#### DMCA

## A description of (2005)

Venue: | the Advanced Research WRF version 2; NCAR Technical Note: NCAR/TN468+STR 2005; NCAR |

Citations: | 98 - 5 self |

### Citations

714 |
Development of a turbulence closure model for geophysical fluid problems, Rev. Geophys. Space Phys
- Mellor, Yamada
- 1982
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...L This parameterization of turbulence in the PBL and in the free atmosphere (Janjic, 1990, 1996, 2002) represents a nonsingular implementation of the Mellor-Yamada Level 2.5 turbulence closure model (=-=Mellor and Yamada, 1982-=-) through the full range of atmospheric turbulent regimes. In this implementation, an upper limit is imposed on the master length scale. This upper limit depends on the TKE as well as the buoyancy and... |

430 | Radiative transfer for inhomogeneous atmospheres: RRTM, a validated correlated-k model for the longwave. - Mlawer, Taubman, et al. - 1997 |

383 | Numerical study of convection observed during the winter monsoon experiment using a mesoscale two-dimensional model. - Dudhia - 1989 |

383 | Bulk parameterization of the snow fi eld in a cloud model”, - Lin, Farley, et al. - 1983 |

327 |
Nonlocal boundary layer vertical diffusion in a medium-range forecast model.
- Hong, Pan
- 1996
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Citation Context ...PBL The Yonsei University PBL (Hong et al., 2006) is the next generation of the MRF PBL, also using the countergradient terms to represent fluxes due to non-local gradients. This adds to the MRF PBL (=-=Hong and Pan, 1996-=-) an explicit treatment of the entrainment layer at the PBL top. The entrainment is made proportional to the surface buoyancy flux in line with results from studies with large-eddy models (Noh et al.,... |

284 |
C.: The National Meteorological Center’s Spectral StatisticalInterpolation Analysis System
- Parrish, Derber
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...istics are usually estimated offline. The “NMC-method”, in which forecast error covariances are approximated using forecast difference (e.g., T+48 minus T+24) statistics, is a commonly used approach (=-=Parrish and Derber, 1992-=-). Experiments at ECMWF (Fisher, 2003) indicate superior statistics may be obtained using a cycling analysis/forecast ensemble prediction system based on perturbed observations/physics. Recent advance... |

263 | Multi-dimensional flux-form semiLagrangian transport schenes - Lin, Rood - 1996 |

256 |
On the distribution and continuity of water substance in atmospheric circulations.
- Kessler
- 1969
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...articularly in convective or icing situations. For coarser grids the added expense of these schemes is not worth it because riming is not likely to be well resolved. 8.1.1 Kessler scheme This scheme (=-=Kessler, 1969-=-), which was taken from the COMMAS model (Wicker and Wilhelmson, 1995), is a simple warm cloud scheme that includes water vapor, cloud water, and rain. The microphysical processes included are: the pr... |

253 |
Analysis methods for numerical weather prediction
- Lorenc
- 1177
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nts the a posteriori maximum likelihood (minimum variance) estimate of the true state of the atmosphere given the two sources of a priori data: the first guess (or background) xb and observations yo (=-=Lorenc, 1986-=-). The fit to individual data points is weighted by estimates of their errors: B, E, and F are the background, observation (instrumental), and representivity error covariance matrices, respectively. R... |

243 | Convective parameterization for mesoscale models: The KainFritsch scheme. The representation of cumulus convection in numerical models, - Kain, Fritsch - 1993 |

239 | A simple parameterization of land surface processes for meteorological models. - Noilhan, Planton - 1989 |

238 |
The simulation of threedimensional convective storm dynamics
- Klemp, Wilhelmson
- 1978
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ue one grid-point into the grid from the boundary. cb is the phase speed of the gravity waves that are to be radiated; it is specified as a model constant (for more details see Klemp and Lilly, 1978; =-=Klemp and Wilhelmson, 1978-=-). For scalars and non-normal momentum variables, the boundary-perpendicular flux divergence term is replaced with δx(Uψ) = U ∗δxψ + ψ δxU, where U∗ = min(U, 0) at the x = 0 +∆x/2 (western) scalar bou... |

226 |
The step-mountain Eta coordinate model: Further developments of the convection, viscous sublayer, and turbulence closure schemes.
- Janjic
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...i.e., old precipitation efficiency relationship not used. – Detrainment is specified to occur in updraft source layer and below. 8.2.2 Betts-Miller-Janjic scheme The Betts-Miller-Janjic (BMJ) scheme (=-=Janjic, 1994-=-, 2000) was derived from the Betts-Miller (BM) convective adjustment scheme (Betts, 1986; Betts and Miller, 1986). However, the BMJ scheme differs from the Betts-Miller scheme in several important asp... |

201 |
A parameterization for the absorption of solar radiation in the Earth’s atmosphere.
- Lacis, Hansen
- 1974
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) Shortwave This shortwave radiation is a GFDL version of the Lacis and Hansen (1974) parameterization. Effects of atmospheric water vapor, ozone (both from =-=Lacis and Hansen, 1974-=-), and carbon dioxide (Sasamori et al., 1972) are employed. Clouds are randomly overlapped. Shortwave calculations are made using a daylight-mean cosine solar zenith angle over the time interval (give... |

193 | The mesoscale and microscale structure and organization of clouds and precipitation in midlatitude cyclones. VIII: A model for the “seeder– feeder” process in warm-frontal rainbands. - Rutledge, Hobbs - 1983 |

184 | The Kain-Fritsch convective parameterization. An Update - Kain - 2004 |

182 | Explicit forecasting of supercooled liquid water in winter storms using the MM5 mesoscale model. - Reisner, Rasmussen, et al. - 1998 |

179 | Fully coupled “online” chemistry within the WRF model. - Grell, Peckham, et al. - 2005 |

162 | Unified notation for data assimilation: Operational, sequential and
- Ide, Courtier, et al.
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...on The basic goal of any variational data assimilation system is to produce an optimal estimate of the true atmospheric state at analysis time through iterative solution of a prescribed costfunction (=-=Ide et al., 1997-=-): J(x) = Jb(x) + Jo(x) = 1 2 (x− xb)TB−1(x− xb) + 1 2 (y − yo)T (E+ F)−1(y − yo). (9.1) The variational problem can be summarized as the iterative minimization of (9.1) to find the analysis state x t... |

156 |
A new convective adjustment scheme. Part II: Single column tests using GATE wave, BOMEX, ATEX and arctic air-mass data sets
- Miller
- 1986
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ft source layer and below. 8.2.2 Betts-Miller-Janjic scheme The Betts-Miller-Janjic (BMJ) scheme (Janjic, 1994, 2000) was derived from the Betts-Miller (BM) convective adjustment scheme (Betts, 1986; =-=Betts and Miller, 1986-=-). However, the BMJ scheme differs from the Betts-Miller scheme in several important aspects. The deep convection profiles and the relaxation time are variable and depend on the cloud efficiency, a no... |

156 | A revised approach to ice microphysical processes for the bulk parameterization of clouds and precipitation. - Hong, Dudhia, et al. - 2004 |

143 | The mathematical representation of wind speed and temperature profiles in the unstable surface layer, - Paulson - 1970 |

141 | Numerical Prediction and Dynamic Meteorology - Haltiner, Williams - 1980 |

119 | 2002: Nonsingular Implementation of the Mellor–Yamada Level 2.5 - Janjic |

118 | A new vertical diffusion package with an explicit treatment of entrainment processes. - Noh, Dudhia - 2006 |

108 | The WRF single-moment 6-class microphysics scheme (WSM6). - Hong, Lim - 2006 |

107 | An Efficient Thermal Infrared Radiation Parameterization for Use in General Circulation Models, - Chou, Suarez - 1994 |

100 | Coupling an advanced land surface– hydrology model with the Penn State–NCAR MM5 modeling system. Part I: Model implementation and sensitivity. - Chen, Dudhia - 2001 |

100 | The statistical structure of short-range forecast errors as determined from radiosonde data. Part II: The covariance of height and wind errors.
- Lonnberg, Hollingsworth
- 1986
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...appropriate control variable space; and iii) diagnostic routines to assess the accuracy of observation and background error statistics. These routines include both innovation vector-based approaches (=-=Hollingsworth and Lonnberg, 1986-=-) and variational tuning approaches (Desroziers and Ivanov, 2001). Following assimilation of all data, an analysis xa is produced that must be merged with the existing lateral boundary conditions xlbc... |

98 |
A new convective adjustment scheme. Part I: Observational and theoretical basis,
- Betts
- 1986
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ccur in updraft source layer and below. 8.2.2 Betts-Miller-Janjic scheme The Betts-Miller-Janjic (BMJ) scheme (Janjic, 1994, 2000) was derived from the Betts-Miller (BM) convective adjustment scheme (=-=Betts, 1986-=-; Betts and Miller, 1986). However, the BMJ scheme differs from the Betts-Miller scheme in several important aspects. The deep convection profiles and the relaxation time are variable and depend on th... |

88 | A one-dimensional entraining/ detraining plume model and its application in convective parameterization - Kain, Fritsch - 1990 |

87 | A new doublemoment microphysics parameterization for application in cloud and climate models. Part I: Description. - Curry, Khvorostyanov - 2005 |

76 | The Physics of Rain Clouds - Fletcher - 1962 |

71 | A three-dimensional variational data assimilation system for MM5: Implementation and initial results. - Barker, Huang, et al. - 2004 |

71 |
The step-mountain coordinate: physical package,
- Janjic
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...algorithm (Hong, 2007) is also devised that allows deeper mixing in windier conditions. 8.5.3 Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ) PBL This parameterization of turbulence in the PBL and in the free atmosphere (=-=Janjic, 1990-=-, 1996, 2002) represents a nonsingular implementation of the Mellor-Yamada Level 2.5 turbulence closure model (Mellor and Yamada, 1982) through the full range of atmospheric turbulent regimes. In this... |

70 |
A compressible model for the simulation of moist mountain waves.
- Durran, Klemp
- 1983
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ms damps instabilities associated vertically-propagating sound waves. The forward weighting also damps instabilities associated with sloping model levels and horizontally propagating sound waves (see =-=Durran and Klemp, 1983-=-; Dudhia, 1995). The off-centering is accomplished by using a positive (non-zero) coefficient β (3.19) in the acoustic time-step vertical momentum equation (3.11) and geopotential equation (3.12). An ... |

67 |
Numerical simulation of hydrostatic mountain waves.
- Klemp, Lilly
- 1978
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ndary value and the value one grid-point into the grid from the boundary. cb is the phase speed of the gravity waves that are to be radiated; it is specified as a model constant (for more details see =-=Klemp and Lilly, 1978-=-; Klemp and Wilhelmson, 1978). For scalars and non-normal momentum variables, the boundary-perpendicular flux divergence term is replaced with δx(Uψ) = U ∗δxψ + ψ δxU, where U∗ = min(U, 0) at the x = ... |

65 | Flux-gradient relationships in the constant flux layer, - Dyer, Hicks - 1970 |

64 | Improvement of the K-profile model for the planetary boundary layer based on large eddy simulation data. - Noh, Cheon, et al. - 2003 |

62 | 2002: A generalized approach to parameterizing convection combining ensemble and data assimilation techniques. Geoph. Res - Grell, Devenyi |

59 |
Numerical investigation of neutral and unstable planetary boundary layers.
- Deardorff
- 1972
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... length scale l = (∆x∆y)1/2 and Cs is a constant with a typical value Cs = 0.25. For scalar mixing, the eddy viscosity is divided by the turbulent Prandtl number Pr that typically has a value of 1/3 (=-=Deardorff, 1972-=-). This option is most often used with a planetary boundary layer scheme that independently handles the vertical mixing. 3D Smagorinsky Closure The horizontal and vertical eddy viscosities can be dete... |

58 | Design of a next generation regional weather research and forecast model. - Michalakes, Dudhia, et al. - 1999 |

57 | The Weather Research and Forecast model: software architecture and performance. - Michalakes, Dudhia, et al. - 2005 |

54 | The simplified exchange approximation: A new method for radiative transfer calculations. - Fels, Schwarzkopf - 1975 |

52 |
The basic laws of turbulent mixing in the surface layer of the atmosphere
- Monin, Obukhov
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... one proportional only to the vertical thermal gradient to help in weak-wind situations. 8.3.2 Similarity theory (Eta) The Eta surface layer scheme (Janjic, 1996, 2002) is based on similarity theory (=-=Monin and Obukhov, 1954-=-). The scheme includes parameterizations of a viscous sub-layer. Over water surfaces, the viscous sub-layer is parameterized explicitly following Janjic (1994). Over land, the effects of the viscous s... |

52 |
Development and testing of a surface flux planetary boundary layer model with explicit soil moisture parameterization for applications in mesoscale models.
- Xiu
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...oisture, evapotranspiration, latent, sensible and soil heat fluxes, heat of snow-water phase change, skin temperature, snow depth and density, and snow temperature. 74 8.4.4 Pleim-Xiu LSM The PX LSM (=-=Pleim and Xiu, 1995-=-; Xiu and Pleim, 2001), originally based on the ISBA model Noilhan and Planton (1989), includes a 2-layer force-restore soil temperature and moisture model. The top layer is taken to be 1 cm thick, an... |

52 | M.: Numerical Aspects of the Application of Recursive Filters to Variational Statistical Analysis - Purser, Wu, et al. - 2003 |

48 | Local versus non-local boundary layer diffusion in a global climate model. - Holtslag, Boville - 1993 |

48 | A simple singlelayer urban canopy model for atmospheric models: Comparison with multi-layer and slab models. - Kusaka, Kondo, et al. - 2001 |

45 | B.: The simplified exchange method revisited – An accurate, rapid method for computation of infrared cooling rates and fluxes - Schwarzkopf, Fels - 1991 |

40 | 2002: A one-dimensional time dependent cloud model - Chen, Sun |

39 |
The Euler equations of motion with hydrostatic pressure as an indipendent variable
- Laprise
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ns are cast in flux form using variables that have conservation properties, following the philosophy of Ooyama (1990). The equations are formulated using a terrain-following mass vertical coordinate (=-=Laprise, 1992-=-). In this chapter we define the vertical coordinate and present the flux form equations in Cartesian space, we extend the equations to include the effects of moisture in the atmosphere, and we furthe... |

39 | Parameterization of cold-season processes in the MAPS land-surface scheme. - -31-Smirnova, Brown, et al. - 2000 |

37 | The stability of timesplitting numerical methods for the hydrostatic and the nonhydrostatic elastic equations. - Skamarock, Klemp - 1992 |

36 | C.: The parameterization of surface fluxes in largescale models under free convection - Beljaars - 1995 |

36 | Infrared continuum absorption by atmospheric water vapour in the 8–12 μm window. - Roberts, Selby, et al. - 1976 |

35 |
Comparison of ice-phase microphysical parameterization schemes using numerical simulations of convection.
- McCumber, Tao, et al.
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...l processes from Rutledge and Hobbs (1984). However, the Goddard microphysics schemes have several modifications. First, there is an option to choose either graupel or hail as the third class of ice (=-=McCumber et al., 1991-=-). Graupel has a relatively low density and a high intercept value (i.e., more numerous small particles). In contrast, hail has a relative high density and a low intercept value (i.e., more numerous l... |

35 |
Extended assimilation and forecast experiments with a four-dimensional variational assimilation system.
- Rabier, Thepaut, et al.
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... (Daley and Barker, 2001). Flow-dependence may be enhanced in 4D-Var through the use of the forecast model to provide dynamical consistency to the evolving forecast state during 4D-Var’s time window (=-=Rabier et al., 1998-=-). Still, the practical effort required to specify and implement flow-dependent error covariances in 3/4D-Var is significant. The development of a unified global/regional WRF-Var system, and its wides... |

33 | Application of the piecewise parabolic method (PPM) to meterological modeling - Carpenter, Droegemeier, et al. - 1990 |

33 | The deepening of the wind-mixed layer, Geophys - Pollard, Rhines, et al. - 1973 |

32 | Conservative split-explicit time integration methods for the compressible nonhydrostatic equations. - Klemp, Skamarock, et al. - 2007 |

31 | The Dolph-Chebyshev window: a simple optimal - Lynch - 1997 |

30 | Initialization of the HIRLAM model using a digital filter - Lynch, Huang - 1992 |

29 | Updating prediction models by dynamical relaxation: An examination of the technique. - Davies, Turner - 1977 |

27 | Diagnosis and adaptive tuning of observation-error parameters in a variational assimilation. - Desroziers, Ivanov - 2001 |

27 | The statistical structure of forecast errors and its representation in the Met. Office global 3-D variational data assimilation scheme. - Ingleby - 2001 |

26 | A thermodynamic foundation for modeling the moist atmosphere. - Ooyama - 1990 |

25 |
Performance of different soil model configurations in simulating ground surface temperature and surface fluxes
- Smirnova, Brown, et al.
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...il domain (0, 5, 20, 40, 160, 300 cm is default). The soil model solves heat diffusion and Richards moisture transfer equations, and in the cold season takes into account phase changes of soil water (=-=Smirnova et al., 1997-=-, 2000). The RUC LSM also has a multi-layer snow model with changing snow density, refreezing liquid water percolating through the snow pack, snow depth and temperature dependent albedo, melting algor... |

24 | A class of monotone interpolation schemes - Smolarkiewicz, Grell - 1992 |

20 | 2003: A three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) data assimilation system for use with MM5 - Barker, Huang, et al. |

20 |
The surface layer
- Janjic
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... formulation for convective velocity is replaced by one proportional only to the vertical thermal gradient to help in weak-wind situations. 8.3.2 Similarity theory (Eta) The Eta surface layer scheme (=-=Janjic, 1996-=-, 2002) is based on similarity theory (Monin and Obukhov, 1954). The scheme includes parameterizations of a viscous sub-layer. Over water surfaces, the viscous sub-layer is parameterized explicitly fo... |

20 | I.: Comments on “Development and Evaluation of a Convection Scheme for Use in Climate Models - Janjic |

20 | Coupling a single-layer urban canopy model with a simple atmospheric model: impact on urban heat island simulation for an idealized - Kusaka, Kimura |

19 | Implementation of prognostic cloud scheme for a regional spectral - Juang, Zhao - 1998 |

18 | A.: Ice initiation in natural clouds. precipitation enhancement – a scientific challenge - Cooper - 1986 |

17 | Some extensions and applications of the new random model for molecular band transmission - Rodgers - 1968 |

17 | On the global variation of precipitating layer clouds - Ryan - 1996 |

15 | Diabatic digital-filtering initialization: Application to the HIRLAM - Huang, Lynch - 1993 |

14 | 2008: The impact of positive-definite moisture transport on NWP precipitation forecasts - Skamarock, Weisman |

13 | Two modified versions of Bott’s positive definite numerical advection scheme - Easter - 1993 |

13 | Diabatic initialization using recursive filters - Lynch, Huang - 1994 |

13 |
Radiation budget of the Southern Hemisphere.
- Sasamori, London, et al.
- 1972
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...Shortwave This shortwave radiation is a GFDL version of the Lacis and Hansen (1974) parameterization. Effects of atmospheric water vapor, ozone (both from Lacis and Hansen, 1974), and carbon dioxide (=-=Sasamori et al., 1972-=-) are employed. Clouds are randomly overlapped. Shortwave calculations are made using a daylight-mean cosine solar zenith angle over the time interval (given by the radiation call frequency). 79 8.6.5... |

13 | Improvements to the algorithm for computing CO2 transmissivities and cooling rates. - Schwarzkopf, Fels - 1985 |

12 |
A coordinate change for data assimilation in spherical geometry of frontal surfaces.
- Desroziers
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nsemble prediction system based on perturbed observations/physics. Recent advances permit the use of flow-dependent forecast error covariances in 3D/4D-Var through, for example, grid transformations (=-=Desroziers, 1997-=-), anisotropic recursive filters (Wu et al., 2002; Purser et al., 2003), or observation-space formulations of the variational problem (Daley and Barker, 2001). Flow-dependence may be enhanced in 4D-Va... |

11 | 2003: Background error covariance modeling. Seminar on Recent Development in Data Assimilation for Atmosphere and - Fisher |

9 | 2007: Stable Boundary Layer Mixing in a Vertical Diffusion Scheme - Hong |

8 | An indirect data assimilation scheme for deep soil temperature in the Pleim–Xiu land surface model. - Gilliam - 2009 |

8 | Development of a land-surface model. Part II: Data assimilation. - Xiu - 2003 |

7 | A new method for representing mixed-phase particle fall speeds in bulk microphysics parameterizations - Dudhia, Hong, et al. - 2008 |

7 | 2007: Explicit numerical diffusion - Knievel, Bryan, et al. |

7 | A simple, efficient solution of flux–profile relationships in the atmospheric surface layer. - Pleim - 2006 |

6 |
2004: First Guess at Appropriate Time
- Lee, Barker, et al.
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...hic//cyclostrophic balance constraint defined in Barker et al. (2003). 9.2.4 First Guess at Appropriate Time (FGAT) A First Guess at Appropriate Time (FGAT) procedure has been implemented in WRF-Var (=-=Lee et al., 2004-=-). The FGAT capability results in a more accurate calculation of innovation vectors (observation minus first guess difference), and hence a better use of observations when their valid time differs fro... |

5 | 2006: Current status of urban modeling in the community Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model - Chen, Tewari, et al. |

5 | et al., 2004: Description of the NCAR - Collins |

5 | 2001: NAVDAS: Formulation and - Daley, Barker |

4 | Hassiotis (2008), An upper gravity wave absorbing layer for NWP applications - Klemp, Dudhia, et al. |

4 | 2006: Intercomparison of bulk microphysics schemes in mesoscale simulations of springtimeArctic mixed-phase stratiform clouds - Morrison, Pinto - 1900 |

3 | 2005: Timesplitting techniques for multidimensional transport, available at http://www.mmm.ucar.edu/individual/skamarock/advect3d 2005.pdf - Skamarock |

2 | 2008: The operational mesogamma-scale analysis and forecast system of the U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command. Part 1: Overview of the modeling system, the forecast products - Egeland, Jr, et al. |

2 | 2008: Impact of cloud micrpohysics on the development of trailing stratiform precipitation in a simulated squall line: Comparison of one- and two-moment schemes - Morrison, Thompson, et al. |