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## Standard errors and sample sizes for two-level research (1993)

Venue: | Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics |

Citations: | 59 - 3 self |

### Citations

1109 |
Hierarchical Linear Models: Applications and Data Analysis Methods. Thousand Oaks: Sage
- Raundenbush, Bryk
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ts provide a useful statistical paradigm forssituations where nesting is an obvious and direct consequence of multistagessampling as well as situations with nested sources of random variability. (Sees=-=Bryk & Raudenbush, 1992-=-, for a general introduction; see Raudenbush,s1988, for a review.) Some applications of such models follow.s1. Nesting of microunits within macrounits—for instance, students withinsschools (e.g., Aitk... |

470 | Sampling techniques. 3rd ed - Cochran - 1977 |

207 | Application of hierarchical linear models to assessing change.
- Bryk, Raudenbush
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ....g., Goldstein, 1987, p. 61).s3. Assessment of change in a repeated measurements design, with thesrepeated measures assumed to be random samples within units, thessamples being ordered in time (e.g., =-=Bryk & Raudenbush, 1987-=-).sCorrespondence concerning this article should be sent to Tom A. B. Snijders,sVSM-FPPSW, University of Groningen, Grote Kruisstraat 2/1, 9712 TS Groningen,sThe Netherlands; e-mail T.A.B.SNIJDERS@PPS... |

149 | Data analysis using Stein’s estimator and its generalizations - Efron, Morris - 1975 |

148 |
Linear statistical inference and its applications, 2nd ed.
- Rao
- 1973
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...wnloaded fromsSnijders and Boskersw2,s0 W3', 0 . 0sschool /. Then the design matrix W2/ in (5) has the forms/W3'y 0 0 . . 0 \s= I®Wi, (7)s\ 0 . . . . YfiJswhere ® denotes the Kronecker product (e.g., =-=Rao, 1973-=-, p. 29). It willsusually be convenient to let the first variables in X2y and also in W3y besconstant (representing the regression intercepts at the student and thesschool level, respectively) and equ... |

136 | A hierarchical model for studying school effects - Raudenbush, Bryk - 1986 |

121 |
Mulrilevel Models in Education and Social Research.
- Goldstein
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...butsdoes not need to be, a multistage sample.s2. Multivariate analysis, with randomly sampled measurements on a latentsconstruct where the measurements are nested within randomly sampledsunits (e.g., =-=Goldstein, 1987-=-, p. 61).s3. Assessment of change in a repeated measurements design, with thesrepeated measures assumed to be random samples within units, thessamples being ordered in time (e.g., Bryk & Raudenbush, 1... |

119 | Multilevel mixed linear model analysis using iterative generalized least squares.
- Goldstein
- 1986
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...be estimatedsfrom the data. This is usually done by maximum likelihood methods understhe normality assumption, which can be implemented by a variety of algorithms: iterated generalized least squares (=-=Goldstein, 1986-=-), Fisher's scoringsmethod (Longford, 1987), or the EM algorithm (Raudenbush, 1988). Thesresulting version of 7GLS where estimates of a2 and T are used will be denoteds7. Its covariance matrix can be ... |

108 |
Statistical modelling issues in school effectiveness studies.
- Aitkin, Longford
- 1986
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...1992, for a general introduction; see Raudenbush,s1988, for a review.) Some applications of such models follow.s1. Nesting of microunits within macrounits—for instance, students withinsschools (e.g., =-=Aitkin & Longford, 1986-=-). The sampling design can be, butsdoes not need to be, a multistage sample.s2. Multivariate analysis, with randomly sampled measurements on a latentsconstruct where the measurements are nested within... |

78 | http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0162-1459%28198812%2983%3A404%3C1097%3ATFCT%3E2.0.CO%3B2-V Pensions, the Option Value of Work, and Retirement - URL - 1990 |

64 | http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0006-341X%28195009%296%3A3%3C250%3ASROAPD%3E2.0.CO%3B2-S http://www.jstor.org LINKED CITATIONS - Page 2 of 3 -Asymptotically Periodic Behaviour in the Dynamics of Chaotic - URL - 1987 |

52 |
Educational applications of hierarchical linear models: A review
- Raudenbush
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...dersthe normality assumption, which can be implemented by a variety of algorithms: iterated generalized least squares (Goldstein, 1986), Fisher's scoringsmethod (Longford, 1987), or the EM algorithm (=-=Raudenbush, 1988-=-). Thesresulting version of 7GLS where estimates of a2 and T are used will be denoteds7. Its covariance matrix can be approximated in the usual way as the inversesof the observed information matrix. T... |

34 | Random coefficient models for multilevel analysis. - DeLeeuw, Kreft - 1986 |

29 |
Empirical Bayes meta-analysis.
- Raudenbush, Bryk
- 1985
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...DERS@PPSW.RUG.NL.s237sat PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIV on May 16, 2016http://jebs.aera.netDownloaded fromsSnijders and Boskers4. Meta-analysis, with units nested within the studies that are revieweds(e.g., =-=Raudenbush & Bryk, 1985-=-).s5. Logical extensions of the situations in Points 1 to 4, like repeatedsmeasurements on students nested within schools, or students withinscohorts within schools (Bosker, Guldemond, Hofman, & Hofma... |

27 |
MLS software for three-level analysis, users' guide for Version 2
- Prosser, Rasbash, et al.
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...n impression of the validity of thesresults presented. Now that multilevel software is widely availables(VARCL3, VARCL9 by Longford, 1988; HLM2.0 by Bryk, Raudenbush,sCongdon, & Seltzer, 1988; ML3 by =-=Prosser, Rasbash, & Goldstein, 1991-=-),sone can foresee that many educational and social researchers will test theirshypotheses within a multilevel framework. This situation leads to thesspecific multilevel design question: How should re... |

19 | http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0035-9246%281965%2927%3A3%3C497%3AATPGP%3E2.0.CO%3B2-A On Estimating Epidemic Parameters from Household Data Sally - URL - 1964 |

17 | http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0038-0431%28195812%2921%3A4%3C322%3ALAC%3E2.0.CO%3B2-T http://www.jstor.org LINKED CITATIONS - Page 1 of 4 -The Population Ecology of Organizations Michael T. Hannan; - URL - 1977 |

15 |
The analysis of longitudinal, multilevel data
- RAUDENBUSH
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...f the situations in Points 1 to 4, like repeatedsmeasurements on students nested within schools, or students withinscohorts within schools (Bosker, Guldemond, Hofman, & Hofman, 1989;sGoldstein, 1987; =-=Raudenbush, 1989-=-).sWhen a researcher is designing a multistage sampling scheme for the firstsof these situations, important decisions must be made with respect to thessample sizes at the various levels. In most of th... |

9 |
Fisher scoring algorithm for variance component analysis of data with multilevel structure. In
- Longford
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... done by maximum likelihood methods understhe normality assumption, which can be implemented by a variety of algorithms: iterated generalized least squares (Goldstein, 1986), Fisher's scoringsmethod (=-=Longford, 1987-=-), or the EM algorithm (Raudenbush, 1988). Thesresulting version of 7GLS where estimates of a2 and T are used will be denoteds7. Its covariance matrix can be approximated in the usual way as the inver... |

6 | http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0362-9805%28198408%299%3A3%3C475%3AFUSHE%3E2.0.CO%3B2-9 Are Senate Election Outcomes Predictable? Michael Lewis-Beck; Tom - URL - 1985 |

4 | UNIV on May 16, 2016http://jebs.aera.netDownloaded from Inadequacy of AN OVA - STATE - 1979 |

1 |
Kwaliteit in het voortgezet onderwijs [Quality in secondary education
- Bosker, Guldemond, et al.
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...weds(e.g., Raudenbush & Bryk, 1985).s5. Logical extensions of the situations in Points 1 to 4, like repeatedsmeasurements on students nested within schools, or students withinscohorts within schools (=-=Bosker, Guldemond, Hofman, & Hofman, 1989-=-;sGoldstein, 1987; Raudenbush, 1989).sWhen a researcher is designing a multistage sampling scheme for the firstsof these situations, important decisions must be made with respect to thessample sizes a... |

1 | An introduction to HLM: User's guide, version 2.0 [Computer program - Bryk, Raudenbush, et al. - 1988 |

1 | Models and methods for the measurement of school effects. Unpublished doctoral dissertation - Kreft - 1987 |

1 | The effects of adaptive instruction in Dutch primary education - Reezigt, Weide - 1989 |

1 | De grootte van scholen voor voortgezet onderwijs en het welbevinden van de leerlingen [The size of schools for secondary education and the well-being of the pupils - Stoel - 1982 |