. This paper expands upon preliminary work reported in [31]. With respect to [3... |

139 | Delayed decision-feedback sequence estimation - Duel-Hallen - 1989 |

133 |
Reduced-state sequence estimation with setpartitioning and decision feedback
- Eyuboglu, Qureshi
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...) are partitions of the code constellation. 2 Defining Ji = card{Ω(i)}, i = 1, ..., Q as the cardinality of the partition Ω(i), the number of reduced-states in the trellis diagram can be expressed as =-=[26, 28]-=- S ′ Q∏ = Sc i=1 Ji . (11) 2 2 Ck−i ∈ Ω(i) are 4D-coded symbols compatible with the given state. The branch metric can be obtained by defining a “pseudo state” [30] ( ( ) ( ) ( ) ˜ζk ωk = μk, ˜Ck−1 ωk... |

84 | Statistical-physical models of electromagnetic interference - Middleton - 1977 |

77 | Analysis and modeling of impulsive noise in broad-band powerline communications - Zimmermann, Dostert - 2002 |

75 |
Maximum entropy spectral analysis. Paper presented at 37th meeting of the Society of Exploration Geophysicists
- Burg
- 1967
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... process. The synthesis of the digital filter essentially calls for the identification of the coefficients {vℓ} N ℓ=1 and can be done using a procedure based on the maximum entropy method proposed in =-=[45]-=- or on the minimization of the difference between estimated and measured power spectra. Table 1 shows, for N = 4, a complete set of coefficients modeling the corona noise for different voltage lines w... |

64 |
Trellis-coded modulation with multidimensional constellations
- Wei
- 1987
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Citation Context ...or Let us consider the transmission scheme depicted in Figure 1 in terms of its lowpass equivalent. We adopt a transmission system based on a four-dimensional trellis coded modulation scheme (4D-TCM) =-=[32]-=-, which is a suitable choice to achieve high spectral efficiency and, at the same time, a good coding gain. We assume a square-root raised cosine shaping filter with frequency response P( f ) and a po... |

53 | Maximum likelihood sequence estimation of CPM signal transmitted over Rayleigh flat-fading channels - Lodge, Moher - 1990 |

50 | Innovations-based MLSE for Rayleigh fading channels - Yu, Pasupathy - 1995 |

49 |
Decoding of trellis-encoded signals in the presence of intersymbol interference
- Chevillat, Eleftheriou
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...) are partitions of the code constellation. 2 Defining Ji = card{Ω(i)}, i = 1, ..., Q as the cardinality of the partition Ω(i), the number of reduced-states in the trellis diagram can be expressed as =-=[26, 28]-=- S ′ Q∏ = Sc i=1 Ji . (11) 2 2 Ck−i ∈ Ω(i) are 4D-coded symbols compatible with the given state. The branch metric can be obtained by defining a “pseudo state” [30] ( ( ) ( ) ( ) ˜ζk ωk = μk, ˜Ck−1 ωk... |

40 | Coding and modulation for a horrible channel
- Biglieri
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ed the original work is properly cited. 1. INTRODUCTION In the last years, there has been a growing interest towards the possibility of exploiting existing power lines as effective transmission means =-=[1, 2]-=-. Low-voltage (LV) and mediumvoltage (MV) power lines, below 1 kV and from 1 to 36 kV, respectively, are appealing because they provide a potentially convenient and inexpensive communication medium fo... |

38 | Analysis of the Effect of Impulse Noise on Multicarrier and Single - Ghosh - 1996 |

34 | Optimal Decoding of Coded PSK and QAM Signals in Correlated Fast Fading Channels and AWGN: A Combined Envelope, Multiple Differential and Coherent Detection Approach - Makrakis, Mathiopoulos, et al. - 1994 |

34 | Maximum likelihood decoding of uncoded® and coded PSK signal sequences transmitted over Rayleigh frequency-flat fading channels - Vitetta, Taylor - 1995 |

32 |
Power line channel characteristics and their effect on communication system design
- Götz, Rapp, et al.
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...purposes, for example, in scenarios not covered by wireless or wired telecommunication infrastructures. In low- or medium-voltage power grids, several noise sources can be found, such as, for example =-=[11]-=-, (i) nonstationary colored thermal noise with power spectral density decreasing as the frequency increases, (ii) periodic asynchronous impulse noise related to switching operations of power supplies,... |

26 |
Broadband is power: Internet access through the power line network
- Galli, Scaglione, et al.
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...they provide a potentially convenient and inexpensive communication medium for control signaling and data communication. The structure of the distribution grid is also appropriate for internet access =-=[3]-=-, and the existing lines can be used as backbone for local area networks or wide area networks, as a solution to the “last mile” access problem [4]. Even though power lines are an attractive solution ... |

24 |
Modeling and analysis of noise effects on broadband power-line communications,” ISPLC
- Meng, Guan, et al.
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ductive or capacitive loads. Finally, reflections from impedance mismatch at points where equipments are connected or from nonterminated points can result in multipath [7–9] andvarious types of noise =-=[10]-=-. High-voltage (HV) power lines, typically operating at or above 64 kV, can also be used for communication purposes, for example, in scenarios not covered by wireless or wired telecommunication infras... |

17 |
A Multipath model for the power line channel
- Zimmermann, Dostert
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...n the literature. Probably, the most widely known model for the channel frequency response Hc( f ) of LV and MV PLC channels is the multipath model proposed by Philipps [7] and Zimmermann and Dostert =-=[8]-=-. Following this model, the frequency response of the channel may be expressed, in the frequency range from 500 kHz to 20 MHz, as 6 N∑ Hc( f ) = gie i=1 −(a0+a1 f k )di −j2πfdi/vp e , (24) where N is ... |

16 |
A mathematical model of noise in narrowband power line communication systems
- Katayama, Yamazato, et al.
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...using Cholesky factorization [36] applied to the complex lowpass filtered colored noise power spectrum. Finally, it should be pointed out that the noise in power lines may be modeled as nonstationary =-=[40]-=-. In this work, we assume that the changes in the noise PSD are slow enough to allow a correct estimation of the prediction coefficients. 4.2. Channel model LV power line channels have a tree-like top... |

15 | High-frequency characteristics of overhead multiconductor power lines for broadband communications - Amirshahi, Kavehrad - 2006 |

14 | A Deterministic Frequency-Domain Model for the Indoor Power Line Transfer Function
- Galli, Banwell
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...communication techniques able to cope effectively with this hostile environment. The transmission medium of the power grid is characterized by a time-varying attenuation [5] and frequency selectivity =-=[6]-=-, with possibly deep spectral notches, depending also on the location. Any transmission scheme applied to power lines has to cope with these impairments, including the intrinsic dependence of the chan... |

13 |
Broadband PLC access systems and field deployment in European power line networks
- Liu, Widmer, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ibution grid is also appropriate for internet access [3], and the existing lines can be used as backbone for local area networks or wide area networks, as a solution to the “last mile” access problem =-=[4]-=-. Even though power lines are an attractive solution for data transmission, a reliable high-speed communication is a great challenge due to the nature of the medium. Communication systems over power l... |

13 |
Modeling of Power Line Communication Channels
- Philipps
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...f LV power lines can be found in the literature. Probably, the most widely known model for the channel frequency response Hc( f ) of LV and MV PLC channels is the multipath model proposed by Philipps =-=[7]-=- and Zimmermann and Dostert [8]. Following this model, the frequency response of the channel may be expressed, in the frequency range from 500 kHz to 20 MHz, as 6 N∑ Hc( f ) = gie i=1 −(a0+a1 f k )di ... |

12 |
performance of high-voltage transmission lines [M
- Corona
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... HIGH-VOLTAGE POWER LINE CHANNEL 5.1. Corona noise model The PLC channel may consist of one or more conductors, depending on the considered coupling scheme, that is, phase-to ground or phase to phase =-=[41]-=-. Corona noise is a common noise source for HV transmission lines, since it is permanent and its intensity depends on (i) the service voltage, (ii) the geometric configuration of the power line, (iii)... |

11 |
Power Line Communications : Overviews
- Ferreira, Grove, et al.
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ed the original work is properly cited. 1. INTRODUCTION In the last years, there has been a growing interest towards the possibility of exploiting existing power lines as effective transmission means =-=[1, 2]-=-. Low-voltage (LV) and mediumvoltage (MV) power lines, below 1 kV and from 1 to 36 kV, respectively, are appealing because they provide a potentially convenient and inexpensive communication medium fo... |

11 |
Classification and characterization of impulsive noise on indoor powerline used for data communications
- Degardin, Lienard, et al.
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...power supplies, (iii) periodic synchronous impulse noise mainly caused by switching actions of rectifier diodes, and2 EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing (iv) asynchronous impulse noise =-=[12]-=-. On the other hand, the HV power line channel is also limited by disturbances produced by events outside the transmission channel such as, for example, atmospheric phenomena, lightning [13], or distu... |

10 | A unified framework for finite-memory detection
- Ferrari, Colavolpe, et al.
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...time interval. Under these assumptions, we can express the 4D discrete-time observable as Rk = (r2k−1, r2k), where the 2D components are defined according to (1). Assuming causality and finite memory =-=[35]-=-, applying the chain factorization rule to the conditional PDF and taking into account the multidimensional structure of the TCM code, we can rewrite (2)as K−1 ∏ â = arg max p a ( Rk | Rk−1 0 , ak ) {... |

8 | Innovative Model for Time-Varying Power Line Communication Channel Response Evaluation
- Barmada, Musolino, et al.
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ..., as a consequence, calls for communication techniques able to cope effectively with this hostile environment. The transmission medium of the power grid is characterized by a time-varying attenuation =-=[5]-=- and frequency selectivity [6], with possibly deep spectral notches, depending also on the location. Any transmission scheme applied to power lines has to cope with these impairments, including the in... |

8 |
Improving performance of PRML/EPRML through noise prediction
- Eleftheriou, Hirt
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...The principle of linear predictive detectors proposed for fading channels [21–24] is a valuable and general technique that can be used every time a communication system has to cope with colored noise =-=[25]-=-, provided that a correct statistical information on the noise is available at the receiver. First, we will introduce the linear predictive detection scheme considering a general model for the colored... |

7 | Procedures for determining the parameters of the first-order canonical models of class a and class b electromagnetic interference [10 - Middleton - 1979 |

7 |
Characteristics of In-building Power Lines at High Frequencies and their
- Esmailian, Kschischang, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...band interference and impulse noise. Some measurements at high frequencies have been reported in [37, 38]. In this work, we represent the colored PSD using a simple three-parameter model presented in =-=[39]-=-, that is, 5 c dBm Sηc( f ) = a + b ·|f | (23) Hz with a =−145, b = 53.23 and c =−0.337. Despite the fact that a realistic PSD may present some variations with respect to the PSD predicted by (23), th... |

6 |
Detection Algorithms for Wireless Communications, with Applications to Wired and Storage Systems
- Ferrari, Colavolpe, et al.
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...r lines. Moreover, in order to reduce the computational load of the linear predictive receiver, we apply reduced-state sequence detection techniques [26–29] suchas“trellisfolding by set partitioning” =-=[30]-=- and per-survivor processing (PSP) [29], and demonstrate the robustness of the proposed scheme in terms of BER and complexity with respect to standard solutions. This paper expands upon preliminary wo... |

5 | Performance Measurements of Power line Channels at high frequencies - Philipps |

4 |
Computation of high-frequency and time characteristics of corona noise on HV power line
- Suljanovic, Mujcic, et al.
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... positive ion couple. This process continues forming an avalanche phenomenon called “corona discharge.” The motion of positive and negative charges induces a current both in the conductors and ground =-=[18]-=-. The induced current appears like a train of current pulses, with random pulse amplitude variations and random interarrival intervals. The injected current due to corona noise on one conductor can be... |

3 |
Digital Generator of Corona Noise on Power Line Carrier Channels
- Burrascano
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... a general model for the colored noise process. As case studies, we will also analyze the performance of the proposed receiver considering colored background noise for LV power lines and corona noise =-=[19, 20]-=- for HV power lines. Moreover, in order to reduce the computational load of the linear predictive receiver, we apply reduced-state sequence detection techniques [26–29] suchas“trellisfolding by set pa... |

3 | Linear predictive detection for power line communications impaired by colored noise
- Pighi, Raheli
- 2007
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...or processing (PSP) [29], and demonstrate the robustness of the proposed scheme in terms of BER and complexity with respect to standard solutions. This paper expands upon preliminary work reported in =-=[31]-=-. With respect to [31], this paper complements the analysis comparing the BER performance of the optimal and suboptimal solutions in the presence of frequency selective LV and HV power line channels. ... |

3 |
Tasič, “Corona noise characteristics in high voltage PLC channel
- Suljanović, Mujčić, et al.
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...PLC system. conductors involved in the line and (iv) the atmospheric conditions. Corona noise is caused by partial discharges on insulators and in air surrounding electrical conductors of power lines =-=[42]-=-. When HV power lines are in operation, the voltage originates a strong electric field in the vicinity of the conductor. This electric field accelerates free electrons present in the air nearby conduc... |

2 |
Tasič, “Power line noise model appropriate for investigation if channel coding methods
- Mujčić, Suljanović, et al.
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...lse noise [12]. On the other hand, the HV power line channel is also limited by disturbances produced by events outside the transmission channel such as, for example, atmospheric phenomena, lightning =-=[13]-=-, or disturbances originating within the system such as network switching [10], impulse noise [14–17], and corona phenomena [18–20]. In power line communications, single-carrier modulations based on q... |

2 |
Performance evaluation of digital signal transmission channels on coronating power lines
- Burrascano, Cristina, et al.
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... a general model for the colored noise process. As case studies, we will also analyze the performance of the proposed receiver considering colored background noise for LV power lines and corona noise =-=[19, 20]-=- for HV power lines. Moreover, in order to reduce the computational load of the linear predictive receiver, we apply reduced-state sequence detection techniques [26–29] suchas“trellisfolding by set pa... |

2 |
line noise survey
- Smith, “Power
- 1972
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...annels in the frequency range between a few hundred kHz and 20 MHz are colored background noise, narrowband interference and impulse noise. Some measurements at high frequencies have been reported in =-=[37, 38]-=-. In this work, we represent the colored PSD using a simple three-parameter model presented in [39], that is, 5 c dBm Sηc( f ) = a + b ·|f | (23) Hz with a =−145, b = 53.23 and c =−0.337. Despite the ... |

2 |
Analytical method for calculating corona noise on HVAC power line carrier communication channels
- Cristina, D’Amore
- 1985
(Show Context)
Citation Context .... To this purpose, the corona noise spectrum is generated by a method that takes into account the generation phenomena of corona currents injected in the conductors and the propagation along the line =-=[43, 44]-=-. This spectrum is utilized to synthesize an autoregressive (AR) digital filter [36], whose output is described by the expression N∑ nk = vℓnk−ℓ + wk, (25) ℓ=1 where {wk} is a sequence of independent ... |