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## Network Science (2007)

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Venue: | In Annual Review of Information Science & Technology |

Citations: | 34 - 3 self |

### Citations

3924 | Emergence of scaling in random networks - Barabasi, Albert - 1999 |

3047 | On the evolution of random graphs - Erdös, Renyi - 1960 |

2141 | Statistical mechanics of complex networks
- Albert, Barabási
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...and biology as a probe to study the behavior of very complicate models not amenable of analytical solutions. Stochastic simulations have indeed widely used in the recent activity on complex networks (=-=Albert and Barabási, 2002-=-; Dorogovstev and Mendes 2003; Newman 2003; Pastor-Satorras and Vespignani 2004). The availability of large-scale, dynamic network datasets (the Internet, the WWW, etc.) and the need to understand, ma... |

2140 |
Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience
- Csikszentmihalyi
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...of scientific discovery. It can be supported by implementing a universal undo, making it impossible for a user to irrevocably get lost or in flounder. In general, the user needs to be kept “in flow” (=-=Csikszentmihalyi, 1991-=-). Boredom (too little information, too slowly) and anxiety (too much information, too fast) need to be avoided (Bederson, 2004). 8. Discussion and Outlook As we have seen, networks can be found in bi... |

1552 |
Extremal Graph Theory
- Bollobás
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...heoretical and practical approaches and techniques to increase our understanding of natural and man made networks. The study of networks has a long tradition in graph theory and discrete mathematics (=-=Bollobas, 1998-=-; Brandes & Erlebach, 2005), sociology (Carrington, Scott, & Wasserman, 2004; Wasserman & Faust, 1994), communication research (Monge & Contractor, 2003), bibliometrics/scientometrics (Börner, Chen, &... |

1010 | Error and attack tolerance of complex networks
- ALBERT, JEONG, et al.
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...hat the whole network has been compromised by a fragmentation into very small disconnected components. A second quantity is the diameter of the network as a function of the fraction of removed nodes (=-=Albert, Jeong, & Barabási, 2000-=-). A natural question to 39sThis is a preprint of Katy Börner, Soma Sanyal and Alessandro Vespignani (2007) Network Science. In Blaise Cronin (Ed) Annual Review of Information Science & Technology, Vo... |

869 |
Network biology: understanding the cell's functional organization.
- Barabasi, Oltvai
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...Faust, 1994), communication research (Monge & Contractor, 2003), bibliometrics/scientometrics (Börner, Chen, & Boyack, 2003; Cronin & Atkins 2000), Webometrics/cybermetrics (Thelwall, 2004), biology (=-=Barabási & Oltvai, 2004-=-; Hodgman 2000), and more recently physics (Barabási, 2002; Buchanan, 2002; Dorogovstev & Mendes, 2003; Pastor-Satorras & Vespignani, 2004; Watts, 1999). Consequently, there is impressive variety in t... |

627 | A heuristic for graph drawing
- Eades
- 1984
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ted nodes, symmetry, uniform edge lengths, minimized edge crossings, and orthogonal drawings that minimize area, bends, slopes, and angles. The criteria may be relaxed to speed up the layout process (=-=Eades, 1984-=-). In some cases, it is desirable to order nodes by their attributes, for example, time or size, or by their structural features, for example, their degree. An example is Historiographs, introduced in... |

546 | A faster algorithm for betweenness centrality - Brandes |

416 | Evolution of networks
- DOROGOVTSEV, MENDES
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tudy the behavior of very complicate models not amenable of analytical solutions. Stochastic simulations have indeed widely used in the recent activity on complex networks (Albert and Barabási, 2002; =-=Dorogovstev and Mendes 2003-=-; Newman 2003; Pastor-Satorras and Vespignani 2004). The availability of large-scale, dynamic network datasets (the Internet, the WWW, etc.) and the need to understand, manage, secure these networks h... |

373 | Exploratory Social Network Analysis with Pajek. New York: - Nooy, Mrvar, et al. - 2005 |

358 | Mean-field theory for scale-free random networks
- Barabasi, Jeong
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e networks any infinitesimal presence of randomness is enough to yield a small-world network. Note that a small world network can also be generated by adding edges instead of rewiring existing edges (=-=Barabási, Albert, & Jeong, 1999-=-). Figure 5. Characteristic path length and clustering coefficient as a function of the rewiring probability p for the Watts-Strogatz model. The characteristic path length and clustering coefficient a... |

315 |
Linked: How Everything Is Connected to Everything Else and What It Means.
- Barabási
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...bliometrics/scientometrics (Börner, Chen, & Boyack, 2003; Cronin & Atkins 2000), Webometrics/cybermetrics (Thelwall, 2004), biology (Barabási & Oltvai, 2004; Hodgman 2000), and more recently physics (=-=Barabási, 2002-=-; Buchanan, 2002; Dorogovstev & Mendes, 2003; Pastor-Satorras & Vespignani, 2004; Watts, 1999). Consequently, there is impressive variety in the work styles, approaches and research interests among ne... |

295 | Search in power law networks - Adamic, Huberman, et al. - 2001 |

291 | C.L.: Efficient identification of Web communities
- Flake, Lawrence, et al.
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ctures and communities is particularly relevant in the study of the World-Wide Web where a large number of studies deal with the definition and measurement of directed subgraphs (Adamic & Adar, 2003; =-=Flake, Lawrence, & Giles, 2000-=-; Gibson, Kleinberg, & Raghavan, 1998; Kleinberg & Lawrence, 2001; Kumar, Raghavan, Rajagopalan, & Tomkins, 1999). One mathematical way to account for these local cohesive groups is to look at the num... |

255 | Visualizing knowledge domains
- BORNER, CHEN, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...(Bollobas, 1998; Brandes & Erlebach, 2005), sociology (Carrington, Scott, & Wasserman, 2004; Wasserman & Faust, 1994), communication research (Monge & Contractor, 2003), bibliometrics/scientometrics (=-=Börner, Chen, & Boyack, 2003-=-; Cronin & Atkins 2000), Webometrics/cybermetrics (Thelwall, 2004), biology (Barabási & Oltvai, 2004; Hodgman 2000), and more recently physics (Barabási, 2002; Buchanan, 2002; Dorogovstev & Mendes, 20... |

238 |
The architecture of complex weighted networks
- Barrat, Barthelemy, et al.
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... of the corresponding networks (Granovetter, 1973). Similarly, the amount of traffic among Internet routers (Pastor-Satorras, & Vespignani, 2004) or the number of passengers using different airlines (=-=Barrat, Barthelemy, Pastor-Satorras, & Vespignani, 2004-=-; Guimera, Mossa, Turtschi, & Amaral, 2005) are crucial quantities in the study of these systems. Where data are available, it is therefore desirable to go beyond the mere topological representation a... |

188 |
Protein interactions: two methods for assessment of the reliability of high throughput observations
- DEANE, SALWINSKI, et al.
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... positive or negative on the presence of a node or edge. High throughput techniques in biological network measurements, such as in experiments for detecting protein interactions (Bader & Hogue, 2002; =-=Deane, Salwinski, Xenarios, & Esenberg, 2002-=-), are a case in point. For these reasons, it is important to test the results obtained against null models, which are pattern generating models that replace the mechanisms thought to be responsible f... |

186 | Epidemic Modelling. An Introduction, - Daley, Gani - 2005 |

180 | Resilience of the Internet to random breakdowns - Cohen, Erez, et al. - 2000 |

178 |
Models and methods in social network analysis. Cambridge:
- Carrington, Scott, et al.
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...increase our understanding of natural and man made networks. The study of networks has a long tradition in graph theory and discrete mathematics (Bollobas, 1998; Brandes & Erlebach, 2005), sociology (=-=Carrington, Scott, & Wasserman, 2004-=-; Wasserman & Faust, 1994), communication research (Monge & Contractor, 2003), bibliometrics/scientometrics (Börner, Chen, & Boyack, 2003; Cronin & Atkins 2000), Webometrics/cybermetrics (Thelwall, 20... |

154 |
Hogue C: Analyzing yeast protein-protein interaction data obtained from different sources
- Bader
(Show Context)
Citation Context ..., this causes a false positive or negative on the presence of a node or edge. High throughput techniques in biological network measurements, such as in experiments for detecting protein interactions (=-=Bader & Hogue, 2002-=-; Deane, Salwinski, Xenarios, & Esenberg, 2002), are a case in point. For these reasons, it is important to test the results obtained against null models, which are pattern generating models that repl... |

130 |
Network Analysis - Methodological Foundations
- Brandes, Erlebach
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ractical approaches and techniques to increase our understanding of natural and man made networks. The study of networks has a long tradition in graph theory and discrete mathematics (Bollobas, 1998; =-=Brandes & Erlebach, 2005-=-), sociology (Carrington, Scott, & Wasserman, 2004; Wasserman & Faust, 1994), communication research (Monge & Contractor, 2003), bibliometrics/scientometrics (Börner, Chen, & Boyack, 2003; Cronin & At... |

121 |
Solutii problematis ad geometriam situs pertinentis
- Euler
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tical description of networks, however, is found in graph theory and we adopt it here. Indeed, graph theory can be traced back to the pioneering work of Euler to solve the Königsberg bridges problem (=-=Euler, 1736-=-). Building on the introduction of the random graph model by Erdös and Rényi (1959) (see also the section on modeling static networks) it has reached a maturity in which a wealth of rigorous mathemati... |

115 | Graphs & Digraphs. - Chartrand, Lesniak - 1996 |

101 |
Nexus: Small Worlds and the Groundbreaking Science of Networks.
- Buchanan
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ntometrics (Börner, Chen, & Boyack, 2003; Cronin & Atkins 2000), Webometrics/cybermetrics (Thelwall, 2004), biology (Barabási & Oltvai, 2004; Hodgman 2000), and more recently physics (Barabási, 2002; =-=Buchanan, 2002-=-; Dorogovstev & Mendes, 2003; Pastor-Satorras & Vespignani, 2004; Watts, 1999). Consequently, there is impressive variety in the work styles, approaches and research interests among network scientists... |

97 | Superparamagnetic clustering of data,”
- Blatt, Wiseman, et al.
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s. They include measures such as betweenness centrality of nodes and edges (Girvan & Newman, 2002; Newman & Girvan, 2004); (see the section on node and edge properties), superparamagnetic clustering (=-=Blatt, Wiseman, & Domany, 1996-=-, 1997; Domany, 1999), hubs and bridging edges (Jungnickel, 1994) (similar to the bridges described previously in motifs), and others. Recently, a series of sophisticated overlapping and nonoverlappin... |

95 |
On the properties of small-world network models
- Barrat, Weigt
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... clustering coefficient. Therefore, there is a broad region of p in which both properties – low characteristic path and high clustering – are found at the same time. In particular, it has been shown (=-=Barrat & Weigt, 2000-=-; Barthélémyy & Amaral, 1999a, 1999b) that this region depends on the size of the network and that in the case of infinite networks any infinitesimal presence of randomness is enough to yield a small-... |

86 |
Searching for intellectual turning points: Progressive Knowledge Domain Visualization,
- Chen
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...time based on a complete dataset are Netmap (Standish & Galloway, 2001) which visualizes Tierra’s tree of life or routers and their interconnections around a certain host and Chen’s CiteSpace system (=-=Chen, 2004-=-) which visualizes intellectual turning points in scholarly networks. 7.5.2 Visualizing Dynamics on Networks In some application domains, the structure of a network is fixed and the flow dynamics over... |

85 | A Tomkins. Self-similarity in the web.
- Dill, Kumar, et al.
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...g & Lawrence, 2001; Kumar, Raghavan, Rajagopalan, & Tomkins, 1999). One mathematical way to account for these local cohesive groups is to look at the number of bipartite cliques present in the graph (=-=Dill, Kumar, McCurley, Rajagopalan, Sivakumar, & Tomkins, 2002-=-; Kumar et al., 1999). A bipartite clique K n, m identifies a group of n nodes, all of which have a direct edge to the same m nodes. Naively, we can think of the set as a group of “fans” with the same... |

71 | Data Clustering Using a Model Granular Magnet - Blatt, Wiseman, et al. - 1997 |

67 | Graphics and Information-Processing. Walter de Gruyter - Bertin - 1981 |

66 |
The Simultaneous Evolution of Author and Paper Networks,"
- Börner, Maru, et al.
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...eally generate a network that shows global properties observable in real world systems. Such models have been quite successful in simulating the co-evolution of paper-citation and co-author networks (=-=Börner, Maru, & Goldstone, 2003-=-), analyzing trade and commerce networks spanning different locations (McFadzean & Tesfatsion, 1997) and other social and ecological processes (Gimblett, 2002). 5.3 Discussion Table 4 provides an over... |

64 |
The power of a good idea : quantitative modeling of the spread of ideas from epidemiological models.
- Bettencourt, Cinron-Arias, et al.
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... and “adopters.” If we are interested in the spreading of computer viruses, then epidemiological models can be readily applied even through the virus host is now a computer instead of a living being (=-=Bettencourt, Cintron-Arias, Kaiser, & Castillo-Chavez, 2005-=-; Tabah, 1999). In each of these models, transitions from one state to another are probabilistically obtained from contacts among individuals in the different categories. Subsequently, we explain the ... |

51 | Small-world networks: Evidence for a crossover picture - Barthélémy, Amaral - 1999 |

37 | Notes on blockmodeling.
- Batagelj
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...introduced block clustering (Hartigan, 1972). The concept of reordering was first introduced by Bertin (1981).Generalized association plots were applied and generalized by Chen (1999). Blockmodeling (=-=Doreian, Batagelj, & Ferligoj, 2005-=-) is an empirical technique that can be used to reduce a large, potentially incoherent network into a smaller comprehensible structure that can then be visualized and interpreted more readily. Current... |

34 | Cluster stability and the use of noise in interpretation of clustering.
- Davidson, Wylie, et al.
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...odes in the graph as it cools (Frick, Ludwig, Meldhau, 1994). Walshaw’s (2000) multilevel algorithm provides a “divide and conquer” method for laying out very large graphs by using clustering. VxOrd (=-=Davidson, Wylie, & Boyack, 2001-=-) uses a density grid in place of pair-wise repulsive forces to speed up execution and achieves computation times in the order of O(N). It also employs barrier jumping to avoid trapping of clusters in... |

31 | Models for network evolution.
- Banks, Carley
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...teractions among individual nodes. The exponential random graph family framework has been adapted to introduce network evolution by the addition (or deletion) of edges within a fixed number of nodes (=-=Banks & Carley, 1996-=-; Sanil, Banks, & Carley, 1995). Based on this, numerical techniques have also been developed for estimating the model distribution parameters (Snijders, 2002). The latter have been implemented in Sni... |

28 |
Interfaces for staying in the flow
- BEDERSON
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...or in flounder. In general, the user needs to be kept “in flow” (Csikszentmihalyi, 1991). Boredom (too little information, too slowly) and anxiety (too much information, too fast) need to be avoided (=-=Bederson, 2004-=-). 8. Discussion and Outlook As we have seen, networks can be found in biological, social, economic, informational and many other systems and processes. Although the advances that we have witnessed in... |

26 |
Accuracy and scaling phenomena in Internet mapping”,
- Clauset, Moore
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...it is widely known that the Internet has a power-law degree distribution, it is possible to show that sampling biases can cause a Poissonian degree distribution to appear as a power law distribution (=-=Clauset & Moore, 2005-=-). So, it is difficult to describe whether the Internet is truly a power law distribution or not. For this reason, each particular sampling process requires a careful study of the introduced biases an... |

19 | Semantic Association Networks: Using Semantic Web Technology to Improve Scholarly Knowledge and Expertise Management
- Börner
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...above will benefit enormously from a cyberinfrastructure for network science research. This infrastructure will need to provide access to data, services and computing resources, as well as expertise (=-=Börner, 2006-=-). It is clear that different application domains will pose different challenges due to the availability of data as well as scientific and practical demands. In addition, the different sciences will m... |

13 |
Correlated random networks.
- Berg, Lassig
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...he network. The Hamiltonian describes the constraints on the co-author relations in the network. Together the partition function and the Hamiltonian of a network tell us the structure of the network (=-=Berg & Lassig, 2002-=-). Analogies can be pushed further and it is possible to show that different statistical constraints correspond to different statistical ensembles in the statistical mechanics definition. Moreover, it... |

13 |
The Web of Knowledge. A Festschrift in Honor of Eugene
- Cronin, Atkins
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ebach, 2005), sociology (Carrington, Scott, & Wasserman, 2004; Wasserman & Faust, 1994), communication research (Monge & Contractor, 2003), bibliometrics/scientometrics (Börner, Chen, & Boyack, 2003; =-=Cronin & Atkins 2000-=-), Webometrics/cybermetrics (Thelwall, 2004), biology (Barabási & Oltvai, 2004; Hodgman 2000), and more recently physics (Barabási, 2002; Buchanan, 2002; Dorogovstev & Mendes, 2003; Pastor-Satorras & ... |

12 | A corpus-based approach to comparative evaluation of statistical term association measures
- Chung, Lee
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...sub-networks and they use popular measures such as the Pearson correlation coefficient, Euclidean distances, rates of exact matches, or Jaccard coefficient to determine the correlation between nodes (=-=Chung & Lee, 2001-=-). 4.3 Statistical Properties A statistical analysis is beneficial when one is interested in the characteristics of the entire network rather than the characteristics of single nodes or sub-networks. ... |

11 | Equilibrium statistical mechanics of network structures. - Farkas, Derenyi, et al. - 2004 |

9 | A (2003) Uncorrelated random networks
- Burda, Krzywicki
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...iscussion it can be easily seen that the exponential family of distributions is equivalent to the statistical mechanics of Gibbs for networks used by physicists (Burda, Jurkiewicz, & Krzywicki, 2003; =-=Burda & Krzywicki, 2003-=-; Dorogovtsev, Mendes, & Samukhin, 2003; Farkas, Derenyi, Palla & Vicsek, 2004; Fronczak, Fronczak, & Holyst, 2005; Krzywicki, 2001; Park & Newman, 2004). Indeed, Equation 17 can be obtained from Equa... |

9 | Super-paramagnetic clustering of data: The definitive solution of an ill-posed problem
- Domany
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...enness centrality of nodes and edges (Girvan & Newman, 2002; Newman & Girvan, 2004); (see the section on node and edge properties), superparamagnetic clustering (Blatt, Wiseman, & Domany, 1996, 1997; =-=Domany, 1999-=-), hubs and bridging edges (Jungnickel, 1994) (similar to the bridges described previously in motifs), and others. Recently, a series of sophisticated overlapping and nonoverlapping clustering methods... |

8 | Hyper-searching the web - Chakrabarti, Dom, et al. - 1999 |

7 | Evolution of random networks
- Dorogovtsev, Mendes
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...are used by physicists to identify universal laws. For example, unexpected similarities between systems as disparate as social networks and the Internet have been discovered (Albert & Barabási, 2002; =-=Dorogovstev & Mendes, 2002-=-; Newman, 2003). These findings suggest that generic organizing principles and growth mechanisms may give rise to the structure of many existing networks. Network science is a very young field of rese... |

6 | Traceroute-like exploration of unknown networks: A statistical analysis, LNCS 3405 - Dall’Asta, Hamelin, et al. - 2005 |

6 | Principles of statistical mechanics of random networks - Dorogovtsev, Mendes, et al. |

5 |
Gnutellavision: Real-Time Visualization of a Peer-to-Peer Network
- Dhamija, Fisher, et al.
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ed on the complete dataset. Examples of incremental visualizations, also called organic visualizations (Fry, 2000), are Fry’s Anemone (http://acg.media.mit.edu/people/fry/anemone) and Gnutellavision (=-=Dhamija, Fisher, & Yee, 2000-=-; Yee, Fisher, Dhamija, & Hearst, 2001); (see Figure 14, left). Note that Gnutellavision provides interactive exploration of subregions of a graph from different perspectives. Figure 14. Dynamic netwo... |

3 |
Statistical mechanics of random graph,"
- Burda, Jurkiewicz, et al.
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context .... 5.1.4 Comparison From the previous discussion it can be easily seen that the exponential family of distributions is equivalent to the statistical mechanics of Gibbs for networks used by physicists (=-=Burda, Jurkiewicz, & Krzywicki, 2003-=-; Burda & Krzywicki, 2003; Dorogovtsev, Mendes, & Samukhin, 2003; Farkas, Derenyi, Palla & Vicsek, 2004; Fronczak, Fronczak, & Holyst, 2005; Krzywicki, 2001; Park & Newman, 2004). Indeed, Equation 17 ... |

3 | Extensions of generalized association plots (GAP). Paper presented at the annual conference - Chen - 1999 |

2 |
Number of loops of size h in scale-free networks
- Bianconi, Capocci
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e density of triangles, the study of the density of cycles of n connected nodes (for example, rectangles) is another relevant approach to understanding the local and global cohesiveness of a network (=-=Bianconi & Capocci, 2003-=-; Zhou & Mondragon, 2004). 4.2.2 Motifs Most networks are built up of small patterns, called motifs. Motifs are local patterns of interconnections that occur throughout a network with higher probabili... |

2 | Hierarchical genetic algorithms. Parallel Problem Solving from Nature - Jong, Thierens, et al. - 2004 |