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## Accessibility Indicators for Transportation Planning Using GIS (1997)

Citations: | 1 - 0 self |

### Citations

231 | Modelling Transport, - Ortuzar, Willmusen - 1990 |

220 |
How accessibility shapes land use
- Hansen
- 1959
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...Gaussian function is that it declines slowly at the region close to the origin and smoothly toward zero at a great distance. Guy (1983) proposed an alternative approach to obtain v. It is shown that: v = 2d* 2 , (5) where d* is the distance from origin i at which accessibility is deemed to decline at the most rapid rate. The Gaussian function can be rewritten as: n Ai = Σ exp[ (dij / d*)2 / ( -2 ) ] , (6) j=1 Gravity Type Measures The gravity type indicators are probably the most popular. This type of indicator was originally created from an analogy with Newton=s Gravitational Law. Devised by Hansen (1959), they weigh opportunities at a destination by the spatial separation from an origin to that destination. The following equation defines its general form: n Ai = Σ Oj( f(C ij) , (7) j=1 where Oj represents the opportunities at zone j , such as number of employees (also known as employment intensity), number of shops, etc., Cij is the spatial separation 9 between i and j (can be measured by travel distance, travel time, or generalized cost), and f (Cij) is the function of spatial separation, similar to the forms discussed in the simple separation subsection above. Isochronic Measures These indi... |

29 |
The concept of accessibility: a search for an operational form’,
- Ingram
- 1971
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nes of additional road segments. The roadway layer was used to address-match all the respondents in the travel patterns survey and store locations in the business data. An origin in the accessibility calculation represents the base point of measuring spatial separation to various opportunities. Types of Accessibility Formulations Similarly to the definition of accessibility, the numerical indicators of accessibility differ widely in the literature. The first effort to classify accessibility indicators is separating them into Arelative accessibility@ and Aintegral accessibility.@ Classified by Ingram (1971), relative accessibility describes the separation between two places, while integral accessibility describes the separation between a given place and all others within a given study area served by a transportation network. Essentially, relative accessibility is the difficulty of making a particular trip. Integral accessibility measures the ease of reaching all potential destinations within a network. Both of these measures have their specific applications. Because human spatial movement is not possibly confined to one point, it is obvious that integral accessibility is more suitable for the st... |

19 |
Measuring Accessibility: A Review and Proposal. Environment and Planning
- Pirie
- 1979
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...neralized cost), and f (Cij) is the function of spatial separation, similar to the forms discussed in the simple separation subsection above. Isochronic Measures These indicators sometimes are called Acumulative-opportunities@ measures. They index the accessibility level of a place according to the number of opportunities that can be reached within a given travel time value Ax.@ The numerical expression of the indicator can be considered as a particular case of gravity type (Koenig, 1980). When the travel time to a specific opportunity is less than x, then f (Cij) =1. Otherwise, f (Cij)=0. As Pirie (1979) has noted, the decision of a given value Ax@ is arbitrary. An example of this indicator type used by Hanson and Schwab (1987) follows: 10 Ai = Σ Rn / 0.5n , (8) n=1 where Ai is the isochronic accessibility indicator measuring the opportunities within 5 km of air line distance from an individual=s home or work place. Rn is the Anumber of establishments within the nth annulus, that is, between 0.5n km and 0.5((n-1) km from the ith individual=s home. All of the parameters in this equation were decided arbitrarily according to the characteristics of the study area. Table 1 lists all indicator for... |

18 |
Indicators of Urban Accessibility: Theory and Application.
- Koenig
- 1980
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... of shops, etc., Cij is the spatial separation 9 between i and j (can be measured by travel distance, travel time, or generalized cost), and f (Cij) is the function of spatial separation, similar to the forms discussed in the simple separation subsection above. Isochronic Measures These indicators sometimes are called Acumulative-opportunities@ measures. They index the accessibility level of a place according to the number of opportunities that can be reached within a given travel time value Ax.@ The numerical expression of the indicator can be considered as a particular case of gravity type (Koenig, 1980). When the travel time to a specific opportunity is less than x, then f (Cij) =1. Otherwise, f (Cij)=0. As Pirie (1979) has noted, the decision of a given value Ax@ is arbitrary. An example of this indicator type used by Hanson and Schwab (1987) follows: 10 Ai = Σ Rn / 0.5n , (8) n=1 where Ai is the isochronic accessibility indicator measuring the opportunities within 5 km of air line distance from an individual=s home or work place. Rn is the Anumber of establishments within the nth annulus, that is, between 0.5n km and 0.5((n-1) km from the ith individual=s home. All of the parameters in thi... |

15 | The Measurement of Accessibility: Some Preliminary Results. - Dalvi, Martin - 1976 |

14 |
The Assessment of Access to Local Shopping Opportunities: A Comparison of Accessibility Measures.
- Guy
- 1983
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...fferent trip purposes. An alternative function is the negative exponential function: n Ai = Σ exp(- β dij) , (3) j=1 where β is a parameter calibrated for a particular network. Ingram (1971) has noted that both of these functions tend to decline too rapidly with respect to increasing spatial separation. He suggested a modified form of the Gaussian function: n Ai = Σ exp( - dij2 / v ) , (4) j=1 where v is a constant determined for a study area. The advantage of using the Gaussian function is that it declines slowly at the region close to the origin and smoothly toward zero at a great distance. Guy (1983) proposed an alternative approach to obtain v. It is shown that: v = 2d* 2 , (5) where d* is the distance from origin i at which accessibility is deemed to decline at the most rapid rate. The Gaussian function can be rewritten as: n Ai = Σ exp[ (dij / d*)2 / ( -2 ) ] , (6) j=1 Gravity Type Measures The gravity type indicators are probably the most popular. This type of indicator was originally created from an analogy with Newton=s Gravitational Law. Devised by Hansen (1959), they weigh opportunities at a destination by the spatial separation from an origin to that destination. The following eq... |

11 |
Regional versus local accessibility: variations in suburban form and the effects on nonwork travel. Unpublished Dissertation,
- Handy
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s used here to revisit the computation of accessibility measures that require more realistic representation of the transportation system than is currently used in traditional transportation planning models. Unlike past applications of accessibility, person-by-person and store-by-store accessibility indicators can be created today using the fine detail offered by GIS. These indicators, then, can be used as explanatory variables in travel behavior equations. The concept of accessibility has been comprehensively employed in the literature as a better measure of transportation quality of service (Handy, 1993). Accessibility has generally been defined as the ease with which activity opportunities may be reached from a given location using a particular transportation system. An accessibility indicator (also called measure herein) incorporates the performance of a transportation system and the distribution of land-use activities in the study area, i.e., it includes an attractiveness (benefit) measure of each potential destination and weighs each destination by its associated travel cost. Since an accessibility index is a function of both land use patterns and the performance of the transportation sys... |

8 |
Accessibility and intraurban travel’,
- Hanson, Schwab
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...eparation subsection above. Isochronic Measures These indicators sometimes are called Acumulative-opportunities@ measures. They index the accessibility level of a place according to the number of opportunities that can be reached within a given travel time value Ax.@ The numerical expression of the indicator can be considered as a particular case of gravity type (Koenig, 1980). When the travel time to a specific opportunity is less than x, then f (Cij) =1. Otherwise, f (Cij)=0. As Pirie (1979) has noted, the decision of a given value Ax@ is arbitrary. An example of this indicator type used by Hanson and Schwab (1987) follows: 10 Ai = Σ Rn / 0.5n , (8) n=1 where Ai is the isochronic accessibility indicator measuring the opportunities within 5 km of air line distance from an individual=s home or work place. Rn is the Anumber of establishments within the nth annulus, that is, between 0.5n km and 0.5((n-1) km from the ith individual=s home. All of the parameters in this equation were decided arbitrarily according to the characteristics of the study area. Table 1 lists all indicator formulations and the symbols used in the models here. The longer the spatial separation is the worse the accessibility level beco... |

7 | Accessibility Measures and Their Suitability for Use in the Trip Generation Models. - Leake, Huzayyin - 1979 |

6 |
The Possibility and Potential of Public Policy on Accessibility.
- Pirie
- 1981
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...gories of users can be studied by creating person-by-person measures of the quality of life (Wachs and Kumagai, 1973). Such an indicator may also reflect the overall cost of reaching work places, shopping centers, and social and recreational opportunities. These are a few potential advantages in favor of using accessibility indicators to identify and solve transportation problems. Today, accessibility research can be found in three different transportation-related studies: in travel behavior research, in transportation /land-use system analysis, and in more general welfare and policy studies (Pirie, 1981). Although there has been a large body of research concerning the measurement and applications of accessibility indicators, the use of them has never been widespread. There are two reasons for this. First, there is no conceptually robust notion of accessibility. As Pirie (1981) stated “work is urgently needed in the area of setting standards or criteria for accessibility planning.” In the existing literature, there is no agreement on the best operational definition and numerical measurement. Depending on the analysis intent and available data, researchers adopted various definitions and measur... |

5 |
Analysis of Accessibility and Travel Behavior Using GIS. Master of Science Thesis.
- Lee
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...urement and applications of accessibility indicators, the use of them has never been widespread. There are two reasons for this. First, there is no conceptually robust notion of accessibility. As Pirie (1981) stated “work is urgently needed in the area of setting standards or criteria for accessibility planning.” In the existing literature, there is no agreement on the best operational definition and numerical measurement. Depending on the analysis intent and available data, researchers adopted various definitions and measurements of accessibility from their own standpoints (see the review by Lee, 1996). Second, the application of accessibility has not been tested rigorously. Its application is based on the assumption that people with different accessibility levels reveal different travel behavior. Existing research, however, failed to prove this. In addition, those analyzing the relationship between accessibility and travel behavior adopted indicators that are not appropriate for transportation planning. For example, activity density, the most frequently used indicator, does not take into account the performance of the transportation system. GIS combined with detailed behavioral data offer ... |

1 | Importance of Accessibility Measures in Trip Production Models. Transportation Planning and Technology, - Leake, Huzayyin - 1980 |

1 |
Physical Accessibility as a Social Indicator. Social -economic planning
- Wachs, Kumagai
- 1973
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e study area, i.e., it includes an attractiveness (benefit) measure of each potential destination and weighs each destination by its associated travel cost. Since an accessibility index is a function of both land use patterns and the performance of the transportation system, it is a particularly appropriate criterion for evaluating the service provided by the transportation system. In addition, when person-by-person accessibility indicators can be created, access provided to specific and different categories of users can be studied by creating person-by-person measures of the quality of life (Wachs and Kumagai, 1973). Such an indicator may also reflect the overall cost of reaching work places, shopping centers, and social and recreational opportunities. These are a few potential advantages in favor of using accessibility indicators to identify and solve transportation problems. Today, accessibility research can be found in three different transportation-related studies: in travel behavior research, in transportation /land-use system analysis, and in more general welfare and policy studies (Pirie, 1981). Although there has been a large body of research concerning the measurement and applications of accessi... |