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## Representing Action and Change by Logic Programs (1993)

Venue: | Journal of Logic Programming |

Citations: | 412 - 25 self |

### Citations

1813 | The Stable Model Semantics for Logic Programming
- GELFOND, LIFSCHITZ
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ng that the translation is incomplete. A possible way of achieving completeness is discussed in the last section. Second, the proof of the main theorem depends on a relationship between stable models =-=[11]-=- and signings [18], that may be interesting as a part of the general theory of logic programming. The language A is introduced in Section 2, and Section 3 is a brief review of extended logic programs.... |

1756 | Some Philosophical Problems from the Standpoint of
- McCarthy, Hayes
- 1969
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tance, the cases when we want to use information about the current state of the world for 1 A fluent is something that may depend on the situation, as, for instance, the location of a moveable object =-=[24]-=-. In particular, propositional fluents are assertions that can be true or false depending on the situation. 2 answering questions about the past. 2 The view of logic programming accepted in this paper... |

1634 |
A logic for default reasoning
- Reiter
- 1980
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...eans, to us, adequacy with respect to the declarative semantics of that language. In fact, the language of "extended logic programs" used in this paper is a subset of the system of default l=-=ogic from [30]-=-, and our work can be viewed as a development of the approach to temporal reasoning based on nonnormal defaults [25]. The possibility of using the logic programs proposed in this paper for the automat... |

1038 | Classical negation in logic programs and disjunctive databases
- Gelfond, Lifschitz
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...of two answers, yes or no; it will never tell us that the truth value of the query cannot be determined on the basis of the information included in the program. Extended logic programs, introduced in =-=[12], are-=-, in this sense, different. The language of extended programs distinguishes between negation as failure not and classical negation :. The expression :A, where A is an atom, means, intuitively, "A... |

737 |
A lattice-theoretical fixpoint theorem and its applications
- Tarski
- 1955
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Citation Context ...t operators X 7! 5 X i are antimonotone, it follows that OE is monotone. Having proved Lemmas 1 and 2, we can use properties of the fixpoints of monotone operators given by the Knaster-Tarski theorem =-=[34]-=- to study the answer sets of a program with a signing. The Knaster-Tarski theorem asserts, for instance, that every monotone operator has a fixpoint; this gives a new, and more direct, proof of the fa... |

622 |
The frame problem in the situation calculus: a simple solution (sometimes) and a completeness result for goal regression
- Reiter
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ion methods can be compared in a precise fashion. For instance, in [15] this approach is used to prove the equivalence of the methods for formalizing actions proposed earlier by Pednault [26], Reiter =-=[31]-=- and Baker [2] for the domains representable in A. On the other hand, this paper is one of the first experiments (along with [17], [27], [10]) on using extended logic programs for representing knowled... |

526 | Applications of circumscription to formalizing common sense knowledge
- McCarthy
- 1986
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Citation Context ... the second---when it is known to be false. The rules (8) play the same role for reasoning "from the future to the past." The auxiliary predicate Noninertial is essentially an "abnormal=-=ity predicate" [22]-=-. Now we will define howstranslates value propositions and effect propositions. The following notation will be useful: For any fluent name F , jF j is F; j:F j is F; and, if t is a situation term, Hol... |

332 |
Exploring the middle ground between STRIPS and the Situation Calculus
- Pednault
- 1989
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Citation Context ...t representation methods can be compared in a precise fashion. For instance, in [15] this approach is used to prove the equivalence of the methods for formalizing actions proposed earlier by Pednault =-=[26]-=-, Reiter [31] and Baker [2] for the domains representable in A. On the other hand, this paper is one of the first experiments (along with [17], [27], [10]) on using extended logic programs for represe... |

273 |
Nonmonotonic Logic and Temporal Projection
- HANKS, MCDERMOTT
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ctions, called A. Traditionally, ideas on representing properties of actions in classical logic or nonmonotonic formalisms are explained on specific examples, such as the "Yale shooting problem&q=-=uot; from [14]-=-. Competing approaches are evaluated and compared in terms of their ability to handle such examples. We propose to supplement the use of examples by a different method. A particular methodology for re... |

211 |
Abduction compared with negation by failure
- Eshghi, Kowalski
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s to reasoning about the past. It is proved to be sound relative to a semantics of action based on states and transition functions. 1 1 Introduction This paper extends the work of Eshghi and Kowalski =-=[6]-=-, Evans [7] and Apt and Bezem [1] on representing properties of actions in logic programming languages with negation as failure. Our goal is to overcome some of the limitations of the earlier work. Th... |

181 |
Acyclic programs
- Apt, Bezem
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... is proved to be sound relative to a semantics of action based on states and transition functions. 1 1 Introduction This paper extends the work of Eshghi and Kowalski [6], Evans [7] and Apt and Bezem =-=[1]-=- on representing properties of actions in logic programming languages with negation as failure. Our goal is to overcome some of the limitations of the earlier work. The existing formalizations of acti... |

167 | Consistency of Clarkâs completion and existence of stable models
- Fages
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...used in the proof of the soundness lemma below. 6 The existence of answer sets for such programs, and for programs of some more general types, was established by Phan Minh Dung [5] and Francois Fages =-=[8]-=-. 23 7 Proof of the Soundness Lemma The results of the previous section are not directly applicable to programs with classical negation. It is known, however, that any extended program 5 can be conver... |

152 | Prediction Is Deduction but Explanation Is Abduction
- Shanahan
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...or a superset of A, into 2 One possible way to represent reasoning about the past is to treat it as fundamentally different from temporal projection, and interpret it as "explanation" and &q=-=uot;abduction" [33]. Our appr-=-oach is more symmetric; we treat both forms of reasoning as deductive. 3 a "target language"---for instance, into a language based on classical logic or on circumscription, or into a logic p... |

151 | Monotonic solution of the frame problem in the situation calculus: An ecient method for worlds with fully speci actions
- Schubert
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...lue proposition or an effect proposition. A domain description, or simply domain, is a set of propositions (not necessarily finite). Example 1. The Fragile Object domain, motivated by an example from =-=[32]-=-, has the fluent names Holding , Fragile and Broken, and the action Drop. It consists of two effect propositions: Drop causes :Holding if Holding ; Drop causes Broken if Holding ; Fragile: 5 Example 2... |

144 | Nonmonotonic Reasoning in the Framework of Situation Calculus
- Baker
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ed by the propositions initially :Loaded; initially Alive ; Load causes Loaded; Shoot causes :Alive if Loaded; Shoot causes :Loaded: Example 3. The Murder Mystery domain, motivated by an example from =-=[2]-=-, is obtained from the Yale Shooting domain by substituting :Alive after Shoot; Wait (3) for the proposition initially :Loaded. Example 4. The Stolen Car domain, motivated by an example from [16], has... |

130 | Alferes. Well founded semantics for logic programs with explicit negation
- Pereira, J
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... sense of default logic, intersected with the set of ground literals ([12], Proposition 3). Two other approaches to the semantics of logic programs with two kinds of negation are proposed in [29] and =-=[28]-=-. In the context of this paper, they can be shown to lead to the same result as the answer set semantics. 4 Describing Actions by Logic Programs Now we are ready to define the translationsfrom A into ... |

120 | On stratified autoepistemic theories - Gelfond - 1987 |

100 |
Extended stable semantics for normal and disjunctive logic programs
- Przymusinski
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ns in the sense of default logic, intersected with the set of ground literals ([12], Proposition 3). Two other approaches to the semantics of logic programs with two kinds of negation are proposed in =-=[29]-=- and [28]. In the context of this paper, they can be shown to lead to the same result as the answer set semantics. 4 Describing Actions by Logic Programs Now we are ready to define the translationsfro... |

94 | The logic of persistence
- Kautz
- 1986
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... from [2], is obtained from the Yale Shooting domain by substituting :Alive after Shoot; Wait (3) for the proposition initially :Loaded. Example 4. The Stolen Car domain, motivated by an example from =-=[16]-=-, has one fluent name Stolen and one action name Wait , and is characterized by two propositions: initially :Stolen ; Stolen after Wait; Wait ; Wait: To describe the semantics of A, we will define wha... |

91 |
Logic programs with exceptions
- Kowalski, Sadri
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...hods for formalizing actions proposed earlier by Pednault [26], Reiter [31] and Baker [2] for the domains representable in A. On the other hand, this paper is one of the first experiments (along with =-=[17]-=-, [27], [10]) on using extended logic programs for representing knowledge. Not much is known yet about mathematical properties of extended programs. For this reason, in this initial experiment, the so... |

90 |
Signed data dependencies in logic programs
- Kunen
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ation is incomplete. A possible way of achieving completeness is discussed in the last section. Second, the proof of the main theorem depends on a relationship between stable models [11] and signings =-=[18]-=-, that may be interesting as a part of the general theory of logic programming. The language A is introduced in Section 2, and Section 3 is a brief review of extended logic programs. Our translation f... |

73 |
Representing concurrent actions in extended logic programming
- Baral, Gelfond
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s HeadssTails: Semantically, in either case, nondeterministic transition functions will be used. In the corresponding logic program, the effect of TossCoin will be expressed by a disjunctive rule. In =-=[3]-=-, the extension of A is introduced in which one can describe the concurrent execution of actions. In this extension, performing several actions concurrently can be represented by using a set of action... |

66 |
Soundness and Completeness Theorems for Three Formalizations of Action
- Kartha
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ness of each formalization become precisely stated mathematical questions. The possibilities and limitations of different representation methods can be compared in a precise fashion. For instance, in =-=[15]-=- this approach is used to prove the equivalence of the methods for formalizing actions proposed earlier by Pednault [26], Reiter [31] and Baker [2] for the domains representable in A. On the other han... |

59 | Formalizing Common Sense: Papers by - McCarthy - 1990 |

48 | Non-monotonic reasoning with well-founded semantics
- Pereira, Aparicio, et al.
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...or formalizing actions proposed earlier by Pednault [26], Reiter [31] and Baker [2] for the domains representable in A. On the other hand, this paper is one of the first experiments (along with [17], =-=[27]-=-, [10]) on using extended logic programs for representing knowledge. Not much is known yet about mathematical properties of extended programs. For this reason, in this initial experiment, the source l... |

41 |
A Goal-Oriented Approach to Computing Well Founded Semantics
- Chen, Warren
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... nonnormal defaults [25]. The possibility of using the logic programs proposed in this paper for the automation of temporal reasoning, based on program transformations and the XOLDTNF metainterpreter =-=[4]-=-, is demonstrated in the forthcoming paper [20]. Two parts of this paper may be of more general interest. First, we introduce here a simple declarative language for describing actions, called A. Tradi... |

40 | Logic programming and reasoning with incomplete information
- Gelfond
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...malizing actions proposed earlier by Pednault [26], Reiter [31] and Baker [2] for the domains representable in A. On the other hand, this paper is one of the first experiments (along with [17], [27], =-=[10]-=-) on using extended logic programs for representing knowledge. Not much is known yet about mathematical properties of extended programs. For this reason, in this initial experiment, the source languag... |

27 |
The anomalous extension problem in default reasoning
- Morris
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... logic programs" used in this paper is a subset of the system of default logic from [30], and our work can be viewed as a development of the approach to temporal reasoning based on nonnormal defa=-=ults [25]-=-. The possibility of using the logic programs proposed in this paper for the automation of temporal reasoning, based on program transformations and the XOLDTNF metainterpreter [4], is demonstrated in ... |

26 |
On the Relations between Stable and Well-Founded Semantics of Logic Programs
- DUNG
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...east fixpoint of OE is used in the proof of the soundness lemma below. 6 The existence of answer sets for such programs, and for programs of some more general types, was established by Phan Minh Dung =-=[5]-=- and Francois Fages [8]. 23 7 Proof of the Soundness Lemma The results of the previous section are not directly applicable to programs with classical negation. It is known, however, that any extended ... |

19 |
Negation-as-failure as an approach to the Hanks and McDermott problem
- Evans
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ing about the past. It is proved to be sound relative to a semantics of action based on states and transition functions. 1 1 Introduction This paper extends the work of Eshghi and Kowalski [6], Evans =-=[7]-=- and Apt and Bezem [1] on representing properties of actions in logic programming languages with negation as failure. Our goal is to overcome some of the limitations of the earlier work. The existing ... |

19 |
Arkady Rabinov. What are the limitations of the situation calculus
- Gelfond, Lifschitz
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ve after fWaitg fShoot(Gun1 ); Load(Gun2 )g; and the semantics of A is generalized accordingly. The translation to logic programming presented here is extended to this "concurrent A" in the =-=spirit of [13]. 37 The inconsisten-=-cy of the Stolen Car domain (Example 4) illustrates the fact that A cannot be used for representing "causal anomalies," or "miracles" [21]. We plan to address this issue in further... |

9 |
A Language for Describing Actions
- Lifschitz
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...al anomalies is to view them as evidence of unknown events that occur concurrently with the given actions and contribute to the properties of the new situation. One other dialect of A is described in =-=[19]-=-. It has symbols for temporal intervals over which actions may occur. A referee has pointed out to us that there is a simple and elegant translation from A into a form of abductive logic programming w... |

9 |
and Arkady Rabinov. Miracles in formal theories of action
- Lifschitz
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...d to this "concurrent A" in the spirit of [13]. 37 The inconsistency of the Stolen Car domain (Example 4) illustrates the fact that A cannot be used for representing "causal anomalies,&=-=quot; or "miracles" [21]-=-. We plan to address this issue in further work, too. Our preferred approach to causal anomalies is to view them as evidence of unknown events that occur concurrently with the given actions and contri... |

7 |
Automated reasoning about actions: a logic programming approach
- Lifschitz, McCain, et al.
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...sing the logic programs proposed in this paper for the automation of temporal reasoning, based on program transformations and the XOLDTNF metainterpreter [4], is demonstrated in the forthcoming paper =-=[20]-=-. Two parts of this paper may be of more general interest. First, we introduce here a simple declarative language for describing actions, called A. Traditionally, ideas on representing properties of a... |