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## sNN=5.02 TeV with the ATLAS (2013)

### Citations

169 | Viscosity in strongly interacting quantum field theories from black hole physics,
- Kovtun, Son, et al.
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...te the eccentricities in the initial state to the anisotropies in the final state [15, 16, 29] indicate that the η/s in the QGP produced at RHIC could be as small as the quantum lower bound of ~/4πkB =-=[30, 31]-=- 7. Figure 1.6 shows such comparisons [29] of viscous hydrodynamics calculations to minimum-bias STAR data for v2(pT) of charged hadrons [32]. The left plot shows the hydrodynamic calculations done st... |

69 | The Color Glass Condensate and High Energy Scattering
- See, Iancu, et al.
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...culations done starting from a Glauber model initial conditions [33], which best describe the data for η/s=0.08, while the right plot shows similar calculations starting from a CGC initial conditions =-=[34]-=- which best describe the data for η/s=0.16. While there is a factor of two difference from the two initial geometry models on the “best” value of η/s, however both of them indicate that η/s is very sm... |

59 | Conformal Relativistic Viscous Hydrodynamics: Applications to RHIC results at √ (sNN
- Luzum, Romatschke
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...al anisotropy get dissipated as the system expands and consequently smaller the v2. Theoretical calculations that relate the eccentricities in the initial state to the anisotropies in the final state =-=[15, 16, 29]-=- indicate that the η/s in the QGP produced at RHIC could be as small as the quantum lower bound of ~/4πkB [30, 31] 7. Figure 1.6 shows such comparisons [29] of viscous hydrodynamics calculations to mi... |

58 |
A Multidimensional Unfolding Method Based on Bayes' Theorem",
- D'Agostini
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...r. Thus, the results from the 2PC unfolding can be used to estimate systematic effects from short-range correlations. 5.1.4 Bayes unfolding In this analysis, the standard Bayesian unfolding procedure =-=[103]-=- as implemented in the RooUnfold framework [104] is used. The true distribution (“cause” or c) and the measured distribution (“effect” or e) are related via the response function A, which relates the ... |

53 |
Aad et al., The ATLAS Experiment at
- collaboration, G
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...th the solenoid and toroid magnets. The detector is nominally forward-backward symmetric, and covers 2π in azimuth. The ATLAS sub-systems and their design performance are comprehensively described in =-=[56]-=-, here only the sub-systems that are use in this work are described. They include the Inner Detector (ID), the Electromagnetic Calorimeters and the Forward Calorimeter (FCal), as well as the following... |

46 | Afanasiev et al., “Formation of dense partonic matter in relativistic nucleus–nucleus collisions at RHIC: experimental evaluation by the PHENIXCollaboration,” - Adcox, Adler, et al. - 2005 |

41 |
Lattice QCD at high temperature and density”,
- Karsch
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ange in the number of degrees of freedom from the three light pions which dominate the thermodynamics at low temperature to quarks and gluons (having much more degrees of freedom) at high temperature =-=[5]-=-. The lattice calculations shown here are done at µb = 0, and show that while the transition is sharp, it is not discontinuous, and thus is a cross-over rather than a phase transition. However at some... |

41 |
The Shear viscosity of strongly coupled N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills plasma,”
- Policastro, Son, et al.
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...te the eccentricities in the initial state to the anisotropies in the final state [15, 16, 29] indicate that the η/s in the QGP produced at RHIC could be as small as the quantum lower bound of ~/4πkB =-=[30, 31]-=- 7. Figure 1.6 shows such comparisons [29] of viscous hydrodynamics calculations to minimum-bias STAR data for v2(pT) of charged hadrons [32]. The left plot shows the hydrodynamic calculations done st... |

41 |
Glauber modeling in high-energy nuclear collisions,”
- Miller, Reygers, et al.
- 2007
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...in η/s, but also the initial geometry. In fact it has been shown that the higher the order of a harmonic, the easier it is for it to be damped out by viscous effects during the hydrodynamic expansion =-=[53]-=-. This is demonstrated in Fig. 1.10, where the final energy density distributions starting from the same initial state but evolved with ideal and viscous hydrodynamics are compared. It is seen that th... |

38 |
Viscosity Information from Relativistic Nuclear Collisions: How Perfect is the Fluid Observed at RHIC
- Romatschke, Romatschke
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...al anisotropy get dissipated as the system expands and consequently smaller the v2. Theoretical calculations that relate the eccentricities in the initial state to the anisotropies in the final state =-=[15, 16, 29]-=- indicate that the η/s in the QGP produced at RHIC could be as small as the quantum lower bound of ~/4πkB [30, 31] 7. Figure 1.6 shows such comparisons [29] of viscous hydrodynamics calculations to mi... |

29 |
Radial and elliptic flow at RHIC: Further predictions, Phys
- Huovinen, Kolb, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...IC were supportive of using hydrodynamics in describing the expansion, as the pT and KET dependence of the v2 and its ordering for the various species was well reproduced by hydrodynamic calculations =-=[28]-=-. Further the hydrodynamic calculations indicated a very low η/s values of the QGP. The larger the shear-viscosity, the more the initial anisotropy get dissipated as the system expands and consequentl... |

22 |
et al. Equation of state and QCD transition at finite temperature
- Bazavov, Bhattacharya, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... indicates the value in the ideal gas limit. The large increase in the energy dencity in the T ∼160– 190 MeV range is indicative of a crossover from a hadron-gas phase to QGP phase. Figure taken from =-=[6]-=-. which serve as baseline measurements for the heavy-ion collisions, were studied at varying collision energies per nucleon pair4 ( √ sNN=7–200 GeV). These measurements gave compelling evidence of the... |

22 |
Critical point of QCD at finite T and mu, lattice results for physical quark masses
- Fodor, Katz
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s conjectured to change into a first order phase transition, with the energy density exhibiting discontinuity at the phase boundary, implying the presence of a critical point in the QCD phase diagram =-=[7]-=-. Figure 1.1: Schematic phase-diagram of QCD matter. Solid lines indicate phase boundaries between the different phases. The solid circle indicates the critical point for the hadron-gas to QGP phase t... |

22 |
Methods for analyzing anisotropic flow in relativistic nuclear collisions,
- Poskanzer, Voloshin
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s to increase statistical precision, are used to obtain the raw vn values, which are then corrected by a factor termed event-plane resolution – which accounts for the difference between the Ψn and Φn =-=[61, 62]-=- – to obtain the true vn values. In section 3.1, the methodology of the EP method and how it is implemented in ATLAS is explained. In Sections 3.2 and 3.3 the two key steps in the EP method: the event... |

19 |
Hadron production in nuclear collisions at RHIC and high density
- Kharzeev, Nardi
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e the FCal ∑ ET distributions seen in the Pb+Pb events. The calculation assumes the number of effective proton-proton collisions per lead-lead event, N , scales according to the “two-component model” =-=[57]-=- with the number of participating nucleons (Npart) and the number of binary collisions (Ncoll) as : N = (1− x)Npart/2 + xNcoll. (2.1) where, the free parameter x controls the relative contribution of ... |

18 | Quantum chromodynamics and the theory of superdense matter,” - Shuryak - 1980 |

16 | Arsene et al., Quark gluon plasma and color glass condensate at RHIC? The perspective from the BRAHMS experiment, Nucl. Phys. A 757 (2005) 1 [nucl-ex/0410020] [INSPIRE - collaboration, I |

15 | Aad et al., Observation of a Centrality-Dependent Dijet Asymmetry - Collaboration, G - 2010 |

14 |
Collision geometry fluctuations and triangular flow in heavy-ion collisions
- Alver, Roland
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...would be present in the final particle distributions. However, the initial geometry is made up from a finite number of participating nucleons whose positions can fluctuate considerably event-by-event =-=[42]-=- leading to fluctuations in the collision geometry. Figure 1.8: Schematic diagram showing fluctuations in the initial geometry lead to a “participant eccentricity” that is not necessarily oriented alo... |

13 | Chatrchyan et al., Observation and studies of jet quenching in PbPb collisions at nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy = 2.76 TeV, arXiv:1102.1957. * Temporary entry - Collaboration, S |

13 |
Elliptic and triangular flow in event-by-event (3+1)D viscous hydrodynamics
- Schenke, Jeon, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... transverse plane for an event with bimp = 2.4 fm. The middle panel and right panels show this initial condition evolved via ideal and viscous hydrodynamics (η/s=0.16) respectively. Figure taken from =-=[50]-=-. The event-by-event fluctuations in the initial geometry, apart from generating odd harmonics, also lead to event-by-event fluctuations in the vn values themselves. In Chapter 5, these fluctuations a... |

12 |
Event-byevent anisotropic flow in heavy-ion collisions from combined Yang-Mills and viscous fluid dynamics.
- Gale, Jeon, et al.
- 2013
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...f the vEPn measured in this work to theoretical calculations starting with the IP-Glasma initial conditions [74, 75] followed by viscous hydrodynamic evolution. These comparisons have been taken from =-=[76]-=-. The comparisons show that the data are consistent with value of η/s close to 0.2 for the QGP, very close to the quantum lower bound of 0.08 (1/4π). They also indicate that the IP-Glasma model descri... |

12 |
Collective flow and viscosity in relativistic heavy-ion collisions,”
- Heinz, Snellings
- 2013
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...mid-central events (bottom panels), an almost exponential decrease with increasing n is seen. This spectra can be compared to results from model calculations of initial geometry and equation of state =-=[83, 84]-=-. 0 5 10 15 -210 -110 <1 GeVbT,p a T 0.5<p |<5η∆2<| 0-5% ATLAS =2.76 TeVNNsPb-Pbs-1bµ= 8 intL 0 5 10 15 <2 GeVb T ,pa T 1<p 0 5 10 15 <3 GeVb T ,pa T 2<p 0 5 10 15 <4 GeVb T ,pa T 3<p 0 5 10 15 -2 0 2... |

11 | Collective phenomena in non-central nuclear collisions
- Voloshin, Poskanzer, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... geometry. Figure 1.8: Schematic diagram showing fluctuations in the initial geometry lead to a “participant eccentricity” that is not necessarily oriented along the reaction plane. Figure taken from =-=[43]-=-. The idea of the presence of such fluctuations came after elliptic flow measurements in Cu+Cu collisions at RHIC in 2005 showed the presence of a fairly large v2 even in most central collisions [9]. ... |

11 |
Khachatryan et al. Observation of Long-Range Near-Side Angular Correlations in Proton-Proton Collisions at the LHC
- unknown authors
- 2010
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...lliding systems, hydrodynamic or collective phenomena are not expected to develop. Recently, the CMS Collaboration analyzed the two-particle correlations in high-multiplicity proton-proton collisions =-=[54]-=- and showed the presence of a ridge like correlation on the near-side (∆φ ∼ 0) for events that produce & 100 charged particles. Many models argue that this ridge is due to initial state effects [118–1... |

9 |
Aad et al., Charged-particle multiplicities in pp interactions at
- collaboration, G
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rove the reliability of the ID track reconstruction in the tracking environment in heavy ion collisions, the track quality requirements are more stringent than those used for proton-proton collisions =-=[59]-=-. Only tracks with pT > 0.5 GeV are used. The charged particle tracks are required to pass the following topological cuts : 1. It must have a hit in the B-layer if a hit is expected. 2. It must have a... |

9 |
et al., Azimuthal anisotropy in Au + Au collisions at s(NN)**(1/2
- Adams
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...an and proceed to evaluate the above quantities [97, 98]. Measurements of higher order multi-particle cumulants suggest that the v2 distributions are consistent with the Bessel-Gaussian distributions =-=[99, 100]-=-. However, this consistency is inferred indirectly from agreement among four-, six- and eight-particle cumulants. Direct measurements of the EbyE vn distributions, presented in this chapter can check ... |

9 |
The Eccentricity in heavy-ion collisions from color glass condensate initial conditions, Phys.Rev. C74
- Drescher, Dumitru, et al.
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...dicating the lack of mean geometry effects on the EbyE v2 distributions in very central events. The values of σvn/〈vn〉 are also compared to those obtained from the Glauber model [53] and MC-KLN model =-=[105]-=-. The comparisons to these two models are discussed in more detail in Section 5.4.2. 〉partN〈 0 100 200 300 400 〉 2v〈 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 ATLAS Pb+Pb =2.76 TeVNNs -1bµ = 7 intL |<2.5η| <1 GeV T 0.5<p >... |

8 | Quark-Gluon Plasma and Hadronic - Shuryak - 1978 |

8 |
Triangularity and Dipole Asymmetry
- Teaney, Yan
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... the initial geometry [42, 45] each with its own orientation as shown schematically in Fig. 1.9. The moments of nth order are a generalization of Eq. 1.3, their magnitude and orientation are given by =-=[46, 47]-=-: ǫn = √〈rn cosnφ〉2 + 〈rn sinnφ〉2 〈rn〉 tan(nΦ∗n) = 〈rn sinnφ〉 〈rn cosnφ〉 (1.4) Φ′n = Φ ∗ n + π/n The Φ∗n (Φ ′ n) point along the major (minor) axes of the n th order eccentricity and have a n-fold deg... |

7 | The Effects of viscosity on spectra, elliptic flow - Teaney |

7 | Adare et al., “Suppression pattern of neutral pions at high transverse momentum in Au+Au collisions at √ sNN = 200GeV and constraints on medium transport coefficients - Collaboration, A |

7 | New method for measuring azimuthal distributions in nucleus-nucleus collisions, - Borghini, Dinh, et al. - 2001 |

7 |
Event-by-event shape and flow fluctuations of relativistic heavy-ion collision fireballs
- Qiu, Heinz
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e event-by-event distributions of the harmonics v2–v4. For the lower order harmonics (n=2,3) hydrodynamic calculations have shown that the vn are strongly correlated to the ǫn in the initial geometry =-=[47, 52]-=-. Thus measurements of the event-by-event distributions of the vn give a clear insight into the nature of the fluctuations. The measurements will be shown to not only be able to test models used to de... |

7 | Effect of flow fluctuations and nonflow on elliptic flow methods, Phys.Rev. C80
- Ollitrault, Poskanzer, et al.
- 2009
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...fluctuations, as will be shown in Chapter 5. The EP results for the vn are thus dependent of the value of the resolution. It has been shown that in the limit of large and small resolution the vEPn is =-=[66, 67]-=-: vEPn = { 〈vn〉 Res{nΨn} → 1 〈√v2n〉 Res{nΨn} → 0 (3.13) 41 centrality 0-20% 20-40% 40-50% 50-70% 70-80% n=2 0.05-0.02 0.015-0.01 0.015-0.02 0.03-0.04 0.04-0.06 n=3 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03-0.05 n=4 0.04 0.... |

7 |
Fluctuating Glasma initial conditions and flow in heavy ion collisions, Phys.Rev.Lett
- Schenke, Tribedy, et al.
- 2012
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...armonics for the same η/s value. Figure 3.20 shows comparison of the centrality dependence of the vEPn measured in this work to theoretical calculations starting with the IP-Glasma initial conditions =-=[74, 75]-=- followed by viscous hydrodynamic evolution. These comparisons have been taken from [76]. The comparisons show that the data are consistent with value of η/s close to 0.2 for the QGP, very close to th... |

7 |
Event-by-event gluon multiplicity, energy density, and eccentricities in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions, Phys.Rev. C86
- Schenke, Tribedy, et al.
- 2012
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...armonics for the same η/s value. Figure 3.20 shows comparison of the centrality dependence of the vEPn measured in this work to theoretical calculations starting with the IP-Glasma initial conditions =-=[74, 75]-=- followed by viscous hydrodynamic evolution. These comparisons have been taken from [76]. The comparisons show that the data are consistent with value of η/s close to 0.2 for the QGP, very close to th... |

6 |
Adare et al., Scaling properties of azimuthal anisotropy in Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions at √ sNN = 200
- Collaboration, A
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...IX)-pi++pis(PHENIX)-+K+Ks(STAR)S0Ks(PHENIX)pp+s(STAR)Λ+Λs(STAR)+Ξ+-Ξ Figure 1.5: Elliptic flow as a function of pT and KET measured at RHIC for three meson and three baryon species. Figure taken from =-=[23]-=-. The presence of large elliptic flow in Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions was one of the major discoveries at RHIC [24–27]. Figure 1.5 shows the v2 as a function of transverse momentum pT = √ p2x + p 2 y an... |

6 | Anisotropic flow - Schenke, Jeon, et al. |

5 |
QCD in heavy ion collisions,” arXiv:1205.0579 [hep-ph
- Iancu
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e 1.4: Schematic diagram representing the different stages of a heavyion collision. The horizontal axis represents the beam-axis (z-axis), while the vertical axis represents time. Figure adapted from =-=[11]-=-. The ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions (henceforth called heavy-ion collisions) go through several successive stages before the final produced particles are measured. The various expected stage... |

5 |
Hadron spectra and elliptic flow for 200 A GeV Au+Au collisions from viscous hydrodynamics coupled to a Boltzmann cascade, Phys.Rev. C83
- Song, Bass, et al.
- 2011
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...al anisotropy get dissipated as the system expands and consequently smaller the v2. Theoretical calculations that relate the eccentricities in the initial state to the anisotropies in the final state =-=[15, 16, 29]-=- indicate that the η/s in the QGP produced at RHIC could be as small as the quantum lower bound of ~/4πkB [30, 31] 7. Figure 1.6 shows such comparisons [29] of viscous hydrodynamics calculations to mi... |

5 | et al., Evidence from d + Au measurements for final state suppression of high pT - Collaboration, Adams |

5 | Aad et al., Measurement of the jet radius and transverse momentum dependence of inclusive jet suppression in lead-lead collisions at - Collaboration, G - 2013 |

5 |
Mapping the hydrodynamic response to the initial geometry
- Gardim, Grassi, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... the initial geometry [42, 45] each with its own orientation as shown schematically in Fig. 1.9. The moments of nth order are a generalization of Eq. 1.3, their magnitude and orientation are given by =-=[46, 47]-=-: ǫn = √〈rn cosnφ〉2 + 〈rn sinnφ〉2 〈rn〉 tan(nΦ∗n) = 〈rn sinnφ〉 〈rn cosnφ〉 (1.4) Φ′n = Φ ∗ n + π/n The Φ∗n (Φ ′ n) point along the major (minor) axes of the n th order eccentricity and have a n-fold deg... |

5 |
Adare et al., Dihadron azimuthal correlations in Au+Au collisions at sqrtsNN
- Collaboration, A
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ir shape in ∆φ is centrality dependent. In most central events, namely the (0-1)% and (0-5)% centrality intervals, the away-side is relatively broad and has a double-hump structure (also seen at RHIC =-=[79]-=-). The double peak structure disappears for the (0-10)% centrality bin, where a single away-side peak is seen similar to the near-side ridge. The magnitude of this away-side ridge also increases from ... |

5 |
The Fate of the Initial State Fluctuations
- Staig, Shuryak
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...mid-central events (bottom panels), an almost exponential decrease with increasing n is seen. This spectra can be compared to results from model calculations of initial geometry and equation of state =-=[83, 84]-=-. 0 5 10 15 -210 -110 <1 GeVbT,p a T 0.5<p |<5η∆2<| 0-5% ATLAS =2.76 TeVNNsPb-Pbs-1bµ= 8 intL 0 5 10 15 <2 GeVb T ,pa T 1<p 0 5 10 15 <3 GeVb T ,pa T 2<p 0 5 10 15 <4 GeVb T ,pa T 3<p 0 5 10 15 -2 0 2... |

5 | Momentum conservation and correlation analyses in heavy-ion collisions at ultrarelativistic energies,” - Borghini - 2007 |

4 |
Alver et al. System size, energy, pseudorapidity, and centrality dependence of elliptic flow
- unknown authors
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...alysis, this minimizes artificial auto-correlations. The initial overlap geometry between the colliding nuclei has an elliptical shape (Fig. 1.3) and can be characterized by its eccentricity given by =-=[9, 10]-=-: ǫ = 〈y2〉 − 〈x2〉 〈y2〉+ 〈x2〉 (1.1) where, x and y are the transverse positions of the participating nucleons about 4 the center of mass, with the x-axis along the reaction plane, and the averaging is ... |

4 |
Adare et al., Detailed measurement of the e+e- pair continuum in p+p and Au+Au collisions at sqrtsNN=200 GeV and implications for direct photon production, Phys
- Collaboration, A
- 2010
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...not in thermal equilibrium. However the produced partons interact among themselves and reach local thermal equilibrium fairly quickly. The data suggests that the thermalization is reached by t ∼ 1 fm =-=[12, 13]-=-. 4. QGP: The thermalized QGP is produced which expands outward due to the large pressure difference inside the matter and the vacuum outside. These pressure gradients are anisotropic, due to the elli... |

4 |
Abelev et al., “Centrality dependence of charged hadron and strange hadron elliptic flow from p sNN
- Collaboration, B
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...could be as small as the quantum lower bound of ~/4πkB [30, 31] 7. Figure 1.6 shows such comparisons [29] of viscous hydrodynamics calculations to minimum-bias STAR data for v2(pT) of charged hadrons =-=[32]-=-. The left plot shows the hydrodynamic calculations done starting from a Glauber model initial conditions [33], which best describe the data for η/s=0.08, while the right plot shows similar calculatio... |

4 |
Measurement of the centrality dependence of charged particle spectra and RCP in lead-lead collisions at √ sNN
- Collaboration
- 2011
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...these variables. Due to the more stringent cuts, the tracking efficiency is lower than in p-p events. A detailed study of the tacking efficiency and fake rates for the heavy-ion data has been done in =-=[60]-=-, although with slightly different cuts. Figure 2.11 shows the pT η and centrality dependence of the tracking efficiency from that study. The efficiency drops with increasing |η|, largely due to loss ... |

4 |
Aad et al., Measurement of the azimuthal anisotropy for charged particle production
- Collaboration, G
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... comparisons demonstrate how these results can be used to constrain both η/s and to validate (or invalidate) initial geometry models. The measurements presented in this chapter have been published in =-=[63]-=-. 33 3.1 Methodology The nth order event-plane of a event defines the global azimuthal anisotropy of particles in that event, thus, it can be estimated independently using detectors situated at differ... |

4 |
et al. The importance of correlations and fluctuations on the initial source eccentricity in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions
- Alver
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...fluctuations, as will be shown in Chapter 5. The EP results for the vn are thus dependent of the value of the resolution. It has been shown that in the limit of large and small resolution the vEPn is =-=[66, 67]-=-: vEPn = { 〈vn〉 Res{nΨn} → 1 〈√v2n〉 Res{nΨn} → 0 (3.13) 41 centrality 0-20% 20-40% 40-50% 50-70% 70-80% n=2 0.05-0.02 0.015-0.01 0.015-0.02 0.03-0.04 0.04-0.06 n=3 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03-0.05 n=4 0.04 0.... |

4 |
Adare et al., Azimuthal anisotropy of neutral pion production in Au+Au collisions at √ sNN = 200 GeV: Path-length dependence of jet quenching and the role of initial geometry, Phys.Rev.Lett
- Collaboration, A
- 2010
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...namely, they first increase with pT to about 3-4 GeV, then decrease, but remain positive at the highest measured pT values (within statistical fluctuations). A similar trend was also observed at RHIC =-=[68, 69]-=-. This characteristic pT dependence is interpreted as the mechanism driving the vn changing from hydrodynamic expansion at low pT to path-length dependent energy-loss [70, 71] at high pT. The magnitud... |

4 |
et al., Azimuthal anisotropy and correlations at large transverse momenta in p + p and Au
- collaboration, Adams
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...namely, they first increase with pT to about 3-4 GeV, then decrease, but remain positive at the highest measured pT values (within statistical fluctuations). A similar trend was also observed at RHIC =-=[68, 69]-=-. This characteristic pT dependence is interpreted as the mechanism driving the vn changing from hydrodynamic expansion at low pT to path-length dependent energy-loss [70, 71] at high pT. The magnitud... |

4 |
et al., “Azimuthal anisotropy at RHIC: The first and fourth harmonics,” Phys
- Collaboration, Adams
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...larger n, except in most central bins where the v3 and v4 become larger than v2 at sufficiently high pT. Previous RHIC measurements have shown that v 1/4 4 /v 1/2 2 is approximately independent of pT =-=[72, 73]-=-. Figure 3.18 shows a generalized version of this scaling : v 1/n n /v 1/2 2 vs. pT for several centrality intervals. The ratios vary weakly with pT except in the 5% most central events, indicating th... |

3 | et al. Flow measurements via two particle azimuthal correlations - Adcox |

3 |
Cross Sections in Deuterium at High Energies. Phys. Rev
- Glauber
- 1955
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...iscous hydrodynamics calculations to minimum-bias STAR data for v2(pT) of charged hadrons [32]. The left plot shows the hydrodynamic calculations done starting from a Glauber model initial conditions =-=[33]-=-, which best describe the data for η/s=0.08, while the right plot shows similar calculations starting from a CGC initial conditions [34] which best describe the data for η/s=0.16. While there is a fac... |

3 | Adare et al., Transverse momentum dependence of J/ψ polarization at mid-rapidity in p+p collisions at √ s =200 GeV - Collaboration, A - 912 |

3 |
Elliptic flow in the Gaussian model of eccentricity fluctuations, Phys
- Voloshin, Poskanzer, et al.
- 2008
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...the concept of “participant eccentricity” where the eccentricity ǫpart was defined using the configuration of the participating nucleons as shown in Fig. 1.8 rather than along the impact parameter as =-=[44]-=-: ǫpart = √ (〈y2〉 − 〈x2〉)2 + 〈2xy〉2 〈y2〉+ 〈x2〉 = √〈r2 cos 2φ〉2 + 〈r2 sin 2φ〉2 〈r2〉 tan(2Φ∗part) = 〈2xy〉 〈y2〉 − 〈x2〉 = 〈r2 sin 2φ〉 〈r2 cos 2φ〉 (1.3) 10 where r and φ refer to the transverse positions o... |

3 | Anisotropic flow from Lee-Yang zeroes: A Practical guide
- Borghini, Bhalerao, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ons produce eventby event variations in the initial density. Since then a variety of experimental methods that are sensitive to fluctuations, such as multi-particle cumulants [48] and Lee-Yang Zeroes =-=[49]-=-, have come to the forefront of flow measurements10. Similarly on the theoretical side event-by-event hydrodynamical simulations have replaced the older method of using single-shot hydrodynamics over ... |

3 |
Aad et al., Measurement of the centrality dependence of the charged particle pseudorapidity distribution in lead-lead collisions at√ sNN
- Collaboration, G
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...7 76.1± 3.5 Centrality 50–55% 55–60% 60–65% 65–70% 70–75% 〈Npart〉 59.9± 3.3 46.1± 3.0 34.7± 2.7 25.4± 2.3 18± 2 Table 2.1: 〈Npart〉 for different centrality intervals, estimated from the Glauber model =-=[58]-=-. 28 Track selections To improve the reliability of the ID track reconstruction in the tracking environment in heavy ion collisions, the track quality requirements are more stringent than those used f... |

3 | On the measurement of azimuthal anisotropies in nucleus-nucleus collisions,” arXiv:nucl-ex/9711003 [nucl-ex - Ollitrault |

3 |
et al. Proton and pion production relative to the reaction plane in au + au collisions at 11a gev/c
- Barrette
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...hat this is a detector effect and is different than the resolution Res{nΨn} which by definition, was statistical in origin. In order to account for detector effects a recentering-flattening technique =-=[64, 65]-=- is used, which is described in detail in Appendix A.1.4. Figure 3.3 shows the normalized distributions for the orientation of the Ψn for n=2-4, both before and after the corrections are implemented. ... |

3 |
Abelev et al., “Long range rapidity correlations and jet production in high energy nuclear collisions
- Collaboration, B
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... short-range correlations with decreasing centrality. In central and mid-central events, a long range correlation along ∆η at ∆φ = 0 is observed. This long range correlation was also observed at RHIC =-=[77, 78]-=- and is called the ridge. The ridge amplitude increases from central to mid-central collisions, reaching a peak at around the (30-40)% centrality interval, and then decreases for peripheral events. Th... |

3 |
Are flow measurements at
- Borghini, Dinh, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ase can also be seen for higher order vn). In principle, the v1 can be calculated from v1,1. However v1,1 is affected by global momentum conservation effects and which break the factorization Eq. 4.9 =-=[81, 82]-=-, resulting in v1,1 often becoming negative, even for fixed-pT correlations. The v1,1 are studied separately Section 4.5. However, the breakdown of the factorization is demonstrated here. The negative... |

3 | Directed flow at midrapidity in heavy-ion collisions - Luzum, Ollitrault |

3 |
Directed flow at mid-rapidity in event-by-event hydrodynamics, Phys.Rev. C83
- Gardim, Grassi, et al.
- 2011
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...pical v1,1 values seen in the data (see below). The η-even v1 signal is believed to arise from the “dipole asymmetry” of the nuclear overlap region due to initial spatial fluctuations of the nucleons =-=[46, 87]-=-. This spatial asymmetry results in a left-right asymmetry of the pressure gradient, which drives the collective v1. If the rapidity-even v1 depends weakly on η similar to the higher-order flow, then ... |

3 |
et al. Energy dependence of directed flow over a wide range of pseudorapidity in au+au collisions at the bnl relativistic heavy ion collider
- Back
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rally separated into a η-odd and η-even components2. The η-odd v1 is believed to arise from the “sidewards deflection” of the colliding ions [43], and changes sign going from negative η to positive η =-=[89, 90]-=-. However this η-odd v1 is measured to be less than 0.5% for |η| < 2 at the LHC [91]. The resulting contribution to v1,1 is expected to be < 2.5 × 10−5, much smaller than the typical v1,1 values seen ... |

3 |
Abelev et al., Anisotropic flow of charged hadrons, pions and (anti-)protons measured at high transverse momentum
- Collaboration, B
- 2013
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... (5.6) which gives: σvn 〈vn〉 = √ 4 π − 1 = 0.523, √ 〈v2n〉 = 2√ π 〈vn〉 = 1.13〈vn〉 . (5.7) The quantities 〈vn〉, σvn , √ 〈v2n〉, σvn/〈vn〉, vRPn and δvn , have been extensively studied both experimentally =-=[66, 95, 96]-=- and in theoretical models [44, 67, 93]. Typically the fluctuation measurements are done using twoand four-particle multi-particle cumulants, which assume that the distributions are Bessel-Gaussian an... |

3 |
Disentangling flow and non-flow correlations via Bayesian unfolding of the event-by-event distributions of harmonic coefficients in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions, arXiv:1304.1471 [nucl-ex
- Jia, Mohapatra
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...stematic studies however the analysis is also done with the analytic response function Eq. 5.16. The two-subevent method discussed here to obtain the response function has been studied extensively in =-=[102]-=-, where it was shown that unfolding using this response function not only removes statistical fluctuations, but also removes non-flow effects that are uncorrelated between the two subevents. 5.1.3 Unf... |

2 | The Pressure in two flavor - Karsch, Laermann, et al. |

2 |
Early thermalization at RHIC, Nucl.Phys. A702
- Heinz, Kolb
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...not in thermal equilibrium. However the produced partons interact among themselves and reach local thermal equilibrium fairly quickly. The data suggests that the thermalization is reached by t ∼ 1 fm =-=[12, 13]-=-. 4. QGP: The thermalized QGP is produced which expands outward due to the large pressure difference inside the matter and the vacuum outside. These pressure gradients are anisotropic, due to the elli... |

2 | et al., Dense-Medium Modifications to Jet-Induced Hadron - Collaboration, Adler |

2 | et al., Elliptic flow - Collaboration, Ackermann |

2 | et al. Production of ω mesons - Adare, Afanasiev, et al. - 2011 |

2 |
High p(T) azimuthal asymmetry
- Gyulassy, Vitev, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...as also observed at RHIC [68, 69]. This characteristic pT dependence is interpreted as the mechanism driving the vn changing from hydrodynamic expansion at low pT to path-length dependent energy-loss =-=[70, 71]-=- at high pT. The magnitude of the vn decrease for larger n, except in most central bins where the v3 and v4 become larger than v2 at sufficiently high pT. Previous RHIC measurements have shown that v ... |

2 |
Fourier Harmonics of High-pT Particles Probing the Fluctuating
- Betz, Gyulassy, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...as also observed at RHIC [68, 69]. This characteristic pT dependence is interpreted as the mechanism driving the vn changing from hydrodynamic expansion at low pT to path-length dependent energy-loss =-=[70, 71]-=- at high pT. The magnitude of the vn decrease for larger n, except in most central bins where the v3 and v4 become larger than v2 at sufficiently high pT. Previous RHIC measurements have shown that v ... |

2 |
Alver et al., “High transverse momentum triggered correlations over a large pseudorapidity acceptance
- Collaboration, B
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... short-range correlations with decreasing centrality. In central and mid-central events, a long range correlation along ∆η at ∆φ = 0 is observed. This long range correlation was also observed at RHIC =-=[77, 78]-=- and is called the ridge. The ridge amplitude increases from central to mid-central collisions, reaching a peak at around the (30-40)% centrality interval, and then decreases for peripheral events. Th... |

2 |
Effects of momentum conservation on the analysis of anisotropic flow
- Borghini, Dinh, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ase can also be seen for higher order vn). In principle, the v1 can be calculated from v1,1. However v1,1 is affected by global momentum conservation effects and which break the factorization Eq. 4.9 =-=[81, 82]-=-, resulting in v1,1 often becoming negative, even for fixed-pT correlations. The v1,1 are studied separately Section 4.5. However, the breakdown of the factorization is demonstrated here. The negative... |

2 | A study of the anisotropy associated with dipole asymmetry in heavy ion collisions,” arXiv:1203.3410 [nucl-th - Jia, Radhakrishnan, et al. |

2 |
Abelev et. al., System-size independence of directed flow at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider, Phys.Rev.Lett
- Collaboration, B
- 2008
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rally separated into a η-odd and η-even components2. The η-odd v1 is believed to arise from the “sidewards deflection” of the colliding ions [43], and changes sign going from negative η to positive η =-=[89, 90]-=-. However this η-odd v1 is measured to be less than 0.5% for |η| < 2 at the LHC [91]. The resulting contribution to v1,1 is expected to be < 2.5 × 10−5, much smaller than the typical v1,1 values seen ... |

2 |
Charged particle directed flow in Pb-Pb collisions at√ sNN = 2.76 TeV measured with ALICE at the LHC, J.Phys. G38
- Selyuzhenkov
- 2011
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rom the “sidewards deflection” of the colliding ions [43], and changes sign going from negative η to positive η [89, 90]. However this η-odd v1 is measured to be less than 0.5% for |η| < 2 at the LHC =-=[91]-=-. The resulting contribution to v1,1 is expected to be < 2.5 × 10−5, much smaller than the typical v1,1 values seen in the data (see below). The η-even v1 signal is believed to arise from the “dipole ... |

2 |
Transverse momentum spectra of identified charged hadrons with the ALICE detector
- Collaboration
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...centrality interval. Since 〈p2T〉 for the whole event is expected to vary weakly with centrality (the 〈pT〉 for charged pions at mid-rapidity only varies by ∼ 5% within 0-50% centrality interval at LHC =-=[92]-=-), then the product should also vary weakly with centrality. Table 4.3 show that this is indeed the case, qualitatively supporting the assumptions underlying Eq. 4.11. Centrality χ2/DOF c(0.001GeV−2) ... |

2 |
Eccentricity fluctuations and elliptic flow at
- Bhalerao, Ollitrault
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...pecially v1 and v3 indicate the presence of considerable event-by-event (EbyE) fluctuations in the shape of the initial geometry. Such fluctuations have been a topic of considerable theoretical study =-=[44, 93]-=-. Calculations based on the Glauber model have shown that fluctuations in the eccentricity vectors ǫn are well described by 2D-Gaussian distributions about a mean eccentricity vector ǫRPn which lies a... |

2 |
Fluctuating initial conditions in heavy-ion collisions from the Glauber approach
- Broniowski, Bozek, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...n δ2 vn e−v 2 n /(2δ2vn ), (5.5) where, the fact that I0(0) = 1 has been used. This is the “fluctuation-only” scenario, i.e. vRPn = 0. In this case, both the mean and the width are determined by δ vn =-=[94]-=-: 〈vn〉 = √ π 2 δ vn , σvn = √ 2− π 2 δ vn , (5.6) which gives: σvn 〈vn〉 = √ 4 π − 1 = 0.523, √ 〈v2n〉 = 2√ π 〈vn〉 = 1.13〈vn〉 . (5.7) The quantities 〈vn〉, σvn , √ 〈v2n〉, σvn/〈vn〉, vRPn and δvn , have be... |

2 |
Alver et al., “Event-by-Event Fluctuations of Azimuthal Particle Anisotropy in Au + Au Collisions at p sNN
- Collaboration, B
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... (5.6) which gives: σvn 〈vn〉 = √ 4 π − 1 = 0.523, √ 〈v2n〉 = 2√ π 〈vn〉 = 1.13〈vn〉 . (5.7) The quantities 〈vn〉, σvn , √ 〈v2n〉, σvn/〈vn〉, vRPn and δvn , have been extensively studied both experimentally =-=[66, 95, 96]-=- and in theoretical models [44, 67, 93]. Typically the fluctuation measurements are done using twoand four-particle multi-particle cumulants, which assume that the distributions are Bessel-Gaussian an... |

2 | Anisotropic flow at the LHC measured with the ALICE detector
- Snellings
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...pically the fluctuation measurements are done using twoand four-particle multi-particle cumulants, which assume that the distributions are Bessel-Gaussian and proceed to evaluate the above quantities =-=[97, 98]-=-. Measurements of higher order multi-particle cumulants suggest that the v2 distributions are consistent with the Bessel-Gaussian distributions [99, 100]. However, this consistency is inferred indirec... |

2 |
Aad et al., “Measurement of the distributions of event-by-event flow harmonics in lead-lead collisions at
- Collaboration, G
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...atic uncertainties are done. The final results as well as comparison to theoretical models are presented in Section 5.4. The measurements presented in this chapter have been submitted for publication =-=[101]-=-. 5.1 Methodology 5.1.1 Observed single particle EbyE distributions The top panels of Figure 5.1 show the azimuthal distribution of reconstructed charged tracks with pT above 0.5 GeV and |η| < 2.5 in ... |

1 |
Long Range Plan: The Frontiers of Nuclear Science, Report to the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee
- T
- 2007
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...d circle indicates the critical point for the hadron-gas to QGP phase transition. Note that the existence of a critical point is conjectured, its existence has not been established. Figure taken from =-=[8]-=-. 1.1 Recreating QGP in the laboratory via relativistic heavy-ion collisions The QGP phase is believed to be the state of the universe a few micro-seconds after the Big-Bang, when the energy density a... |

1 |
Elliptic flow and hanbury-brown˘twiss correlations in noncentral nuclear collisions,” Phys
- Heiselberg, Levy
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...alysis, this minimizes artificial auto-correlations. The initial overlap geometry between the colliding nuclei has an elliptical shape (Fig. 1.3) and can be characterized by its eccentricity given by =-=[9, 10]-=-: ǫ = 〈y2〉 − 〈x2〉 〈y2〉+ 〈x2〉 (1.1) where, x and y are the transverse positions of the participating nucleons about 4 the center of mass, with the x-axis along the reaction plane, and the averaging is ... |

1 |
φ-Meson Production as a Probe of the Quark-Gluon Plasma,” Phys
- Shor
- 1985
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...es, having large and small cross-sections, indicated that flow developed at a partonic stage. For example, the φ meson is expected to have a small hadronic cross-section, as compared to other hadrons =-=[35]-=-. Thus if flow originated in a hadronic phase, the φ meson would have a much smaller v2 than the other hadrons (p, π). Large v2 for the φ meson measured at RHIC [36] thus provided compelling evidence ... |

1 |
Afanasiev et al., “Elliptic flow for phi mesons and (anti)deuterons
- Collaboration, S
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tion, as compared to other hadrons [35]. Thus if flow originated in a hadronic phase, the φ meson would have a much smaller v2 than the other hadrons (p, π). Large v2 for the φ meson measured at RHIC =-=[36]-=- thus provided compelling evidence of flow developing in a partonic phase. The second important property of the QGP discovered at RHIC was its opaqueness to high pT particles passing thought it. Figur... |

1 | Adare et al., “Identified charged hadron production in p+ p collisions at - Collaboration, A |

1 | Afanasiev et al., “Measurement of Direct Photons - Collaboration, S |

1 |
Afanasiev et al., “Systematic Studies of Elliptic Flow Measurements
- Collaboration, S
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...hat this is a detector effect and is different than the resolution Res{nΨn} which by definition, was statistical in origin. In order to account for detector effects a recentering-flattening technique =-=[64, 65]-=- is used, which is described in detail in Appendix A.1.4. Figure 3.3 shows the normalized distributions for the orientation of the Ψn for n=2-4, both before and after the corrections are implemented. ... |

1 |
Adare et al., “Elliptic and hexadecapole flow of charged hadrons
- Collaboration, A
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...larger n, except in most central bins where the v3 and v4 become larger than v2 at sufficiently high pT. Previous RHIC measurements have shown that v 1/4 4 /v 1/2 2 is approximately independent of pT =-=[72, 73]-=-. Figure 3.18 shows a generalized version of this scaling : v 1/n n /v 1/2 2 vs. pT for several centrality intervals. The ratios vary weakly with pT except in the 5% most central events, indicating th... |

1 |
Conical flow induced by quenched QCD jets,” J.Phys.Conf.Ser
- Casalderrey-Solana, Shuryak, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nergy lost by quenched jets. In fact, the double-hump structure the away-side in most central events was initially interpreted as the result of shock-waves produced in the medium by the away-side jet =-=[80]-=-. It will be shown in Section 4.4.4 that these structures are accounted for by collective flow. That the ridge and awayside double-hump structure can arise from collective flow was first pointed out i... |

1 |
Measurement of the elliptic flow with multi-particle cumulants in lead-lead collisions at √ sNN
- Collaboration
- 2012
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...pically the fluctuation measurements are done using twoand four-particle multi-particle cumulants, which assume that the distributions are Bessel-Gaussian and proceed to evaluate the above quantities =-=[97, 98]-=-. Measurements of higher order multi-particle cumulants suggest that the v2 distributions are consistent with the Bessel-Gaussian distributions [99, 100]. However, this consistency is inferred indirec... |

1 |
Anisotropic flow of charged particles at √ sNN=2.76 TeV measured with the ALICE detector,” J.Phys. G38
- Collaboration, Bilandzic
- 2011
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...an and proceed to evaluate the above quantities [97, 98]. Measurements of higher order multi-particle cumulants suggest that the v2 distributions are consistent with the Bessel-Gaussian distributions =-=[99, 100]-=-. However, this consistency is inferred indirectly from agreement among four-, six- and eight-particle cumulants. Direct measurements of the EbyE vn distributions, presented in this chapter can check ... |