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## An introduction to bayesian and dempster-shafer data fusion (2003)

Venue: | Defence Science and Tech Org |

Citations: | 20 - 2 self |

### Citations

873 |
Upper and lower probabilities induced by a multivalued mapping
- Dempster
- 1967
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ept of attaching weightings to the postulated states of the system being measured. While Bayes applies a more“classical”meaning to these in terms of well known ideas about probability, DempsterShafer =-=[24, 25]-=- allows other alternative scenarios for the system, such as treating equally the sets of alternatives that have a nonzero intersection: for example, we can combine all of the alternatives to make a ne... |

636 |
Design and Analysis of Modern Tracking Systems. Artech House Radar Library
- Blackman, Popoli
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ept of attaching weightings to the postulated states of the system being measured. While Bayes applies a more“classical”meaning to these in terms of well known ideas about probability, DempsterShafer =-=[24, 25]-=- allows other alternative scenarios for the system, such as treating equally the sets of alternatives that have a nonzero intersection: for example, we can combine all of the alternatives to make a ne... |

79 |
A Bayesian approach to problems in stochastic estimation and control
- Ho, Lee
- 1964
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Citation Context ...ion N(x; µ, P) that we use. In particular, Equation (A5) gives a direct method for calculating the predicted probability density in Equation (3.13), which then allows us to use the Bayesian framework =-=[22]-=- to derive the Kalman filter equation. A derivation of the Kalman filter based on Bayesian belief networks was proposed recently in [23]. However, in both these papers the authors do not solve for the... |

39 |
Progress in supervised neural networks: What's U new since Lippmann
- Hush, Horne
- 1993
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Citation Context ...imental to use well-worn presumptions of the system: for example that its noise is Gaussian. • Much more data must be used for training a learning algorithm than we might at first suppose. They quote =-=[2]-=- as saying that if there are m features and n classes to be identified, then the number of training cases required will be at least of the order of between 10 and 30 times mn.sDSTO–TR–1436 • Hall and ... |

18 | Self-organized integration of adaptive visual cues for face tracking,” Automatic Face and
- Triesch, Malsburg
- 2000
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Citation Context ...test number of applications in the location and tracking of targets, and in that sense it is probably still seen very much as a military technique that is gradually finding wider application. Triesch =-=[7]-=- describes a system for tracking the face of a person who enters a room and manoeuvres within it, or even walks past another person in that room. The method does not appear to use any standard theory ... |

13 |
Pitfalls in data fusion (and how to avoid them
- Hall, Garga
- 1999
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Citation Context ...voured very much at all. 2.2 Basic Data Fusion Philosophy In 1986 the Joint Directors of Laboratories Data Fusion Working Group was created, which subsequently developed the Data Fusion Process Model =-=[1]-=-. This is a plan of the proposed layout of a generic data fusion system, and is designed to establish a common language and model within which data fusion techniques can be implemented. The model defi... |

11 |
Optimal recursive iterative algorithm for discrete nonlinear least-squares estimation
- Haupt, Kasdin, et al.
- 1996
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Citation Context ...inearisation used in the extended Kalman filter introduces a well-understood bias into two of the variables being measured. The authors are able to circumvent this difficulty by using a new algorithm =-=[14]-=-, that breaks the filtering into two steps: a Kalman filter and a GaussNewton algorithm. The first step, the Kalman filter, is applied by writing trigonometric entities such as sin(ωt + δ) in terms of... |

10 | Sensor Data Fusion for Anti-personnel Landmine Detection
- Cremer, Breejen, et al.
- 1998
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Citation Context ...ems humans must interact with computers, so that the ways in which the various processes are realised need to take human psychology into account. The three main methods of data fusion are compared in =-=[6]-=-. In this paper, Cremer et al. use Dempster-Shafer, Bayes and fuzzy logic to compare different approaches to land mine detection. Their aim is to provide a figure of merit for each square in a gridded... |

10 |
Dempster-Shafer theory and Bayesian reasoning in multisensor data fusion
- Braun
- 2000
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Citation Context ...r-Shafer calculations tend to be longer and more involved than their Bayes analogues (which are not required to work with all the elements of a set); and despite the fact that reports such as [6] and =-=[26]-=- indicate that Dempster-Shafer can sometimes perform better than Bayes theory, Dempster-Shafer’s computational disadvantages do nothing to increase its popularity. Braun [26] has performed a Monte Car... |

8 |
A reference model for data fusion systems
- Kokar, Bedworth, et al.
- 2000
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Citation Context ...t in the above example does not mean that Dempster-Shafer is succeeding in fusing the data correctly; and there needs to be an indicator built in to the fusion system to warn us of that. Kokar et al. =-=[5]-=- bemoan the fact that at their time of writing (early 2000), data fusion had not lived up to its promises. They suggest that it needs to be approached somewhat differently to the current way, and have... |

7 |
Fusion of Multi-Sensor Information from an Autonomous Undersea Distributed Field of Sensors
- Jahn, Hatch, et al.
- 1999
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Citation Context ...errors that are about half those that the conventional IMM produces, but space and time constraints make it impossible for the authors to compare their results with any other techniques. Hatch et al. =-=[12]-=- describe a network of underwater sensors used for tracking. The overall architecture is that of a command centre taking in information at radio frequency, from a sublevel of “gateway” nodes. These in... |

3 |
Characterization of disagreement in multiplatform and multisensor fusion analysis
- Myler
- 2000
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Citation Context ...l enough to warrant more work being done on defining just what these parameters should be in a new environment. The Dempster-Shafer theory they used is described more fully in Section 4. In reference =-=[4]-=-, Myler considers an interesting example of data fusion in which DempsterShafer theory fails to give an acceptable solution to a data fusion problem where it is used to fuse two irreconcilable data se... |

3 |
A Bayesian belief network approach to multi-sensor kinimatic and attribute tracking
- Krieg
- 2002
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Citation Context ...tion (3.13), which then allows us to use the Bayesian framework [22] to derive the Kalman filter equation. A derivation of the Kalman filter based on Bayesian belief networks was proposed recently in =-=[23]-=-. However, in both these papers the authors do not solve for the predicted density (3.13) directly. They implicitly use a “sum of two Gaussian random variables is a Gaussian random variable” argument ... |

2 | Multi-ultrasonic sensor fusion for autonomous mobile robots
- Yi, Khing, et al.
- 2000
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Citation Context ...ve that quantifying the value of a data fusion system is inherently difficult, and that no magic recipe exists. • Fusion of incoming data is very much an ongoing process, not a static one. Zou et al. =-=[3]-=- have used Dempster-Shafer theory in the study of reducing the range errors that mobile robots produce when they use ultrasound to investigate a specular environment. Such an environment is characteri... |

2 | Information gain in object recognition via sensor fusion
- Cooper, Miller
- 1998
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Citation Context ..., it updates its information iteratively, by comparing these data sets with already-established tracks. 2.6 Image Processing and Medical Applications By applying information theory, Cooper and Miller =-=[16]-=- address the problem of quantifying the efficacy of automatic object recognition. They begin with a library of templates that can be referenced to identify objects, with departures of an object’s pose... |

1 |
Algorithm for automatic recognition of formations of moving targets
- Schwartz
- 2000
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Citation Context ...re not as continuous as they were assumed to be when the rules governing the system’s evolution were originally constructed. He suggests that more work is needed to investigate this problem. Schwartz =-=[8]-=- has applied a maximum a posteriori (MAP) approach to the search for formations of targets in a region, using a model of a battlefield populated by a formation of vehicles. A snapshot taken of this ba... |

1 |
Multisource information fusion applied to ship identification for the Recognised
- Simard, Lefebvre, et al.
- 2000
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Citation Context ...hip value generalises in fuzzy set theory to a number that lies between one and zero, that defines the set by how well the element is deemed to lie within it. These ideas are applied by Simard et al. =-=[9]-=- of Lockheed Martin Canada and the Canadian Defence Research Establishment, along with a combination of other fusion techniques, to ship movements in order to build a picture of what vessels are movin... |

1 |
Notes on the use of Dempster-Shafer and Fuzzy Reasoning to fuse identity attribute data, Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Adelaide
- Kewley
- 1992
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Citation Context ...ared at some point. This comparison of apples with oranges is a difficulty, and highlights the care that we need to exercise when defining just what the various membership functions should be. Kewley =-=[10]-=- compares the Dempster-Shafer and fuzzy approaches to fusion, so as to decide which of a given set of emitters has produced certain identity attribute data. He finds that fuzzy logic gives similar res... |

1 |
An IMM architecture for track fusion
- Watson, Rice, et al.
- 2000
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Citation Context ...emitters after its first calculations have been done, fuzzy logic certainly can. It’s not apparent that there is any one approach we should take to fuse track data from multiple sensors. In reference =-=[11]-=-, Watson et al. discuss one solution they have developed: the Optimal Asynchronous Track Fusion Algorithm (OATFA). They use this to study the tracking of a target that follows three constant velocity ... |

1 |
Data analysis in the gravity probe B relativity experiment
- Heifetz, Keiser
- 1999
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Citation Context ...t mentioning mathematical details. Rather, it tends to concentrate more on the architecture, such as the necessity for a two-way data flow as mentioned above. 2.4 Satellite Positioning Heifetz et al. =-=[13]-=- describe a typical problem involved with satellite-attitude measurement. They are dealing with the NASA Gravity Probe B, that was designed to be put into Earth orbit for a year or more in a precision... |

1 |
Multisensor and ADS data integration for en-route and terminal area air surveillance
- Rodríguez, Portas, et al.
- 1998
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Citation Context ...ASA’s satellite was due for launch, the authors have plotted potentially achievable accuracies which show that in principle, the expected relative errors should be very small. 2.5 Air Surveillance In =-=[15]-=-, Rodríguez et al. discuss a proposal to fuse data in an air surveillance system. They describe a system whose centre is the Automatic Dependent Surveillance system, in which participating aircraft se... |

1 |
at: DSTO–TR–1436 http://www-rocq.inria.fr/~gilles/IMMMI/immmi.html The report is by Gilles, who uses Viola’s work, and is entitled Description and experimentation of image matching using mutual information
- Viola
- 1996
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Citation Context ...tion. Typical values in the middle of the SNR range (SNR = 10) are orthographic projection: 3.0, perspective projection: 3.8 and fused combination: 4.6. Similar work has been done by Viola and Gilles =-=[17]-=-, who fuse image data by maximising the mutual information. In contrast to Cooper and Miller’s work, they match different images of the same scene, where one might be rotated, out of focus or even cho... |

1 |
Aorta detection in ultrasound medical image sequences using Hough transform and data fusion
- Debon, Solaiman, et al.
- 1999
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Citation Context ...ults, and report that the method of mutual information is more robust than competing techniques such as cross-correlation. Fuzzy logic has been applied to image processing in the work of Debon et al. =-=[18]-=-, who use it in locating the sometimes vague elliptical cross-section of the human aorta in 9sDSTO–TR–1436 10 ultrasound images. The situation they describe is that of an ultrasound source lowered dow... |

1 |
Three dimensional data fusion for biomedical surface reconstruction
- Zachary, Iyengar
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...outline of the aorta in the ultrasound images. Inspection of the ultrasound images shows that this technique works very well. A simpler approach to medical data fusion is taken by Zachary and Iyengar =-=[19]-=-, who describe a method for fusing data to reconstruct biological surfaces. They are dealing with three sets of data: namely, contour slices that result from imaging in three orthogonal planes. This i... |

1 |
A multi-level approach to sensor management, Sensor Fusion
- Strömberg
- 2000
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Citation Context ...ied their method to ellipsoids and to some medical data. 2.7 Intelligent Internet Agents Intelligent internet agents are also discussed in the literature, although somewhat infrequently. In reference =-=[20]-=-, Strömberg discusses the makeup of a sensor management system in terms of two architectures: agent modelling and multi-level sensor management. His approach maintains that agents can be useful becaus... |

1 | Decision making in multi-fiscal and multi-monetary policy measurements
- Blasch
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ey can be left alone to make their own decisions about just when to make an observation.s2.8 Business and Finance DSTO–TR–1436 An application of fusion to the theory of finance is described by Blasch =-=[21]-=-. He discusses the interaction between monetary policy, being concerned with money demand and income, and fiscal policy, the interaction between interest rates and income. The multiple sensors here ar... |