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## Generalized Search Trees for Database Systems (1995)

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Venue: | IN PROC. 21 ST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON VLDB |

Citations: | 235 - 18 self |

### Citations

6500 |
5: programs for machine learning.
- Quinlan
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...mitations, extensible R-trees are close enough to GiSTs to allow for the initial method implementations and performance experiments we describe in Section 5. Classification trees such as ID3 and C4.5 =-=[Qui93]-=- are similar in spirit to the GiST, but have some major differences. Most significantly, classification trees are not intended as search structures, and are not suited for indexing large amounts of da... |

2723 | R-trees: a dynamic index structure for spatial searching.
- Guttman
- 1984
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ee technology: 1. Specialized Search Trees: A large variety of search trees has been developed to solve specific problems. Among the best known of these trees are spatial search trees such as R-trees =-=[Gut84]-=-. While some of this work has had significant impact in particular domains, the approach of developing domain-specific search trees is problematic. The effort required to implement and maintain such d... |

1509 |
Multidimensional binary search trees used for associative searching.
- Bentley
- 1975
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... For example, in ordered domains the appropriate entries on a node may be found via binary search. Another example is the hB-tree, in which the entries on a node are themselves indexed via a k-d tree =-=[Ben79]-=-, which is used for finding the appropriate entries on the node. Many alternative optimizations may exist, depending on the domain of the key predicates. To facilitate these techniques, additional ext... |

1249 | The R*-tree: An efficient and robust access method for points and rectangles.
- Beckmann, Kriegel, et al.
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nuth [Knu73], though B-trees and their variants are covered in more detail by Comer [Com79]. There are a variety of multidimensional search trees, such as R-trees [Gut84] and their variants: R*-trees =-=[BKSS90]-=- and R+-trees [SRF87]. Other multidimensional search trees include quad-trees [FB74], k-D-B-trees [Rob81], and hB-trees [LS90]. Multidimensional data can also be transformed into unidimensional data u... |

647 | The Ubiquitous B-Tree, in:
- Comer, D
- 1979
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...re of tree indices and how they behave for various datasets. 1 Introduction An efficient implementation of search trees is crucial for any database system. In traditional relational systems, B+-trees =-=[Com79]-=- were sufficient for the sorts of queries posed on the usual set of alphanumeric data types. Today, database systems are increasingly being deployed to support new applications such as geographic info... |

429 | The K-D-B-tree: A search structure for large multidimensional dynamic indexes.
- Robinson
- 1981
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tree, and an RD-tree, a new index for data with set-valued attributes. The GiST can be adapted to work like a variety of other known search tree structures, e.g. partial sum trees [WE80], k-D-B-trees =-=[Rob81]-=-, Ch-trees [KKD89], Exodus large objects [CDG + 90], hB-trees [LS90], V-trees [MCD94], TV-trees [LJF94], etc. Implementing a new set of methods for the GiST is a significantly easier task than impleme... |

343 | The R+-Tree: A Dynamic Index for Multi-Dimensional Objects.
- Sellis, Roussopoulos, et al.
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...-trees and their variants are covered in more detail by Comer [Com79]. There are a variety of multidimensional search trees, such as R-trees [Gut84] and their variants: R*-trees [BKSS90] and R+-trees =-=[SRF87]-=-. Other multidimensional search trees include quad-trees [FB74], k-D-B-trees [Rob81], and hB-trees [LS90]. Multidimensional data can also be transformed into unidimensional data using a space-filling ... |

271 |
Sorting and Searching, volume 3 of The Art of Computer Programming
- Knuth
- 1973
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...in a full-fledged DBMS. Section 7 concludes with a discussion of the significance of the work, and directions for further research. 1.2 Related Work A good survey of search trees is provided by Knuth =-=[Knu73]-=-, though B-trees and their variants are covered in more detail by Comer [Com79]. There are a variety of multidimensional search trees, such as R-trees [Gut84] and their variants: R*-trees [BKSS90] and... |

247 | On Packing R-tree.
- Faloutsos, Kamel
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...t a tree may be constructed over the list. A good sort order and partitioning results in a relatively full tree with low overlap at the keys. Various sort orders have been developed for R-trees (e.g. =-=[KF93]-=-, [Jag90], etc.), but these solutions are specific to the spatial domain and thus not generally applicable for an extensible structure like the GiST. Extending this work to new domains should prove in... |

218 |
Linear clustering of objects with multiple attributes,”
- Jagadish
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...r multidimensional search trees include quad-trees [FB74], k-D-B-trees [Rob81], and hB-trees [LS90]. Multidimensional data can also be transformed into unidimensional data using a space-filling curve =-=[Jag90]-=-; after transformation, a B+-tree can be used to index the resulting unidimensional data. Extensible-key indices were introduced in POSTGRES [Sto86, Aok91], and are included in Illustra [Sto93], both ... |

216 | The TV-tree: An Index Structure for HighDimensional Data.
- Lin, Jagadish, et al.
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...like a variety of other known search tree structures, e.g. partial sum trees [WE80], k-D-B-trees [Rob81], Ch-trees [KKD89], Exodus large objects [CDG + 90], hB-trees [LS90], V-trees [MCD94], TV-trees =-=[LJF94]-=-, etc. Implementing a new set of methods for the GiST is a significantly easier task than implementing a new tree package from scratch: for example, the POSTGRES [Gro94] and SHORE [CDF + 94] implement... |

189 | The hB-Tree: A Multiattribute Indexing Method with good guaranteed Performance.
- Lomet, Salzberg
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context .... The GiST can be adapted to work like a variety of other known search tree structures, e.g. partial sum trees [WE80], k-D-B-trees [Rob81], Ch-trees [KKD89], Exodus large objects [CDG + 90], hB-trees =-=[LS90]-=-, V-trees [MCD94], TV-trees [LJF94], etc. Implementing a new set of methods for the GiST is a significantly easier task than implementing a new tree package from scratch: for example, the POSTGRES [Gr... |

175 | Efficient Locking for Concurrent Operations on B-Trees.
- Lehman, Yao
- 1981
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...E is the righmost entry on its node, let P be the next node to the right of R on the same level of the tree (this can be found via tree traversal, or via sideways pointers in the tree, when available =-=[LY81]-=-.) If P is non-existent, return NULL. Otherwise, let N be the leftmost entry on P . If Consistent(N; q), then return N , else return NULL. 3.4.3 Insert The insertion routines guarantee that the GiST r... |

166 | Predicate migration: Optimizing queries with expensive predicates
- Hellerstein, Stonebraker
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...equired to bring this to bear on GiSTs in general. As an additional problem, the user-defined GiST methods may be time-consuming operations, and their CPU cost should be registered with the optimizer =-=[HS93]-=-. The optimizer must then correctly incorporate the CPU cost of the methods into its estimate of the cost for probing a particular GiST. ffl Lossy Key Compression Techniques: As new data domains are i... |

162 | Beyond uniformity and independence: Analysis of R-trees using the concept of fractal dimension
- Faloutsos, Kamel
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...keys. A even more limited notion is that of the Interval Hierarchy [WE77], which can be used to index a file of simple conjunctive ordering predicates. Analyses of R-tree performance have appeared in =-=[FK94]-=- and [PSTW93]. This work is dependent on the spatial nature of typical R-tree data, and thus is not generally applicable to the GiST. However, similar ideas may prove relevant to our questions of when... |

139 | Efficient Multi-Step Processing of Spatial Joins,
- Brinkhoff, Kriegel, et al.
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... no single spaghetto intersects any other in three dimensions, their bounding boxes will likely all intersect! 3 Better approximations than bounding boxes have been considered for doing spatial joins =-=[BKSS94]-=-. However, this work proposes using bounding boxes in an R*-tree, and only using the more accurate approximations in main memory during post-processing steps. 15 The two performance issues described a... |

114 | Topological relations in the world of minimum bounding rectangles: A study with R-trees.
- Papadias, Sellis, et al.
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...irly easily support more complex predicates, including n-dimensional analogs of the disjunctive queries and ranked keys mentioned for B+trees, as well as the topological relations of Papadias, et al. =-=[PTSE95]-=- Other examples include arbitrary variations of the usual overlap or ordering queries, e.g. “find all polygons that overlap more than 30% of this box”, or “find all polygons that overlap 12 to 1 o’clo... |

84 |
Towards an analysis of range query performance in spatial data structures
- PAGEL, SIX, et al.
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...n more limited notion is that of the Interval Hierarchy [WE77], which can be used to index a file of simple conjunctive ordering predicates. Analyses of R-tree performance have appeared in [FK94] and =-=[PSTW93]-=-. This work is dependent on the spatial nature of typical R-tree data, and thus is not generally applicable to the GiST. However, similar ideas may prove relevant to our questions of when and how one ... |

58 |
QuaA-trees; a data structure for retrieval on composite keys
- Finkel, Bentley
- 1974
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...om79]. There are a variety of multidimensional search trees, such as R-trees [Gut84] and their variants: R*-trees [BKSS90] and R+-trees [SRF87]. Other multidimensional search trees include quad-trees =-=[FB74]-=-, k-D-B-trees [Rob81], and hB-trees [LS90]. Multidimensional data can also be transformed into unidimensional data using a space-filling curve [Jag90]; after transformation, a B+-tree can be used to i... |

55 |
others. "Indexing Techniques for Object-Oriented Databases
- Kim
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ee, a new index for data with set-valued attributes. The GiST can be adapted to work like a variety of other known search tree structures, e.g. partial sum trees [WE80], k-D-B-trees [Rob81], Ch-trees =-=[KKD89]-=-, Exodus large objects [CDG + 90], hB-trees [LS90], V-trees [MCD94], TV-trees [LJF94], etc. Implementing a new set of methods for the GiST is a significantly easier task than implementing a new tree p... |

44 | Access method concurrency with recovery
- Lomet, Salzberg
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...a well-understood problem, with Lehman and Yao's B-link variant [LY81] being a typical way of implementing high-concurrency B+-trees. Recovery for B-link trees has been explored by Lomet and Salzberg =-=[LS92]-=-, who show that a \Pi-tree, which generalizes the B-link tree, can be reconstructed gradually from any interim state. Until recently, no analogous results existed for R-trees. The main stumbling block... |

42 | The r*-tree: An e cient and robust access method for points and rectangles - Beckmann, Kriegel, et al. - 1990 |

40 | High-concurrency locking in r-trees. - Kornacker, Banks - 1995 |

34 |
Inclusion of New Types in Relational Database Systems
- Stonebraker
- 1986
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...earch Trees For Extensible Data Types: As an alternative to developing new data structures, existing data structures such as B+-trees and R-trees can be made extensible in the data types they support =-=[Sto86]-=-. For example, B+-trees can be used to index any data with a linear ordering, supporting equality or linear range queries over that data. While this provides extensibility in the data that can be inde... |

33 | A.: The RD-Tree: An Index Structure for Sets - Hellerstein, Pfeffer - 1994 |

25 |
An efficient method for weighted sampling without replacement
- Wong, Easton
- 1980
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... as a B+-tree, an R-tree, and an RD-tree, a new index for data with set-valued attributes. The GiST can be adapted to work like a variety of other known search tree structures, e.g. partial sum trees =-=[WE80]-=-, k-D-B-trees [Rob81], Ch-trees [KKD89], Exodus large objects [CDG + 90], hB-trees [LS90], V-trees [MCD94], TV-trees [LJF94], etc. Implementing a new set of methods for the GiST is a significantly eas... |

9 |
The Miro DBMS
- Stonebraker
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... curve [Jag90]; after transformation, a B+-tree can be used to index the resulting unidimensional data. Extensible-key indices were introduced in POSTGRES [Sto86, Aok91], and are included in Illustra =-=[Sto93]-=-, both of which have distinct extensible B+-tree and R-tree implementations. These extensible indices allow many types of data to be indexed, but only support a fixed set of query predicates. For exam... |

8 |
V-Trees - A Storage Method for Long Vector Data
- Mediano, Casanova, et al.
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e adapted to work like a variety of other known search tree structures, e.g. partial sum trees [WE80], k-D-B-trees [Rob81], Ch-trees [KKD89], Exodus large objects [CDG + 90], hB-trees [LS90], V-trees =-=[MCD94]-=-, TV-trees [LJF94], etc. Implementing a new set of methods for the GiST is a significantly easier task than implementing a new tree package from scratch: for example, the POSTGRES [Gro94] and SHORE [C... |

5 | The Ubiquitous B-Tree. Computing Surveys, 11�2�:121�137 - Comer - 1979 |

4 |
The R-link tree: A recoverable index structure for spatial data
- Ng, Kameda
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ificial ordering upsets the balancing techniques for the tree. Fortunately, recent work extends Lehman and Yao's sideways pointer techniques, along with recovery techniques, to R-trees. Ng and Kameda =-=[NK94]-=- do so by generating a pending update list at each node of the tree, and applying Lomet and Salzberg's results on \Pi-trees to this context. Banks, Kornacker and Stonebraker [BKS94, KB95] have a simpl... |

4 |
A Multikey Hashing Scheme Using Predicate Trees
- Valduriez, Viemont
- 1984
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...thods for picking a way to split nodes (the PickSplit method described below) and for choosing good keys (the Union and Compress methods described below.) The Predicate Trees of Valduriez and Viemont =-=[VV84]-=- are similar to classification trees, in that they are not used to index data sets, and can be defined only on traditional alphanumeric predicates. Predicate Trees are used to generate hash keys. A ev... |

4 | Implementation of extended indexes in postgres - Aoki - 1991 |

3 | McAuli e, Je rey - Carey, DeWitt, et al. - 1994 |

2 |
Inserts and Deletes on B-trees: Why Free-At-Empty is Better Than Merge-At-Half
- Johnson, Shasha
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...Insert(R; E; level(E)) for all elements E of Q. In some implementations, it is considered preferable to leave a node under-full after a delete, in the expectation that it will fill up soon thereafter =-=[JS93]-=-. To support such behavior, step D3 of algorithm Delete could invoke AdjustKeys(R; L), and avoid CondenseTree. 4 The GiST for Three Applications In this section we briefly describe implementations of ... |

2 |
Requirements For a Performance Benchmark For Object-Oriented Systems
- Kim, Garza
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...t the GiST can provide support for a new search tree that indexes set-valued data. The problem of handling set-valued data is attracting increasing attention in the Object-Oriented database community =-=[KG94]-=-, and is fairly natural even for traditional relational database applications. For example, one might have a university database with a table of students, and for each student an attribute courses pas... |

2 |
Interval Hierarchies and Their Application to Predicate Files," A CM Transactions on Database Systems 2(3
- Wong, Edelberg
- 1977
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...t used to index data sets, and can be defined only on traditional alphanumeric predicates. Predicate Trees are used to generate hash keys. A even more limited notion is that of the Interval Hierarchy =-=[WE77]-=-, which can be used to index a file of simple conjunctive ordering predicates. Analyses of R-tree performance have appeared in [FK94] and [PSTW93]. This work is dependent on the spatial nature of typi... |

1 | Implementation of Extended - Aoki - 1991 |