### Citations

850 |
Spergel et al
- N
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Citation Context ... the current observational data. 4 Phenomenology For simplicity, we consider a flat universe dominated by three components: (i) non-relativistic matter, including (cold) dark matter, with Ωm ∼ = 0.27 =-=[46]-=-, (ii) a cosmological constant Λ, and (iii) a smoothly distributed energy source X that possesses positive energy density and a constant, negative equation-of-state factor wx and is responsible for th... |

496 |
et al. [Supernova Search Team Collaboration], “Observational evidence from supernovae for an accelerating universe and a cosmological constant,” Astron
- Riess
- 1998
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Citation Context ....tw † E-mail address: wyhwang@phys.ntu.edu.tw 11 Introduction Recently the possible accelerating expansion of the present universe, as suggested by the type Ia supernova (SNIa) distance measurements =-=[1, 2]-=-, is seriously considered. Combining SNIa results and the data from the measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), it may be concluded that the universe has the critical density, consistin... |

436 |
et al. [Supernova Cosmology Project Collaboration], “Measurements of Omega and Lambda from 42 high redshift supernovae,” Astrophys
- Perlmutter
- 1999
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Citation Context ....tw † E-mail address: wyhwang@phys.ntu.edu.tw 11 Introduction Recently the possible accelerating expansion of the present universe, as suggested by the type Ia supernova (SNIa) distance measurements =-=[1, 2]-=-, is seriously considered. Combining SNIa results and the data from the measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), it may be concluded that the universe has the critical density, consistin... |

28 |
A et al (Supernova Cosmology Project Collaboration), 2003 Astrophys
- Knop
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Citation Context ....tw1 Introduction The accelerating expansion of the present universe was suggested by the type Ia supernova (SN Ia) distance measurements [1, 2] in 1998 and reinforced recently by updated SN Ia data =-=[3, 4, 5, 6]-=- and WMAP measurement [7] of cosmic microwave background (CMB). One general conclusion from these measurements and other CMB observations in recent years [8, 9, 10] is that the universe has the critic... |

23 |
Tonry et al
- L
- 2003
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Citation Context ....tw1 Introduction The accelerating expansion of the present universe was suggested by the type Ia supernova (SN Ia) distance measurements [1, 2] in 1998 and reinforced recently by updated SN Ia data =-=[3, 4, 5, 6]-=- and WMAP measurement [7] of cosmic microwave background (CMB). One general conclusion from these measurements and other CMB observations in recent years [8, 9, 10] is that the universe has the critic... |

12 |
The Anthropic Cosmological Principle Oxford
- Barrow, Tipler
- 1986
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Citation Context ...ly small at that moment, the universe will collapse eventually (a big crunch). (ii) Λ < 0 In the case of the negative cosmological constant the universe will always collapse eventually [44] (see also =-=[45]-=-). We can see, from Eq. (2), that the universe will start to collapse at the moment when k Λ 8πG = + ρ , (14) a2 3 3 no matter the universe is open, flat, or closed and how close to zero the negative ... |

11 | Nature 377, 600 - Ostriker, Steinhardt - 1995 |

2 |
1137 [astro-ph/9504003
- Grav
- 1995
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Citation Context ...rdinary matter and 2/3 of dark energy with a negative pressure (such that p < −1 3ρ) [3]. At the moment, the most promising candidate for the dark energy includes (i) a positive cosmological constant =-=[4]-=- and (ii) a slowly evolving scalar field called “quintessence” [5]. The existence of a positive cosmological constant is the simplest candidate for the dark energy. Unfortunately, some fine tuning pro... |

2 |
eConf C041213
- Chen, Gu
- 1110
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Citation Context ... dark energy include (i) a cosmological constant [12], (ii) a slowly evolving scalar field called “quintessence” [13], (iii) the presence of extra dimensions on top of the well-known 3 + 1 space-time =-=[14, 15, 16, 17]-=-, and (iv) the modification of gravity [18, 19, 20]. The existence of a positive cosmological constant is the simplest candidate for dark energy. The cosmological constant may be provided by various k... |

1 |
L1 (2000) [arXiv:astro-ph/0005124]; P. de Bernardis et al. [Boomerang Collaboration
- Balbi
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...se measurements and other CMB observations in recent years [8, 9, 10] is that the universe has the critical density, consisting of 27% pressureless matter and 73% dark energy with a negative pressure =-=[11]-=- (such that p/ρ < −0.78 [7]). The most promising candidates to account for dark energy include (i) a cosmological constant [12], (ii) a slowly evolving scalar field called “quintessence” [13], (iii) t... |