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## Minimizing electricity cost: Optimization of distributed internet data centers in a multi-electricity-market environment (2010)

Venue: | In Proc. of INFOCOM |

Citations: | 92 - 9 self |

### Citations

870 | Above the clouds: A berkeley view of cloud computing
- Armbrust
- 2009
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ew server hardware [23]. The trend continues with the emergence of Cloud Computing, where data and computation hosting are outsourced to IDCs, for reliability, management, and cost benefits [1], [7], =-=[16]-=-, [17]. Therefore, the need for power management of IDCs is becoming ever more urgent and important. Recently both industry and academia have proposed various technologies and schemes to address diffe... |

445 | The case for energy-proportional computing
- Barroso, Hölzle
- 2007
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...widespread adoption of high-efficiency power supplies and encouraging the use of power-savings features already present in users equipment. The adoption of low power chipset with chip multiprocessing =-=[13]-=-, virtualization technologies [24], [21], power control theories [34], and other energy saving solutions [23], [14] have also contributed positively toward more energy-efficient servers. While most of... |

426 | Power provisioning for a warehousesized computer
- Fan, Weber, et al.
- 2007
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...contributed positively toward more energy-efficient servers. While most of the new technologies have been developed aim to reduce the total power consumptions of IDCs[5], [8], [10], [18], [25], [28], =-=[35]-=-, we are lacking a holistic approach to help better reduce the total electricity cost of IDC service providers. In this paper, we study the novel problem of minimizing IDC total electricity cost. In t... |

198 | Cutting the electric bill for internet-scale systems
- Qureshi, Weber, et al.
- 2009
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ice varies on an hourly or 15-minute basis in regions of the U.S with wholesale electricity markets, whereas electricity prices remain the same for regions with regulated industry structure. While in =-=[3]-=- Qureshi et al. study the problem of reducing the electricity cost in a wholesale market environment, we investigate the problem in multi-region electricity markets to better capture the present elect... |

176 | No ”power” struggles: coordinated multi-level power management for the data center
- Raghavendra, Ranganathan, et al.
- 2008
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ing. A recent study estimates that the worldwide spending on enterprise and data center power and cooling to top $30 billion in year 2008 and is likely to even surpass spending on new server hardware =-=[23]-=-. The trend continues with the emergence of Cloud Computing, where data and computation hosting are outsourced to IDCs, for reliability, management, and cost benefits [1], [7], [16], [17]. Therefore, ... |

159 | A faster strongly polynomial minimum cost flow algorithm
- Orlin
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... to a minimum cost flow problem for deriving fast and efficient solution. A fast strongly polynomial-time solution algorithm for general uncapacitated minimum cost flow problems is described by Orlin =-=[11]-=-. Other algorithms exploit the special structure of the minimum cost flow problem [9], [19], [29]. Our solution leverages a fast polynomial-time algorithm proposed by Brenner [31]. Brenner’s algorithm... |

153 | Virtualpower: coordinated power management in virtualized enterprise systems
- Nathuji, Schwan
- 2007
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ency power supplies and encouraging the use of power-savings features already present in users equipment. The adoption of low power chipset with chip multiprocessing [13], virtualization technologies =-=[24]-=-, [21], power control theories [34], and other energy saving solutions [23], [14] have also contributed positively toward more energy-efficient servers. While most of the new technologies have been de... |

129 | Reducing Network Energy Consumption via Sleeping and Rate-Adaptation
- Nedevschi, Popa, et al.
- 2008
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...] have also contributed positively toward more energy-efficient servers. While most of the new technologies have been developed aim to reduce the total power consumptions of IDCs[5], [8], [10], [18], =-=[25]-=-, [28], [35], we are lacking a holistic approach to help better reduce the total electricity cost of IDC service providers. In this paper, we study the novel problem of minimizing IDC total electricit... |

83 | Dynamic voltage scaling in multi-tier web servers with end-to-end delay control
- Horvath, Abdelzaher, et al.
- 2007
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... also contributed positively toward more energy-efficient servers. While most of the new technologies have been developed aim to reduce the total power consumptions of IDCs[5], [8], [10], [18], [25], =-=[28]-=-, [35], we are lacking a holistic approach to help better reduce the total electricity cost of IDC service providers. In this paper, we study the novel problem of minimizing IDC total electricity cost... |

68 |
Pricing Communication Networks: Economics, Technology and Modelling
- Courcoubetis, Weber
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...μiLj and the optimal dual values for constraint (17) are: ∀i =1,..., N : pi = Pri(t)Poi(t)λ∗ ji μ2 i (Mi − 1 . (29) ) μiDi In linear programming, the optimal dual values are also called shadow prices =-=[4]-=-, [22]. The shadow price captures the change in the objective function arising from an change in the amount of constrain constant. The value of the shadow price can provide decision makers powerful in... |

66 |
Greencloud: a new architecture for green data center
- Liu, Wang, et al.
- 2009
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...sent in users equipment. The adoption of low power chipset with chip multiprocessing [13], virtualization technologies [24], [21], power control theories [34], and other energy saving solutions [23], =-=[14]-=- have also contributed positively toward more energy-efficient servers. While most of the new technologies have been developed aim to reduce the total power consumptions of IDCs[5], [8], [10], [18], [... |

43 | Multi-mode energy management for multi-tier server clusters
- Horvath, Skadron
- 2008
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...homogenous servers and configurations. The real power consumption of a single server at each data center location i can be estimated based on the current server frequency, fi, and CPU utilization, Ui =-=[27]-=-. So the total power consumption Poi at each data center i can be obtained by multiplying the total number of servers at location i with the power consumption value for each server. Second, we also as... |

30 | Adaptive Control of Multi-Tiered Web Applications Using Queueing Predictor
- Liu, Heo, et al.
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... the use of power-savings features already present in users equipment. The adoption of low power chipset with chip multiprocessing [13], virtualization technologies [24], [21], power control theories =-=[34]-=-, and other energy saving solutions [23], [14] have also contributed positively toward more energy-efficient servers. While most of the new technologies have been developed aim to reduce the total pow... |

29 | Integrating adaptive components: An emerging challenge in performance-adaptive systems and a server farm case-study
- Heo, Henriksson, et al.
- 2007
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ns [23], [14] have also contributed positively toward more energy-efficient servers. While most of the new technologies have been developed aim to reduce the total power consumptions of IDCs[5], [8], =-=[10]-=-, [18], [25], [28], [35], we are lacking a holistic approach to help better reduce the total electricity cost of IDC service providers. In this paper, we study the novel problem of minimizing IDC tota... |

21 | Linear time algorithms for some separable quadratic programming problems
- Megiddo, Tamir
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...olynomial-time solution algorithm for general uncapacitated minimum cost flow problems is described by Orlin [11]. Other algorithms exploit the special structure of the minimum cost flow problem [9], =-=[19]-=-, [29]. Our solution leverages a fast polynomial-time algorithm proposed by Brenner [31]. Brenner’s algorithm has a worst case running time of O(xy2 (logx + ylogy)), where x is the number of sources a... |

20 | Reducing data center energy consumption via coordinated cooling and load management
- Parolini, Sinopoli, et al.
- 2008
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ew scheme, we coordinate the workload assigned from each front-end Web portal server to individual IDC locations in order to achieve the goal of minimizing the total electricity cost. Parolini et al. =-=[15]-=- also consider the load management for IDCs, however their goal is to minimize the integrated weighted sum of power consumption and computational performance, which is different from ours. B. Multi-Re... |

20 |
Stochastic modeling of electric power prices in a multi-market environment
- Skantze, Ilic, et al.
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...erformance, which is different from ours. B. Multi-Region Electricity Markets Research on modeling of electric power prices began about 15 years ago due to the deregulation of electric power industry =-=[26]-=-. The electric power grid in North America is operated on a regional basis by regional transmission organizations (RTOs). Due to different power generation profiles in different regions, electricity p... |

15 | Safe bounds in linear and mixed-integer linear programming
- Neumaier, Shcherbina
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... (11) we have C∑ ⎤ λji j=1 mi = 1 + μi μiDi . Therefore, we have ⎢ ⎥ C∑ λji j=1 μi + 1 ≤ mi ≨ μiDi C∑ λji j=1 μi + 1 +1. (14) μiDi In order to solve the problem, we leverage the rounding technique in =-=[2]-=- to approximate the mixed integer linear programming formulation with a safe bound. Since our paper does not focus on approximation of mixed integer programming problem, we do not discuss the techniqu... |

14 |
Geometric algorithms for a minimum cost assignment problem
- Tokuyama, Nakano
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ial-time solution algorithm for general uncapacitated minimum cost flow problems is described by Orlin [11]. Other algorithms exploit the special structure of the minimum cost flow problem [9], [19], =-=[29]-=-. Our solution leverages a fast polynomial-time algorithm proposed by Brenner [31]. Brenner’s algorithm has a worst case running time of O(xy2 (logx + ylogy)), where x is the number of sources andThi... |

6 |
A strongly polynomial algorithm for the transportation problem
- Kleinschmidt, Schannath
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...gly polynomial-time solution algorithm for general uncapacitated minimum cost flow problems is described by Orlin [11]. Other algorithms exploit the special structure of the minimum cost flow problem =-=[9]-=-, [19], [29]. Our solution leverages a fast polynomial-time algorithm proposed by Brenner [31]. Brenner’s algorithm has a worst case running time of O(xy2 (logx + ylogy)), where x is the number of sou... |

5 |
Challenges Towards Elastic Power Management
- Liu, Zhao, et al.
- 2009
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ection we only review the work most relevant to our work. A. Power Management in IDCs Due to the growing demand on Internet services in recent years, the energy used by IDCs grows rapidly. Liu et al. =-=[12]-=- present a latest overview of challenges toward power management in IDCs. Efforts such as the Climate Savers Computing Initiative (www.climatesaverscomputing.org) intended to help lower worldwide comp... |

5 |
services platform
- Microsoft
- 2009
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ver hardware [23]. The trend continues with the emergence of Cloud Computing, where data and computation hosting are outsourced to IDCs, for reliability, management, and cost benefits [1], [7], [16], =-=[17]-=-. Therefore, the need for power management of IDCs is becoming ever more urgent and important. Recently both industry and academia have proposed various technologies and schemes to address different a... |

5 |
A Faster Polynomial Algorithm for the Unbalanced Hitchcock Transportation Problem
- Brenner
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e quality of service experience by end users. • We approximate the mixed-integer optimization formulation with a linear programming formulation and solve it with Brenner’s fast polynomial-time method =-=[31]-=-. Result shows that the total electricity cost is greatly reduced for IDC locations. The rest of this paper is organized as follows. Section II discusses the related work. Section III gives the modeli... |

1 | An application of system identification and state prediction to electric load modeling and forecasting - Galiana - 1971 |

1 |
Available: http: //www.google.com/apps/intl/en/business/index.html
- Google
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... on new server hardware [23]. The trend continues with the emergence of Cloud Computing, where data and computation hosting are outsourced to IDCs, for reliability, management, and cost benefits [1], =-=[7]-=-, [16], [17]. Therefore, the need for power management of IDCs is becoming ever more urgent and important. Recently both industry and academia have proposed various technologies and schemes to address... |

1 |
Linear programming and economic analysis, Courier Dover
- Dorfman, Samuelson, et al.
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s section, we make a detailed discussion on these practical problems in terms of shadow prices. Every linear programming problem, referred to as a primal problem, can be converted into a dual problem =-=[22]-=-. Assume where y is used instead of x as the decision variable vector. The strong duality theorem [22] states that if the primal has an optimal solution, x ∗ , then the dual also has an optimal soluti... |

1 |
Energy Information Administration, Department of Energy, available online at www.eia.doe.gov
- States
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ata Centers (IDCs), which contains the following locations: Mountain View, California, Houston, Texas, and Atlanta, GA. The data reported here was obtained from publicly available government agencies =-=[32]-=- [33]. The electricity system in the US is organized in cross-state regions such as New England, PJM (primarily covering Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Maryland), and ERCOT (Texas). Both regulated util... |