### Citations

1748 |
Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles
- Bohren, Huffman
- 1983
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...or water droplets, Mie-theory can be used forsthe calculation of single droplet radiative properties. Free subroutinessperforming these Mie-calculations are available for use in the radiationssolvers =-=[101, 102]-=-. The integration over the spectrum and droplet sizesdistribution must be performed in the model. The second challenge is thescomputation of the scattering integral. The first approximation is to uses... |

905 |
A comparison of three methods for selecting values of input variables in the analysis of output from a computer code
- McKay, Beckman, et al.
- 1979
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...fire safety projects at VTT, the computational tools weresimplemented in Probabilistic Fire Simulator (PFS) software [26]. For efficiencysreasons, MC is often performed using Latin Hypercube Sampling =-=[27, 28]-=- rathersthan simple random sampling.sIn fire safety engineering, MC simulations can be used for at least two purposes:sintegration over the statistical distributions to deduce the probability, and for... |

625 |
The Monte Carlo method
- Metropolis, Ulam
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...d occur under these uncertainties [21]. The term Monte Carlo refers to thesapplication of probabilistic thinking in the computation of the probability of assuccessful outcome of a game of solitaire =-=[22]-=-. A guide for using MC in thesquantitative risk analysis has been written by Vose [23]. Examples of the use ofs20sMC simulations in the PSA work are found in the articles of Hofer and his coauthors [2... |

528 |
Computational Methods for Fluid Dynamics
- FERZIGER, PERIĆ
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...state or quasi steady state solution for thesequations. Time dependent flows can be solved as long as the time scale of thesmean flow is large compared to the time scale of the turbulent fluctuations =-=[64]-=-.sIn LES, the time averaging is not performed, and the solutions can be consideredsaccurate in time, meaning that the variations in the solution correspond to thesmotions resolvable by the numerical... |

384 |
Thermal radiation heat transfer
- Siegel, Howell
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...he fuel type andsthe fire diameter [93]. Due to the important role that the radiation plays in fires,sall the fire CFD models have a radiation model that solves the radiation transportsequation (RTE) =-=[94, 95]-=-s[ ] 44444 34444 21 44344214444 34444 2143421 scattering-in 4 sourceesmission nattenuatio of ratechange of rate ')',()',( 4 )( ),()(),()()(),( ΩΦ+ ++−=∇⋅ ∫ dI III b sxssx xxsxxxsxs λ π λ λλλλλ π σ λκσ... |

306 |
Calculation Procedure for Heat, Mass and Momentum Transfer in Three Dimensional Parabolic Flows”,International
- Patankar, Spalding
- 1972
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...r was written, it was widely acceptedsthat the proper method for low speed turbulent flow was RANS using an eddysviscosity turbulence model such as the k-ε model, SIMPLE pressure correctionsalgorithm =-=[59]-=- or some of its variants, and the various sub-models like EddysBreak-Up [60] for combustion. However, in a few years, due to faster computerssand specialized algorithms, Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is... |

263 |
A Guide to Monte Carlo Simulations in Statistical Physics, 3rd edition
- Landau, Binder
- 2009
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...d computers. An introduction to the mathematicalsaspects of MC simulations can be found in [45]. Several textbook levelsreferences can be found on the use of MC simulation in physics, for example sees=-=[46]-=-, and in risk analysis [21, 23]. Only a short description of the technique issgiven here, with an emphasis on the specific application to fire safety.sThe question set by the PRA process is usually th... |

176 |
Large sample properties of simulations using latin hypercube sampling
- Stein
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...les from n dimensional space. LHSswill decrease the variance of the integral in equation (2) relative to the simplesrandom sampling whenever the sample size N is larger than the number ofsvariables n =-=[48]-=-. However, the amount of reduction increases with the degree ofsadditivity in the random quantities on which the function being simulatedsdepends. In fire simulations, the simulation result may often ... |

151 |
An Introduction to Fire Dynamics,
- Drysdale
- 1985
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ence result is obtained by performing a full MCsanalysis using the same model that is used as a basis for the scaling functions,si.e. Model B.sIn the first validation test, Alperts ceiling jet model =-=[55]-=- (Model A) and CFASTstwo-zone model (Model B) were used to predict the ceiling jet temperaturesunder the ceiling of a 10 m × 10 m × 5 m (height) room with a fire in the middlesof the floor. The room h... |

151 |
On the partial difference equations of mathematical physics
- Courant, Friedrichs, et al.
- 1967
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ijkijk uxt /min ∆<∆s(7)swhere ∆x and u are the grid cell size and velocity, respectively, and thesminimum is found over the whole domain. Equation (7) is called CourantFriedrichs-Lewy (CFL) condition =-=[65, 66]-=- according to the German mathematiciansswho invented it in 1928 well before modern computers. In LES, the filtering issperformed in space, although the actual filtering is usually limited to the len... |

139 |
On Mathematical Modelling of Turbulent Combustion with Special Emphasis
- Magnussen, Hjertager
- 1976
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...urbulent flow was RANS using an eddysviscosity turbulence model such as the k-ε model, SIMPLE pressure correctionsalgorithm [59] or some of its variants, and the various sub-models like EddysBreak-Up =-=[60]-=- for combustion. However, in a few years, due to faster computerssand specialized algorithms, Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is now considered bysmany to be the preferable technique to study fire-driven ... |

133 |
Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques for use in performance assessment for radioactive waste disposal, Reliability Engineering & Systems Safety
- Helton
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...fire safety projects at VTT, the computational tools weresimplemented in Probabilistic Fire Simulator (PFS) software [26]. For efficiencysreasons, MC is often performed using Latin Hypercube Sampling =-=[27, 28]-=- rathersthan simple random sampling.sIn fire safety engineering, MC simulations can be used for at least two purposes:sintegration over the statistical distributions to deduce the probability, and for... |

93 |
Quantitative Risk Analysis: A Guide to Monte Carlo Simulation Modelling.
- Vose
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...on of probabilistic thinking in the computation of the probability of assuccessful outcome of a game of solitaire [22]. A guide for using MC in thesquantitative risk analysis has been written by Vose =-=[23]-=-. Examples of the use ofs20sMC simulations in the PSA work are found in the articles of Hofer and his coauthors [24, 25]. In Paper I of this thesis, a similar approach was chosen toscompute the compon... |

80 | Uintah: A massively parallel problem solving environment
- Germain, McCorquodale, et al.
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ressimulations would increase the computational cost considerably. One of the fews42scompressible fire codes is the Uintah Computational Framework developed at CSAFE project of the University of Utah =-=[87]-=-.sIn RANS simulations, the boundary layers have traditionally been handled usingsthe wall functions which assume the logarithmic velocity profile on the wall. Inssimple applications of the process ind... |

68 |
Introduction to Probability and Statistics: Principles and Applications for Engineering and the Computing Sciences. Third Edition
- Arnold, Milton
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nsive to evaluate, the computational cost of the MC simulation may becomesvery high. For large N, the error of the simple random sampling (SRS) decreasessas N/1saccording to the central limit theorem =-=[47]-=-. The convergence rate ofsthe simulation can be improved by using sampling schemes that have smallersvariance than SRS. Examples of more advanced sampling schemes are the use ofsquasi-random numbers, ... |

62 |
A Finite-Volume Method for Predicting a Radiant Heat Transfer in Enclosures with Participating Media,"
- Raithby, Chui
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... for small fires. However, the model did not function well for largesfires or fires approaching flashover, and a new radiation heat transfer solver wassbased on the finite volume method for radiation =-=[57]-=-, as described in the paperssIIIV of the thesis.s38s5. Fire modelling using ComputationalsFluid Dynamicss5.1 Scope of the reviewsThe purpose of this section is to review the aspects of the physical a... |

53 | Ten Questions Concerning the Large-Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Flows
- Pope
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ons involving separation and reattachment.sSimilar sub-grid scale wall functions can be derived for LES, or the effect ofsthe wall can be taken into account in the sub-grid scale model of viscosity =-=[88]-=-.sCurrently, FDS does not include any wall functions. Only an adjustment of thesslip-velocity and simple heat transfer coefficient correlations are used. In theirscomparison of measured and predicted ... |

51 |
Treatment of Uncertainty in Performance Assessments for Complex Ssytems
- Helton
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ed to compute probabilities of individual predefined events or a general relation between the probability and the hazardsseverity, in which case the results can be conveniently presented as FN-curvess=-=[15, 16, 17]-=-. In FN-curves, the probability of an event is plotted against thesseverity measure of the event, such as number of fatalities. The role of the firesstatistics as a source of information for risk anal... |

50 | Radiative Transfer and Interaction with Conduction and Convection, - Ozisik - 1973 |

49 |
Lectures on Monte Carlo Methods
- Madras
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...f firessMonte Carlo (MC) simulation is a method of performing numerical experimentssusing random numbers and computers. An introduction to the mathematicalsaspects of MC simulations can be found in =-=[45]-=-. Several textbook levelsreferences can be found on the use of MC simulation in physics, for example sees[46], and in risk analysis [21, 23]. Only a short description of the technique issgiven here, w... |

36 |
Fire Dynamics Simulator (Version 5) User’s Guide”. NIST Special Publication 1019-5,. Available At: Http://www.Fire.Nist.Gov/Fds/
- Mcgrattan, Mcdermott, et al.
- 2010
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...erssand specialized algorithms, Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is now considered bysmany to be the preferable technique to study fire-driven flows. LES technique issused in Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) =-=[61, 62]-=-, which was made publiclysavailable in the year 2000. For FDS users, the article of Cox and Kumarsprovides very little guidance, although there is no fundamental differencesbetween RANS and LES, other... |

33 |
A New Radiation Solution Method for Incorporation in General Combustion Prediction Procedures,"
- Lockwood, Shah
- 1981
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rly smooth.sThe six-flux model in turn is related to the use of Cartesian grid system; thesintensity is solved in the six co-ordinate directions. The ray tracing models suchsas Discrete Transfer (DT) =-=[96]-=- are theoretically good for fires but may becomescomputationally expensive. In DT, RTE is integrated along the imaginary linessof sight, or rays, starting from the boundaries of the domain. The flux m... |

29 |
Large Eddy simulations of smoke movement,”
- McGrattan, Baum, et al.
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...re simulation has been studied extensively. Early validation ofsFDS predecessor was performed by comparing simulations against salt watersexperiments [77, 78, 79], fire plumes [80, 81] and room fires =-=[82]-=-. More recently,sFDS code has been validated for fire plumes [83] and fires in enclosures in thescontext of the World Trade Center investigation [84, 85] and the fire modelsvalidation project sponsore... |

28 |
An Approximate Epistemic Uncertainty Analysis Approach in the Presence of Epistemic and Aleatory Uncertainties,” Reliab.
- Hofer, Kloos, et al.
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...neering, MC simulations can be used for at least two purposes:sintegration over the statistical distributions to deduce the probability, and forspropagation of uncertainty [29]. However, Hofer et al. =-=[30, 31]-=- have shown thatsthe separation of these two purposes is not necessary since both sources ofsrandomness can be taken into account within the same single-stage MC. The fastsincrease of computational re... |

27 | An updated international survey of computer models for fire and smoke,”
- Olenick, Carpenter
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... possibilities wouldsbe the type of radiation model, availability, price, user interface and hardwaresrequirement. All these aspects have been discussed in the review article ofsOlenick and Carpenter =-=[63]-=-.s39s5.2 Physical modelss5.2.1 Fluid dynamicssThe core of any CFD model is its Navier-Stokes solver. The numerical solutionsof these equations is considered by many to be a "mature" field because it h... |

25 |
Fire Dynamics Simulator (Version 5): Technical Reference Guide.
- McDermott, McGrattan, et al.
- 2010
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...erssand specialized algorithms, Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is now considered bysmany to be the preferable technique to study fire-driven flows. LES technique issused in Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) =-=[61, 62]-=-, which was made publiclysavailable in the year 2000. For FDS users, the article of Cox and Kumarsprovides very little guidance, although there is no fundamental differencesbetween RANS and LES, other... |

21 |
Mie scattering calculations: Advances in technique and fast, vector-speed computer codes,”
- Wiscombe
- 1979
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...or water droplets, Mie-theory can be used forsthe calculation of single droplet radiative properties. Free subroutinessperforming these Mie-calculations are available for use in the radiationssolvers =-=[101, 102]-=-. The integration over the spectrum and droplet sizesdistribution must be performed in the model. The second challenge is thescomputation of the scattering integral. The first approximation is to uses... |

17 |
A Technical Reference for CFAST: An Engineering Tool for Estimating Fire and Smoke Transport
- Jones, Forney, et al.
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...g the performance-based design of large buildings and ships. Insaddition to the actual Monte Carlo simulations, PFS can be used as an interfacesfor several fire models: Fire Dynamics Simulator, CFAST =-=[51]-=-, Ozone [52,53]sand OptiMist [54].sPFS tool is implemented as a Microsoft Excel workbook including internals(Visual Basic) and external (Fortran DLL) subroutines for statistics andsinterfacing with th... |

17 |
Three Dimensional Simulations of Fire Plume Dynamics
- Baum, McGrattan, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...y of LESstechnique in fire simulation has been studied extensively. Early validation ofsFDS predecessor was performed by comparing simulations against salt watersexperiments [77, 78, 79], fire plumes =-=[80, 81]-=- and room fires [82]. More recently,sFDS code has been validated for fire plumes [83] and fires in enclosures in thescontext of the World Trade Center investigation [84, 85] and the fire modelsvalidat... |

14 | Fire safety designs based on calculations: uncertainty analysis and safety verification. Fire Safety J
- SE, Frantzich, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ..., Monte Carlo simulations have been used for instance tosmodel the risks to human life due to PCB-contaminated oil fires [32] andsbuilding fires [33], to model fires at dwellings [34], assembly halls =-=[35]-=- andsoffice buildings [36] and the probability of fire deaths due to toxic gassinhalations [37]. Computer tools such as CRISP [38, 34, 36] and CESARERISK [37, 39] that include the possibility for MC s... |

13 |
Sensitivity analysis in the context of uncertainty analysis for computationally intensive models”,
- Hofer
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...put variables. For this reason, we cannot expect thatsLHS would drastically decrease the variances of the probability integrals.sProblems related to LHS with small sample sizes are discussed by Hofer =-=[49]-=- asswell as by Pebesma & Heuvelink [50].s2.2 Two-Model Monte Carlo simulationssThe numerical simulation of the complicated physical processes is alwaysstrading between the desired accuracy of the resu... |

12 |
Fire-Driven Flows in Enclosures
- McGrattan, Rehm, et al.
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ire modelling, the accuracy of LESstechnique in fire simulation has been studied extensively. Early validation ofsFDS predecessor was performed by comparing simulations against salt watersexperiments =-=[77, 78, 79]-=-, fire plumes [80, 81] and room fires [82]. More recently,sFDS code has been validated for fire plumes [83] and fires in enclosures in thescontext of the World Trade Center investigation [84, 85] and ... |

10 |
Fire Induced Flow Field—Theory and Experiment
- Baum, McCaffrey
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...y of LESstechnique in fire simulation has been studied extensively. Early validation ofsFDS predecessor was performed by comparing simulations against salt watersexperiments [77, 78, 79], fire plumes =-=[80, 81]-=- and room fires [82]. More recently,sFDS code has been validated for fire plumes [83] and fires in enclosures in thescontext of the World Trade Center investigation [84, 85] and the fire modelsvalidat... |

9 |
Utilisation of Statistics to Assess Fire Risks in Building, Dissertation for the Degree of Doctor of Science in
- Tillander
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...t thesseverity measure of the event, such as number of fatalities. The role of the firesstatistics as a source of information for risk analysis has been studied at VTT bysTillander and Keski-Rahkonen =-=[18,19]-=-. The importance of the fire statistics wassrecently discussed by Sekizawa [20].sThe practical technique for the combination of deterministic fire models to thesprobabilistic treatment of model variab... |

9 |
J.G.: Numerical simulation of axi-symmetric fire plumes: accuracy and limitations.
- Ma, Quintiere
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...DS predecessor was performed by comparing simulations against salt watersexperiments [77, 78, 79], fire plumes [80, 81] and room fires [82]. More recently,sFDS code has been validated for fire plumes =-=[83]-=- and fires in enclosures in thescontext of the World Trade Center investigation [84, 85] and the fire modelsvalidation project sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission [86].sVirtually all C... |

8 |
Calculations of Three Dimensional Buoyant Plumes in Enclosures
- Baum, Rehm
- 1984
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...lutions of the correspondingsequations. However, the time accuracy of LES is also essential for thesquantitative accuracy of the buoyancy driven flows. As the NIST researchessRehm and Baum have shown =-=[67]-=-, the dynamic motions or eddies aresresponsible for most of the air entrainment into the fire plumes. Since thesesmotions can not be captured by RANS, LES is usually better suited for firedriven flo... |

7 |
accident risks: An assessment for five U.S. nuclear power plants (NUREG-1150
- Severe
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...plication of PRA1 to studysthe probabilities and consequences of severe reactor accidents in commercialsNPPs was made in WASH-1400 [2] (Rassmussen report). WASH-1400 wasslater updated in NUREG-1150 =-=[3]-=-. In PRA, the fire risk analysis is performed inspieces, typically for one room or class of rooms at the time. Individual damagesprobabilities are not used directly to make judgements on the plant saf... |

7 |
Modelling enclosure fires using CFD,”
- Cox, Kumar
- 2008
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...cial types of applications, such as explosions or DirectsNumerical Simulation of combustion processes are not discussed.sIn 2002 SFPE Handbook chapter concerning the CFD Fire Modelling, Cox andsKumar =-=[58]-=- presented the principles, practices and instruction for proper use ofsCFD in fire applications, from the perspective of Reynolds-averaged NavierStokes (RANS) technique. When the chapter was written, ... |

7 |
Über die partiellen Differentialgleichungen der mathematischen Physik
- Courant, Friedrichs, et al.
- 1928
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ijkijk uxt /min ∆<∆s(7)swhere ∆x and u are the grid cell size and velocity, respectively, and thesminimum is found over the whole domain. Equation (7) is called CourantFriedrichs-Lewy (CFL) condition =-=[65, 66]-=- according to the German mathematiciansswho invented it in 1928 well before modern computers. In LES, the filtering issperformed in space, although the actual filtering is usually limited to the len... |

7 |
Verification and Validation of Selected Fire Models for Nuclear Power Plant Applications, Volume 2: Experimental Uncertainty
- Hamins, McGrattan
- 2007
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... for fire plumes [83] and fires in enclosures in thescontext of the World Trade Center investigation [84, 85] and the fire modelsvalidation project sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission =-=[86]-=-.sVirtually all CFD fire models assume incompressible flow, which is adequate instypical fire application, but should be kept in mind when dealing with highsvelocity cases and explosions. Inclusion of... |

7 |
Turbulence Statistics in a Fire Room Model by Large Eddy Simulation
- Zhang, Hamer, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...y wall functions. Only an adjustment of thesslip-velocity and simple heat transfer coefficient correlations are used. In theirscomparison of measured and predicted turbulence statistics, Zhang et al. =-=[89]-=-sshowed that even with these simple boundary treatments, FDS was able tosproduce good flows in a room scale. Naturally, new techniques must be studied tosimprove the accuracy of solid phase heat trans... |

6 | Three-dimensional simulation of a fire-resistance furnace.
- Welch, Rubini
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...LES is usually better suited for firedriven flow. LES typically requires a better spatial resolution than RANS.sExamples of RANS-based fire CFD codes are JASMINE, KAMELEON [68],sSMARTFIRE [69], SOFIE =-=[70]-=-, ISIS [71] and ISIS-3D [72]. Examples of LESscodes are the FDS [61, 62]; SMAFS, developed at Lund University [73]; and thesLES fire code developed at the City University of Hong Kong [74].sFigure 6. ... |

6 | Radiation Heat Transfer and Reaction Chemistry Models for Risk Assessment Compatible Fire Simulations,”
- Greiner, Suo-Anttila
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... for firedriven flow. LES typically requires a better spatial resolution than RANS.sExamples of RANS-based fire CFD codes are JASMINE, KAMELEON [68],sSMARTFIRE [69], SOFIE [70], ISIS [71] and ISIS-3D =-=[72]-=-. Examples of LESscodes are the FDS [61, 62]; SMAFS, developed at Lund University [73]; and thesLES fire code developed at the City University of Hong Kong [74].sFigure 6. A comparison of temperature ... |

6 |
Fire Hazard Calculations for Large, Open Hydrocarbon Fires
- Beyler
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... of heat transfer. Forsflames burning in an open atmosphere, the radiative fraction of overall heatstransfer ranges from less than 0.1 up to 0.4, depending both on the fuel type andsthe fire diameter =-=[93]-=-. Due to the important role that the radiation plays in fires,sall the fire CFD models have a radiation model that solves the radiation transportsequation (RTE) [94, 95]s[ ] 44444 34444 21 44344214444... |

5 |
Finite Difference Calculation of Pool Fires
- Holen, Bronstom, et al.
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...an not be captured by RANS, LES is usually better suited for firedriven flow. LES typically requires a better spatial resolution than RANS.sExamples of RANS-based fire CFD codes are JASMINE, KAMELEON =-=[68]-=-,sSMARTFIRE [69], SOFIE [70], ISIS [71] and ISIS-3D [72]. Examples of LESscodes are the FDS [61, 62]; SMAFS, developed at Lund University [73]; and thesLES fire code developed at the City University o... |

4 |
Monte Carlo risk analysis modeling
- Vose
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...variables randomly from their given distributions and computing a large numbersof model realizations leading to a distribution of all the potential outcomes thatscould occur under these uncertainties =-=[21]-=-. The term Monte Carlo refers to thesapplication of probabilistic thinking in the computation of the probability of assuccessful outcome of a game of solitaire [22]. A guide for using MC in thesquan... |

4 |
A Monte Carlo Analysis of Health Risks from PCB-contaminated Mineral Oil Transformer Fires. Risk Anal
- ESCHENROEDER, FAEDER
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...fire models within the MC simulation. In the context of firessafety engineering, Monte Carlo simulations have been used for instance tosmodel the risks to human life due to PCB-contaminated oil fires =-=[32]-=- andsbuilding fires [33], to model fires at dwellings [34], assembly halls [35] andsoffice buildings [36] and the probability of fire deaths due to toxic gassinhalations [37]. Computer tools such as C... |

4 |
Latin hypercube sampling of multigaussian random fields
- Pebesma, Heuvelink
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ot expect thatsLHS would drastically decrease the variances of the probability integrals.sProblems related to LHS with small sample sizes are discussed by Hofer [49] asswell as by Pebesma & Heuvelink =-=[50]-=-.s2.2 Two-Model Monte Carlo simulationssThe numerical simulation of the complicated physical processes is alwaysstrading between the desired accuracy of the results and the computational timesrequired... |

4 | A tool to design steel elements submitted to compartment fires—OZone V2. Part 1: pre- and post-flashover compartment fire model, Fire Safety Journal 38(5
- Cadorin, Franssen
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...mance-based design of large buildings and ships. Insaddition to the actual Monte Carlo simulations, PFS can be used as an interfacesfor several fire models: Fire Dynamics Simulator, CFAST [51], Ozone =-=[52,53]-=-sand OptiMist [54].sPFS tool is implemented as a Microsoft Excel workbook including internals(Visual Basic) and external (Fortran DLL) subroutines for statistics andsinterfacing with the fire models. ... |

4 |
Mathematical Modelling of Natural Convection in Fire – A State of the Art Review of the Field Modelling of Variable Density Turbulent Flow
- Kumar
- 1983
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...urately predict the entrainment of buoyant plumesshas been known for long, and is more fundamental than just turbulence closuresproblem. A review of the turbulence modelling in RANS is given by Kumar =-=[75]-=-,sand the effect of turbulence models on the CFD simulation of buoyant diffusionsflames has been studied by, for example, Liu and Wen [76].sIn LES, the role of turbulence models is only to describe th... |

4 |
Experimental Verification of the Fire Dynamics Simulator Hydrodynamic Model,” Fire Safety Science --
- Clement, Fleischmann
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ire modelling, the accuracy of LESstechnique in fire simulation has been studied extensively. Early validation ofsFDS predecessor was performed by comparing simulations against salt watersexperiments =-=[77, 78, 79]-=-, fire plumes [80, 81] and room fires [82]. More recently,sFDS code has been validated for fire plumes [83] and fires in enclosures in thescontext of the World Trade Center investigation [84, 85] and ... |

4 |
Blomqvist P. Modelling of hydrogen cyanide formation in room fires
- Tuovinen
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...If the turbulence intensity isshigh, so is the fuel consumption. For the prediction of secondary species, likesCO and HCl, and soot, more advanced models based on the laminar flameletsshave been used =-=[90]-=-.sIn LES, it is obvious that the EBU type of model cannot be used because thesturbulence quantities are not calculated. The models developed by thescombustion scientists for LES are usually based on t... |

4 | On radiative transfer in water spray curtains using the discrete ordinates method
- Collin, Boulet, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tering integral. The first approximation is to usesisotropic scattering, which considerably simplifies the computation. Fullsintegrations using DOM and FVM have been performed in simplifiedsscenarios =-=[103, 104, 105]-=-, but not yet in practical fire CFD. In FDS, thesscattering integral is approximated by a combination of functionssdescribing isotropic and forward scattering, as explained in Paper V ofsthis thesis a... |

3 |
Methodenentwicklung zur simulativen Behandlung der Stochastik in probabilistischen Sicherheitsanalysen der Stufe 2. Garching: GRSA-2997, Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit
- Hofer, Kloos, et al.
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...neering, MC simulations can be used for at least two purposes:sintegration over the statistical distributions to deduce the probability, and forspropagation of uncertainty [29]. However, Hofer et al. =-=[30, 31]-=- have shown thatsthe separation of these two purposes is not necessary since both sources ofsrandomness can be taken into account within the same single-stage MC. The fastsincrease of computational re... |

3 |
Radiative and conductive heat transfer in a nongrey semitransparent medium. Application to fire protection curtains
- Berour, Lacroix, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tering integral. The first approximation is to usesisotropic scattering, which considerably simplifies the computation. Fullsintegrations using DOM and FVM have been performed in simplifiedsscenarios =-=[103, 104, 105]-=-, but not yet in practical fire CFD. In FDS, thesscattering integral is approximated by a combination of functionssdescribing isotropic and forward scattering, as explained in Paper V ofsthis thesis a... |

2 | B.,1986, The Use of Probabilistic Network for Analysis of Smoke Spread and the
- LING, WILLIAMSON
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... fire risksanalysis. One problem of using event trees is the static nature of the tree. Earlysattempts to bring in the time component to event tree analysis were made in thescontext of fire spreading =-=[11, 12]-=- and recently in the context of structural safetys[13]. Expert judgement is always needed to focus the analysis to the mostsrelevant regions and Bayesian techniques can be used to reduce the uncertain... |

2 |
Risk analysis and fire safety engineering
- Frantzich
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ed to compute probabilities of individual predefined events or a general relation between the probability and the hazardsseverity, in which case the results can be conveniently presented as FN-curvess=-=[15, 16, 17]-=-. In FN-curves, the probability of an event is plotted against thesseverity measure of the event, such as number of fatalities. The role of the firesstatistics as a source of information for risk anal... |

2 | A proposal for the goals and new techniques of modelling pedestrian evacuation in fires
- Korhonen, Hostikka, et al.
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ed to compute probabilities of individual predefined events or a general relation between the probability and the hazardsseverity, in which case the results can be conveniently presented as FN-curvess=-=[15, 16, 17]-=-. In FN-curves, the probability of an event is plotted against thesseverity measure of the event, such as number of fatalities. The role of the firesstatistics as a source of information for risk anal... |

2 |
A software system for probabilistic uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of results from computer models
- Krzykacz, Hofer, et al.
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...2]. A guide for using MC in thesquantitative risk analysis has been written by Vose [23]. Examples of the use ofs20sMC simulations in the PSA work are found in the articles of Hofer and his coauthors =-=[24, 25]-=-. In Paper I of this thesis, a similar approach was chosen toscompute the component failure probabilities in NPP cable tunnels and electronicssrooms. Within the NPP fire safety projects at VTT, the co... |

2 |
Role of Uncertainty in Improving Fire Protection Regulation
- Notarianni
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... 39] that include the possibility for MC simulations were developed insthe 1990s. Notarianni used Monte Carlo simulation and a two-zone fire model tosstudy the role of uncertainty in fire regulations =-=[40]-=-. Some recent applications ofsMonte Carlo simulations include the following: the computation of the probabilitysof reaching critical temperatures in steel members [41], the introduction of asprobabili... |

2 |
Report on Experiments to Validate Fire Dynamic and Thermal-Structural Models for Use
- Hamins, Maranghides, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... [77, 78, 79], fire plumes [80, 81] and room fires [82]. More recently,sFDS code has been validated for fire plumes [83] and fires in enclosures in thescontext of the World Trade Center investigation =-=[84, 85]-=- and the fire modelsvalidation project sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission [86].sVirtually all CFD fire models assume incompressible flow, which is adequate instypical fire application... |

2 |
Experiments to Validate Models of Fire Growth and Spread for use
- Hamins, Maranghides, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... [77, 78, 79], fire plumes [80, 81] and room fires [82]. More recently,sFDS code has been validated for fire plumes [83] and fires in enclosures in thescontext of the World Trade Center investigation =-=[84, 85]-=- and the fire modelsvalidation project sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission [86].sVirtually all CFD fire models assume incompressible flow, which is adequate instypical fire application... |

2 |
Subgrid Scale Laminar Flamelet Model for Partially Premixed Combustion and Its Application to Backdraft Simulation",
- Yang, Weng, et al.
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...o- orsthree-scalar version has been made in the latest version of FDS [61] in order toscapture these effects. The use of laminar flamelet combustion models withinsFDS have been studied by Yang et al. =-=[91]-=- and Kang & Wen [92]. Unfortunately,sthe performance or advantage over the simple flame-sheet model in large-scalesfire simulation was not demonstrated in these studies. In large-scale calculations,st... |

2 |
On various modeling approaches to radiative heat transfer in pool fires
- Jensen, Ripoll, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...solution of the simulation is very coarse, in which case the totalsnumber of photons does not increase too much. Various modelling approachessfor radiative heat transfer in pool fires are compared in =-=[97]-=-.sAnother feature of RTE that needs modelling is the calculation of the absorptionscoefficient κ(x,λ), which depends on the local gas and soot concentrations. In astypical fire CFD, a grey gas is assu... |

2 |
Modeling the radiation of anisotropically scattering media by coupling Mie theory with finite volume method,”
- Trivic, O’Brien, et al.
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tering integral. The first approximation is to usesisotropic scattering, which considerably simplifies the computation. Fullsintegrations using DOM and FVM have been performed in simplifiedsscenarios =-=[103, 104, 105]-=-, but not yet in practical fire CFD. In FDS, thesscattering integral is approximated by a combination of functionssdescribing isotropic and forward scattering, as explained in Paper V ofsthis thesis a... |

1 |
Fire safety research (FISRE): FISRE summary report
- Keski-Rahkonen
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e rooms and targets to be modelled. Thes1 An alternative term is Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA).s19sdevelopment work has been part of the Finnish nuclear power plant safetysresearch programmes =-=[6, 7]-=- with a central goal of improving the deterministicsand stochastic tools for fire-PRA. During the work, both small additions andstotal re-interpretations have been made for Tasks 13 of the four phase... |

1 |
POTFIS summary report
- Keski-Rahkonen, Mangs, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e rooms and targets to be modelled. Thes1 An alternative term is Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA).s19sdevelopment work has been part of the Finnish nuclear power plant safetysresearch programmes =-=[6, 7]-=- with a central goal of improving the deterministicsand stochastic tools for fire-PRA. During the work, both small additions andstotal re-interpretations have been made for Tasks 13 of the four phase... |

1 |
Quantitative assessment of potential fire spread in nuclear power plant scenarios
- Keski-Rahkonen, Mangs, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...roving the deterministicsand stochastic tools for fire-PRA. During the work, both small additions andstotal re-interpretations have been made for Tasks 13 of the four phasesprocedure mentioned above =-=[8, 9]-=-.sIn the analysis of large and complicated targets, both the existing ones and thesones to be designed, the various techniques of fire risk analysis are usuallyscombined. Qualitative and semi-quantita... |

1 |
Quantitative application of Monte Carlo simulation in Fire-PSA
- Keski-Rahkonen, Mangs, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...roving the deterministicsand stochastic tools for fire-PRA. During the work, both small additions andstotal re-interpretations have been made for Tasks 13 of the four phasesprocedure mentioned above =-=[8, 9]-=-.sIn the analysis of large and complicated targets, both the existing ones and thesones to be designed, the various techniques of fire risk analysis are usuallyscombined. Qualitative and semi-quantita... |

1 |
Repeatability Tests of a Fire Risk Index Method for Multi-Storey Apartment Buildings
- Karlsson, Tomasson
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... targets, both the existing ones and thesones to be designed, the various techniques of fire risk analysis are usuallyscombined. Qualitative and semi-quantitative methods, such as the fire risk indexs=-=[10]-=-, are fast and simple to use and may be sufficient in some cases. Quantitativestechniques such as event and fault trees can be used to manage the complexschains of safety measures, and are the fundame... |

1 |
Coupling Deterministic and Stochastic Modeling to Unwanted Fire
- Williamson
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... fire risksanalysis. One problem of using event trees is the static nature of the tree. Earlysattempts to bring in the time component to event tree analysis were made in thescontext of fire spreading =-=[11, 12]-=- and recently in the context of structural safetys[13]. Expert judgement is always needed to focus the analysis to the mostsrelevant regions and Bayesian techniques can be used to reduce the uncertain... |

1 |
Time-dependent event-tree method for fire risk analysis: tentative results
- Korhonen, Baroudi, et al.
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...he static nature of the tree. Earlysattempts to bring in the time component to event tree analysis were made in thescontext of fire spreading [11, 12] and recently in the context of structural safetys=-=[13]-=-. Expert judgement is always needed to focus the analysis to the mostsrelevant regions and Bayesian techniques can be used to reduce the uncertaintysin the probability estimates by utilizing the obser... |

1 |
Fire Risk Assessment Based on Bayesian Networks
- Fontana, Maag
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ement is always needed to focus the analysis to the mostsrelevant regions and Bayesian techniques can be used to reduce the uncertaintysin the probability estimates by utilizing the observed evidence =-=[14]-=-. The risksanalysis techniques may be used to compute probabilities of individual predefined events or a general relation between the probability and the hazardsseverity, in which case the results can... |

1 |
The Ignition Frequency of Structural Fires in Finland 199699
- Tillander, Keski-Rahkonen
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...t thesseverity measure of the event, such as number of fatalities. The role of the firesstatistics as a source of information for risk analysis has been studied at VTT bysTillander and Keski-Rahkonen =-=[18,19]-=-. The importance of the fire statistics wassrecently discussed by Sekizawa [20].sThe practical technique for the combination of deterministic fire models to thesprobabilistic treatment of model variab... |

1 |
Fire Risk Analysis: Its Validity and Potential for Application in Fire Safety
- Sekizawa
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... firesstatistics as a source of information for risk analysis has been studied at VTT bysTillander and Keski-Rahkonen [18,19]. The importance of the fire statistics wassrecently discussed by Sekizawa =-=[20]-=-.sThe practical technique for the combination of deterministic fire models to thesprobabilistic treatment of model variables has been the use of Monte Carlossimulation (MC). In MC, the uncertainty or ... |

1 |
Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of an oil and cable fire simulation with the code CRDLOC
- Hofer, Jahn, et al.
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...2]. A guide for using MC in thesquantitative risk analysis has been written by Vose [23]. Examples of the use ofs20sMC simulations in the PSA work are found in the articles of Hofer and his coauthors =-=[24, 25]-=-. In Paper I of this thesis, a similar approach was chosen toscompute the component failure probabilities in NPP cable tunnels and electronicssrooms. Within the NPP fire safety projects at VTT, the co... |

1 |
Probabilistic Fire Simulator. Theory and Users Manual for Version 1.2
- Hostikka, Keski-Rahkonen, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...t failure probabilities in NPP cable tunnels and electronicssrooms. Within the NPP fire safety projects at VTT, the computational tools weresimplemented in Probabilistic Fire Simulator (PFS) software =-=[26]-=-. For efficiencysreasons, MC is often performed using Latin Hypercube Sampling [27, 28] rathersthan simple random sampling.sIn fire safety engineering, MC simulations can be used for at least two purp... |

1 |
International Association for Fire Safety Science
- Magnussion
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ampling.sIn fire safety engineering, MC simulations can be used for at least two purposes:sintegration over the statistical distributions to deduce the probability, and forspropagation of uncertainty =-=[29]-=-. However, Hofer et al. [30, 31] have shown thatsthe separation of these two purposes is not necessary since both sources ofsrandomness can be taken into account within the same single-stage MC. The f... |

1 |
Methodology of Calculating the Risk to People in Building Fires
- Zhao
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...C simulation. In the context of firessafety engineering, Monte Carlo simulations have been used for instance tosmodel the risks to human life due to PCB-contaminated oil fires [32] andsbuilding fires =-=[33]-=-, to model fires at dwellings [34], assembly halls [35] andsoffice buildings [36] and the probability of fire deaths due to toxic gassinhalations [37]. Computer tools such as CRISP [38, 34, 36] and CE... |

1 |
Assessment of Factors Related to Fire Protection in Dwellings
- Fraser-Mitchell
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ressafety engineering, Monte Carlo simulations have been used for instance tosmodel the risks to human life due to PCB-contaminated oil fires [32] andsbuilding fires [33], to model fires at dwellings =-=[34]-=-, assembly halls [35] andsoffice buildings [36] and the probability of fire deaths due to toxic gassinhalations [37]. Computer tools such as CRISP [38, 34, 36] and CESARERISK [37, 39] that include the... |

1 |
Modelling Human Behavior Within the Fire Risk Assessment Tool "CRISP
- Fraser-Mitchell
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...have been used for instance tosmodel the risks to human life due to PCB-contaminated oil fires [32] andsbuilding fires [33], to model fires at dwellings [34], assembly halls [35] andsoffice buildings =-=[36]-=- and the probability of fire deaths due to toxic gassinhalations [37]. Computer tools such as CRISP [38, 34, 36] and CESARERISK [37, 39] that include the possibility for MC simulations were developed ... |

1 |
Definition of Scenarios for the CESARE-RISK
- Zhao, Beck
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...CB-contaminated oil fires [32] andsbuilding fires [33], to model fires at dwellings [34], assembly halls [35] andsoffice buildings [36] and the probability of fire deaths due to toxic gassinhalations =-=[37]-=-. Computer tools such as CRISP [38, 34, 36] and CESARERISK [37, 39] that include the possibility for MC simulations were developed insthe 1990s. Notarianni used Monte Carlo simulation and a two-zone f... |

1 |
Simulation Models for Fire Risk Assessment
- Phillips
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...building fires [33], to model fires at dwellings [34], assembly halls [35] andsoffice buildings [36] and the probability of fire deaths due to toxic gassinhalations [37]. Computer tools such as CRISP =-=[38, 34, 36]-=- and CESARERISK [37, 39] that include the possibility for MC simulations were developed insthe 1990s. Notarianni used Monte Carlo simulation and a two-zone fire model tosstudy the role of uncertainty ... |

1 |
Response surface modelling of Monte carlo fire data [J]. Fire safety Journal,2002(37):772-784
- Hasofer, Qu
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...l fires at dwellings [34], assembly halls [35] andsoffice buildings [36] and the probability of fire deaths due to toxic gassinhalations [37]. Computer tools such as CRISP [38, 34, 36] and CESARERISK =-=[37, 39]-=- that include the possibility for MC simulations were developed insthe 1990s. Notarianni used Monte Carlo simulation and a two-zone fire model tosstudy the role of uncertainty in fire regulations [40]... |

1 |
Probabilistic Methodology for Performance-Based Fire Engineering
- Hamilton, Deierlein
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... uncertainty in fire regulations [40]. Some recent applications ofsMonte Carlo simulations include the following: the computation of the probabilitysof reaching critical temperatures in steel members =-=[41]-=-, the introduction of asprobabilistic aspect to fire resistance specification for regulatory purposes [42],sthe identification of the most critical factors in determining the cost-benefit ratiosfor sp... |

1 |
Development of a Performance Based Approach to Specifying Fire Resistance for Regulatory Purposes
- Kirby, Newman, et al.
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...lowing: the computation of the probabilitysof reaching critical temperatures in steel members [41], the introduction of asprobabilistic aspect to fire resistance specification for regulatory purposes =-=[42]-=-,sthe identification of the most critical factors in determining the cost-benefit ratiosfor sprinkler installation in parking buildings [43], as well as the computation ofsthe failure probabilities of... |

1 |
Cost-Benefit Analysis of Sprinklers for Property Protection in New Zealand Parking Buildings
- Li, Spearpoint
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ct to fire resistance specification for regulatory purposes [42],sthe identification of the most critical factors in determining the cost-benefit ratiosfor sprinkler installation in parking buildings =-=[43]-=-, as well as the computation ofsthe failure probabilities of fire detection system designs [44] and structuralsreliability [39]. In the studies mentioned above, fires were typically modelledsusing sim... |

1 |
Monte Carlo Approach for the Layout Design of Thermal Fire Detection System
- Yuen, Chow
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...t critical factors in determining the cost-benefit ratiosfor sprinkler installation in parking buildings [43], as well as the computation ofsthe failure probabilities of fire detection system designs =-=[44]-=- and structuralsreliability [39]. In the studies mentioned above, fires were typically modelledsusing simple hand calculation formulas of zone models because the use of moresadvanced models has been c... |

1 |
A transient one-zone computer model for total flooding water mist fire suppression in ventilated enclosures
- Vaari
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... large buildings and ships. Insaddition to the actual Monte Carlo simulations, PFS can be used as an interfacesfor several fire models: Fire Dynamics Simulator, CFAST [51], Ozone [52,53]sand OptiMist =-=[54]-=-.sPFS tool is implemented as a Microsoft Excel workbook including internals(Visual Basic) and external (Fortran DLL) subroutines for statistics andsinterfacing with the fire models. The first version ... |

1 |
Advanced probabilistic simulation of NPP fires
- Hostikka, Keski-Rahkonen
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ions. The dependency of computational cost andsaccuracy of the CFD codes on the spatial resolution makes them suitable for thesTMMC. The use of an FDS model in both phases of TMMC was demonstrated ins=-=[56]-=-. Models A and B were FDS models with relatively coarse and finescomputational meshes, respectively. When 1000 simulations were performedsusing model A and 24 simulations using model B, the savings in... |

1 |
SMARTFIRE: an integrated computational fluid dynamics code and expert system for fire field modelling
- Taylor, Petridis, et al.
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ed by RANS, LES is usually better suited for firedriven flow. LES typically requires a better spatial resolution than RANS.sExamples of RANS-based fire CFD codes are JASMINE, KAMELEON [68],sSMARTFIRE =-=[69]-=-, SOFIE [70], ISIS [71] and ISIS-3D [72]. Examples of LESscodes are the FDS [61, 62]; SMAFS, developed at Lund University [73]; and thesLES fire code developed at the City University of Hong Kong [74]... |

1 |
Verification and Validation of the ISIS CFD Code for Fire Simulation
- Suard, Audouin, et al.
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...lly better suited for firedriven flow. LES typically requires a better spatial resolution than RANS.sExamples of RANS-based fire CFD codes are JASMINE, KAMELEON [68],sSMARTFIRE [69], SOFIE [70], ISIS =-=[71]-=- and ISIS-3D [72]. Examples of LESscodes are the FDS [61, 62]; SMAFS, developed at Lund University [73]; and thesLES fire code developed at the City University of Hong Kong [74].sFigure 6. A compariso... |

1 |
Large Eddy Simulation of Soot Formation in a Turbulent Diffusion Flame
- Yan
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...amples of RANS-based fire CFD codes are JASMINE, KAMELEON [68],sSMARTFIRE [69], SOFIE [70], ISIS [71] and ISIS-3D [72]. Examples of LESscodes are the FDS [61, 62]; SMAFS, developed at Lund University =-=[73]-=-; and thesLES fire code developed at the City University of Hong Kong [74].sFigure 6. A comparison of temperature fields in a pool fire flame simulationssusing RANS and LES.sThere are certain applicat... |

1 |
Investigation of Pulsating Behaviour of Buoyant Fires by Using Large Eddy Simulation (LES) Approach with Soot and Radiation
- Cheung, Cheung, et al.
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...[69], SOFIE [70], ISIS [71] and ISIS-3D [72]. Examples of LESscodes are the FDS [61, 62]; SMAFS, developed at Lund University [73]; and thesLES fire code developed at the City University of Hong Kong =-=[74]-=-.sFigure 6. A comparison of temperature fields in a pool fire flame simulationssusing RANS and LES.sThere are certain applications, where RANS has a clear advantage over LES.sRANS models can take adva... |

1 |
The effect of different turbulence models on the CFD simulation of buoyant diffusion flames
- Liu, Wen
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... review of the turbulence modelling in RANS is given by Kumar [75],sand the effect of turbulence models on the CFD simulation of buoyant diffusionsflames has been studied by, for example, Liu and Wen =-=[76]-=-.sIn LES, the role of turbulence models is only to describe the sub-grid scalesphenomena that cannot be solved with the computational grid used. In regions ofshigh shear, the sub-grid scale models hav... |

1 |
Transport by Gravity Currents in Building Fires
- Rehm, McGrattan, et al.
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ire modelling, the accuracy of LESstechnique in fire simulation has been studied extensively. Early validation ofsFDS predecessor was performed by comparing simulations against salt watersexperiments =-=[77, 78, 79]-=-, fire plumes [80, 81] and room fires [82]. More recently,sFDS code has been validated for fire plumes [83] and fires in enclosures in thescontext of the World Trade Center investigation [84, 85] and ... |

1 |
Large Eddy Simulation of a Small Pool Fire
- Kang, Wen
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ersion has been made in the latest version of FDS [61] in order toscapture these effects. The use of laminar flamelet combustion models withinsFDS have been studied by Yang et al. [91] and Kang & Wen =-=[92]-=-. Unfortunately,sthe performance or advantage over the simple flame-sheet model in large-scalesfire simulation was not demonstrated in these studies. In large-scale calculations,sthe mixture fraction ... |

1 |
Evaluation of a fast correlated-k approach for radiation calculations in combustion systems
- Dembele, Wen
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ratesresults could be obtained by using a narrow-band model, where separate RTEssare solved for hundreds of wavelengths. This is still too expensive for practicals46sfire CFD. The use of correlated-k =-=[98]-=- and spectral narrow-band and global gassradiation models [99, 100] have been studied at Kingston University.sNext, some of the challenges of radiation modelling are discussed:si. Inhomogeneity: The s... |

1 |
Assessments of Spectral Narrow Band and Weighted-Sum-of-Gray-Gases Models for Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations of Pool Fires. Numerical Heat Transfer Part
- Dembele, Zhang, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...here separate RTEssare solved for hundreds of wavelengths. This is still too expensive for practicals46sfire CFD. The use of correlated-k [98] and spectral narrow-band and global gassradiation models =-=[99, 100]-=- have been studied at Kingston University.sNext, some of the challenges of radiation modelling are discussed:si. Inhomogeneity: The strong inhomogeneity of the optical properties andstemperature field... |

1 |
Effect of Radiation Models on CFD Simulations of Upward Flame Spread
- Zhang, Dembele, et al.
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...here separate RTEssare solved for hundreds of wavelengths. This is still too expensive for practicals46sfire CFD. The use of correlated-k [98] and spectral narrow-band and global gassradiation models =-=[99, 100]-=- have been studied at Kingston University.sNext, some of the challenges of radiation modelling are discussed:si. Inhomogeneity: The strong inhomogeneity of the optical properties andstemperature field... |