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## MOS transistor modeling for RF IC design (2000)

Venue: | IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits |

Citations: | 24 - 0 self |

### Citations

521 |
The Design of CMOS Radio-Frequency Integrated Circuits,
- Lee
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...Y 2000 Fig. 13. noise factor computed from (19) for a long- (v aIH"m) and a short-channel (v aHXQT "m) device with � aIH m/s and ( aIps. source connected in parallel to and having a PSD given by [64]–=-=[66]-=- with (22) and where is a bias-dependent factor that is equal to 4/3 for a long-channel device in saturation and [65], [66]. Note that PSD is frequency-dependent. Since the physical origin of the indu... |

177 | A 1.5 -V, 1.5-GHz CMOS Low Noise Amplifier”
- Shaeffer, Lee
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...aIH m/s and ( aIps. source connected in parallel to and having a PSD given by [64]–[66] with (22) and where is a bias-dependent factor that is equal to 4/3 for a long-channel device in saturation and =-=[65]-=-, [66]. Note that PSD is frequency-dependent. Since the physical origin of the induced gate noise is the same as for the channel thermal noise at the drain, the two noise sources and are partially cor... |

145 | Direct-conversion radio transceivers for digital communications, "
- Abidi
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rototypes that used even older CMOS processes [10]. There is no doubt that in the coming years new wireless products will appear with CMOS as the technology used for the integration of the RF portion =-=[6]-=-–[12]. Nevertheless, the design of RF circuits for real products remains a challenge due to the strong constraints on power consumption and noise that leave very little margins for the RF IC designer.... |

119 |
An analytical MOS Transistor Model Valid in All Regions of Operation and Dedicated to Low-Voltage and Low-Current Applications”, Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing”,
- Enz
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tor 2 used in (3) is equal to which depends on the gate-to-bulk voltage and typically ranges from 1.6 in weak inversion to 1.3 in strong inversion for an -channel transistor (1.4–1.2 for the channel) =-=[18]-=-, [21]. C. Component Bias Dependence The capacitances shown in Fig. 2 include both intrinsic and extrinsic parts where , and are the intrinsic capacitances, , and are the overlap capacitances, and 2 T... |

102 | Operation and Modeling of the - Tsividis - 1999 |

59 |
High-Frequency Noise Measurements on FET’s with Small Dimensions,”
- Abidi
- 1986
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...the inversion factor s as and (b) � versus the overdrive voltage † 0 † . devices in saturation, might become larger than the long-channel value due to both velocity saturation and hot electrons [61], =-=[70]-=-, [73]. This effect had already been analyzed by van der Ziel twenty years ago [61] and has been verified experimentally by Abidi more than ten years ago [70]. Some models have been proposed to accoun... |

58 | A 1.9 GHz wide-band IF double conversion CMOS integrated receiver for cordless telephone applications,” in - Rudell - 1997 |

43 |
A 1 GHz CMOS RF FrontEnd IC for a Direct-Conversion Wireless Receiver,”
- Rofougaran, Chang, et al.
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ale integration (VLSI) capabilities allowing for a high level of integration. The feasibility of RF CMOS circuits integration has been demonstrated with prototypes that used even older CMOS processes =-=[10]-=-. There is no doubt that in the coming years new wireless products will appear with CMOS as the technology used for the integration of the RF portion [6]–[12]. Nevertheless, the design of RF circuits ... |

34 |
Operation and Modeling of the MOS
- Tsividis
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...hanced in order to be used for RF CMOS IC design. It can be shown that the strict minimum to improve the models used for RF circuit simulation is to add terminal resistances, mainly a gate resistance =-=[21]-=-, [22]. However, this is not sufficient. At HF, the signal coupling through the substrate has to be accounted for by adding adequate substrate resistances [21], [23]–[32]. Also, nonquasi-static (NQS) ... |

33 | An Improved De-Embedding Technique for On-wafer High-frequency Characterization",
- Koolen, Geelen, et al.
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...2.6 have been used for the intrinsic compact model ( in the schematic of Fig. 1). The parameters have been obtained from the measured parameters which have been de-embedded using a two-step procedure =-=[58]-=-. DC parameters, including the series resistance parameter , have been extracted from dc measurements [59]. Most parameters specific to the RF part have been extracted using the methodology presented ... |

24 |
MOSFET thermal noise modeling for analog integrated circuits
- Wang, Hellums, et al.
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...analyzed by van der Ziel twenty years ago [61] and has been verified experimentally by Abidi more than ten years ago [70]. Some models have been proposed to account for the velocity saturation effect =-=[71]-=- and hot carrier effects [72], but they have not been implemented in any compact model yet. More recently, Klein proposed a simple model for the thermal noise that accounts for both velocity saturatio... |

19 | Integrated circuit technology options for RFIC’s—Present status and future directions - Larson - 1998 |

19 |
Thermal Noise Modeling for Short-Channel MOSFET’s”,
- Triantis, Birbas, et al.
- 1950
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ty years ago [61] and has been verified experimentally by Abidi more than ten years ago [70]. Some models have been proposed to account for the velocity saturation effect [71] and hot carrier effects =-=[72]-=-, but they have not been implemented in any compact model yet. More recently, Klein proposed a simple model for the thermal noise that accounts for both velocity saturation and hot carriers and can be... |

16 | Analyical and experimental studies of thermal noise in MOSFETs - Tedja, Spiegel, et al. - 1994 |

13 |
MOSFET modeling ac-counting for distributed substrate and channel resistances with emphasis on
- Liu, Gharpurey, et al.
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e in modeling, a tradeoff has to be found between accuracy and efficiency. A good compromise is obtained when simplifying the complete detailed equivalent circuit to the one presented in Fig. 1 [21], =-=[25]-=-–[32], which from experience has shown to be sufficient for most RF circuit simulation. In order to implement this equivalent circuit in a Spice simulator as a subcircuit (SUBCKT), all the extrinsic c... |

13 |
Enz C.; “An Efficient Parameter Extraction Methodology for the EKV
- Bucher, Lallement
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... obtained from the measured parameters which have been de-embedded using a two-step procedure [58]. DC parameters, including the series resistance parameter , have been extracted from dc measurements =-=[59]-=-. Most parameters specific to the RF part have been extracted using the methodology presented in [30] and [31]. A comparison between measured and simulated parameters versus frequency is presented in ... |

13 |
An Analytical Thermal Noise Model of Deep Submicron MOSFET’s for Circuit Simulation with Emphasis on
- Klein
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...version factor s as and (b) � versus the overdrive voltage † 0 † . devices in saturation, might become larger than the long-channel value due to both velocity saturation and hot electrons [61], [70], =-=[73]-=-. This effect had already been analyzed by van der Ziel twenty years ago [61] and has been verified experimentally by Abidi more than ten years ago [70]. Some models have been proposed to account for ... |

12 | Architectures and circuits for RF CMOS receivers, in: - Razavi - 1998 |

12 |
Microwave CMOS—Device physics and design
- Manku
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...real part about 10 times smaller than the imaginary part) and that its value is slightly smaller than the long-channel value 0.395 (it typically ranges from 0.35 to 0.3 for for short-channel devices) =-=[75]-=-. The induced gate noise and, moreover, its correlation to the thermal noise at the drain are not implemented in compact models yet (except for MOS Model 9 that includes the induced gate noise but wit... |

10 |
A Single-Chip CMOS Direct-Conversion Transceiver for 900MHz Spread-Spectrum
- Cho
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...types that used even older CMOS processes [10]. There is no doubt that in the coming years new wireless products will appear with CMOS as the technology used for the integration of the RF portion [6]–=-=[12]-=-. Nevertheless, the design of RF circuits for real products remains a challenge due to the strong constraints on power consumption and noise that leave very little margins for the RF IC designer. Ther... |

10 | CMOS RF modeling for GHz communication IC’s,” in - Ou, Jin, et al. - 1998 |

10 |
Modeling the Polysilicon Depletion Effect and Its impact on Submicrometer CMOS Circuit Performance
- Arora, Rios, et al.
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...apacitance corresponds to the total intrinsic gate capacitance . The shape of the intrinsic capacitances versus bias are slightly different for short-channel devices due mainly to polydepletion [21], =-=[53]-=- and short-channel effects [21], [54]. As an example, capacitance may typically look as shown by the dashed line in Fig. 3. The gate and source transadmittances and are given by where and are, respect... |

10 |
der Ziel, Noise in Solid-State Devices and Circuits
- van
- 1986
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...high-frequency. 6 In addition to the channel thermal noise at the drain, at HF the local noise sources within the channel are capacitively coupled to the gate and generate an induced gate noise [21], =-=[61]-=-–[68]. B. Channel Thermal Noise Although all the noise sources contribute to the total noise at HF, the dominant contribution still comes from the channel thermal noise having a PSD given by[18] and [... |

9 | An effective gate resistance model for CMOS RF and noise modeling,” - Jin, Ou, et al. - 1998 |

9 | Modeling Substrate Effects in the Design of High-Speed Si-Bipolar IC’s - Pfost, Rein, et al. - 1996 |

8 | A charge-conserving nonquasi-static MOSFET model for SPICE transient analysis - Park, Ko, et al. - 1987 |

8 | Modeling of the MOS transistor for high frequency analog design - Vandeloo, Sansen - 1989 |

8 |
Microwave CMOS - device physics and design
- Manku
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...efficient isswiths[9][10]. For short-channel devices, device noise simulations have shown that the correlation factorsremains mainly imaginary with a value slightly smaller than the longchannel value =-=[12]-=-[13]. The induced gate noise is not implemented in compact models yet (except for MOS Model 9 that includes the induced gate noise but without the correlation). As shown in Fig. 6, a noisy twoport can... |

6 |
The highfrequency analogue performance of MOSFETs
- Vanoppen, Geelen, et al.
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...istances, mainly a gate resistance [21], [22]. However, this is not sufficient. At HF, the signal coupling through the substrate has to be accounted for by adding adequate substrate resistances [21], =-=[23]-=-–[32]. Also, nonquasi-static (NQS) effects have to be accounted for at least for the slower -channel device and/or for nonminimum channel length devices used for example in bias circuits [21], [36]–[5... |

6 | An analytical model for the non-quasistatic small-signal behaviour of submicron MOSFETs - Smedes, Klaassen - 1995 |

6 | MOSFET modeling for analog circuit CAD: Problems and prospects - Tsividis, Suyama - 1994 |

6 | A small-signal MOSFET model for radio frequency IC applications - Abou-Allam, Manku - 1997 |

6 |
Substrate Network Modeling for CMOS RF Circuit Simulation,”
- Tin, Mayaram
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ribution within the substrate. Also, note that and are bias-dependent, but this discussion is beyond the scope of this paper. A comparison between several substrate resistive networks is presented in =-=[77]-=-. It is claimed that a single substrate resistor, corresponding to the circuit of Fig. 1 with , is adequate to accurately model the small-signal parameters up to 10 GHz. It is important to note that t... |

5 | High-frequency application of MOS compact models and their development for scalable RF MOS libraries,” - Pehlke, Schroter, et al. - 1998 |

5 | A nonquasi-static analysis of the transient behavior of the long-channel MOST valid in all regions of operation - Mancini, Turchetti, et al. - 1987 |

5 | Unified nonquasi-static modeling of the long-channel four-terminal MOSFET for large and small-signal analyses in all operating regimes - Chai, Paulos - 1989 |

5 | Small-signal parameters and thermal noise of the four-terminal MOSFET at very high frequencies - Pu, Tsividis - 1990 |

4 | Improved small-signal equivalent circuit model and large-signal state-equations for the MOSFET/MODFET wave equation - Roblin, Kang, et al. - 1991 |

4 | A Non-Quasi-Static MOSFET Model for SPICE-AC Analysis - Park, Ko, et al. - 1992 |

4 | A universal large/small signal 3-terminal FET model using a nonquasi-static charge-based approach - Daniels, Yang, et al. - 1993 |

3 | High-Frequency AC Characteristics of 1.5 nm Gate Oxide MOSFETs - Momose, Morifuji, et al. - 1996 |

3 |
RF noise in 1.5nm gate oxide MOSFETs and the evaluation of the NMOS LNA circuit integrated on a chip
- MOMOSE, FUJIMOTO, et al.
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ulation, SPICE. I. INTRODUCTION TODAY, deep-submicrometer CMOS processes typically reach the 50-GHz region and offer low noise figures, making them serious alternative for RF circuits integration [1]–=-=[5]-=-. In addition, CMOS offers very large scale integration (VLSI) capabilities allowing for a high level of integration. The feasibility of RF CMOS circuits integration has been demonstrated with prototy... |

3 | Transistor Modeling Dedicated to Low-Current and Low-Voltage Analog Circuit Design and Simulation,” in Low-power HF Microelectronics: A Unified Approach - Enz, “MOS - 1996 |

3 | Geometry scaling of the substrate loss of RF MOSFETs - Tiemeijer, Klaassen - 1998 |

3 |
A Nonlinear Microwave MOSFET Model for Spice Simulators
- Biber, Schmatz, et al.
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...t correctly accounted for. 3 Good results for the bias dependence of the overall gate-tosource and gate-to-drain capacitances have been obtained by using the simple empirical relation as described in =-=[33]-=-–[35]. Note that all the terminal resistances as well as the substrate resistances are also bias-dependent. The bias dependence of the source and drain resistances is mostly due to the LDD regions. Th... |

3 | Analytic solution of the velocity-saturated MOSFETiMODFET wave equation and its application to the prediction of the microwave characteristics of MODFET’s - Kang, MorkoG - 1990 |

3 | A Charge Conserving Non-Quasi-Static (NQS) MOSFET Model for SPICE Transient Analysis - Park, Ko, et al. - 1991 |

3 |
A CAD-compatible non-quasi-static MOSFET model
- Liu, Bowen, et al.
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...3]–[32]. Also, nonquasi-static (NQS) effects have to be accounted for at least for the slower -channel device and/or for nonminimum channel length devices used for example in bias circuits [21], [36]–=-=[51]-=-. 1 Section II presents the modeling of the MOS transistor at RF with emphasis on the small-signal operation in strong inversion and in saturation. Simple expressions for the parameters are derived th... |

3 | Induced gate noise in MOSFET’s revisited: The submicron case,” - Triantis, Birbas, et al. - 1997 |

2 | The future of CMOS wireless transceivers - Rofougaran, Chang - 1997 |

2 |
A physical and scalable s–† model in BSIM3v3 for analog/digital circuit simulation
- Cheng, Jeng, et al.
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ults can be obtained for lower frequency circuits (typically below 100 MHz), the simulation of RF circuits in the gigahertz frequency range with the available MOS compact models such as BSIM3v3 [13], =-=[14]-=-, MOS Model 9 [15], [16], or EKV [17]–[20] without consideration of the parasitic components gives inaccurate or even wrong results. Therefore, Manuscript received April 2, 1999; revised October 19, 1... |

2 |
Scalable GM/I Based MOSFET Model
- Bucher, Lallement, et al.
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ircuits (typically below 100 MHz), the simulation of RF circuits in the gigahertz frequency range with the available MOS compact models such as BSIM3v3 [13], [14], MOS Model 9 [15], [16], or EKV [17]–=-=[20]-=- without consideration of the parasitic components gives inaccurate or even wrong results. Therefore, Manuscript received April 2, 1999; revised October 19, 1999 C. Enz was with Conexant Systems, Inc.... |

2 | RF modeling issues of deep-submicron MOSFET’s for circuit design - Cheng, Schroter, et al. - 1998 |

2 |
Accurate MOS transistor modeling and parameter extraction valid up to 10-GHz,” in
- Jen, Enz, et al.
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...pancy in if the transcapacitance in (9) is neglected. Note that the simplified parameters given by (9) can be used for a direct extraction of the RF model parameters from measurements as presented in =-=[30]-=- and [31]. For example, can be extracted from and from . In the linear region, and , whereas in saturation, and therefore . The gate resistance can be extracted as . The extraction of the substrate re... |

2 |
A small-signal dc-to high frequency nonquasistatic model for four-terminal MOSFET valid in all regions of operation
- Bagheri, Tsividis
- 1985
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...], [23]–[32]. Also, nonquasi-static (NQS) effects have to be accounted for at least for the slower -channel device and/or for nonminimum channel length devices used for example in bias circuits [21], =-=[36]-=-–[51]. 1 Section II presents the modeling of the MOS transistor at RF with emphasis on the small-signal operation in strong inversion and in saturation. Simple expressions for the parameters are deriv... |

2 | Optimal Second-Order Small-Signal Model for Long- and Shortchannel Three-terminal MOSFET/MODFET Wave Equation - Kang, Roblin - 1992 |

2 |
Analysis of velocity saturation and other effects on short-channel MOS transistor capacitances
- Iwai, Pinto, et al.
- 1985
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ntrinsic gate capacitance . The shape of the intrinsic capacitances versus bias are slightly different for short-channel devices due mainly to polydepletion [21], [53] and short-channel effects [21], =-=[54]-=-. As an example, capacitance may typically look as shown by the dashed line in Fig. 3. The gate and source transadmittances and are given by where and are, respectively, the gate and source transcapac... |

2 |
A compact-charge LDD-MOSFET model
- Klein
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nting an NQS model on top of a charge-based modeltoavoidwrongmagnitudeandphasecharacteristics. The overlap capacitances are also bias-dependent due to the lightly-doped source and drain (LDD) regions =-=[55]-=-. The overlap portion of the LDD regions behave similarly to a MOS capacitor of the opposite type than the channel. Therefore, when the transistor is biased in inversion, the overlap LDD regions may b... |

2 |
On the high frequency excess noise and equivalent circuit representation of the MOSFET with n-type channel
- Halladay, Ziel
- 1969
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...BRUARY 2000 Fig. 13. noise factor computed from (19) for a long- (v aIH"m) and a short-channel (v aHXQT "m) device with � aIH m/s and ( aIps. source connected in parallel to and having a PSD given by =-=[64]-=-–[66] with (22) and where is a bias-dependent factor that is equal to 4/3 for a long-channel device in saturation and [65], [66]. Note that PSD is frequency-dependent. Since the physical origin of the... |

2 | Noise in field-effect transistors at very high frequencies - Klaassen, Prins - 1969 |

2 |
High Frequency noise of MOSFETs-I modeling
- Chen, Deen
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...frequency. 6 In addition to the channel thermal noise at the drain, at HF the local noise sources within the channel are capacitively coupled to the gate and generate an induced gate noise [21], [61]–=-=[68]-=-. B. Channel Thermal Noise Although all the noise sources contribute to the total noise at HF, the dominant contribution still comes from the channel thermal noise having a PSD given by[18] and [21] w... |

2 |
A straightforward noise de-embedding method and its application to high-speed silicon bipolar transistors
- Aufinger, Boeck
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...istance when doing noise calculation and noise optimization. The noise parameters of an -channel device have been measured and carefully de-embedded using the methodology presented in [68], [69], and =-=[74]-=-. The parameters are presented in Fig. 17 and are compared to the results obtained from simulation using the complete subcircuit of Fig. 1 with the additional induced gate noise source added to the su... |

2 |
Momose et al., “High-frequency ac characteristics of 1.5 nm gate oxide MOSFETs
- S
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... on a 0.25µm CMOS process are presented that validate the RF MOST model up to 10GHz. I. INTRODUCTION Today, deep-submicron CMOS processes typically reach the 50 GHzsregion and offer low noise figures =-=[1]-=-, making them a serious alternative for RF circuits integration for applications in the GHz frequency range. In addition, CMOS offers VLSI capabilities allowing for a high level of integration. The fe... |

1 |
An assessment of the state-of-the-art 0.5mm bulk CMOS technology for RF applications
- Voinigescu, Tarasewicz, et al.
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... simulation, SPICE. I. INTRODUCTION TODAY, deep-submicrometer CMOS processes typically reach the 50-GHz region and offer low noise figures, making them serious alternative for RF circuits integration =-=[1]-=-–[5]. In addition, CMOS offers very large scale integration (VLSI) capabilities allowing for a high level of integration. The feasibility of RF CMOS circuits integration has been demonstrated with pro... |

1 | Compact modeling of submicron CMOS
- Klaassen
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... lower frequency circuits (typically below 100 MHz), the simulation of RF circuits in the gigahertz frequency range with the available MOS compact models such as BSIM3v3 [13], [14], MOS Model 9 [15], =-=[16]-=-, or EKV [17]–[20] without consideration of the parasitic components gives inaccurate or even wrong results. Therefore, Manuscript received April 2, 1999; revised October 19, 1999 C. Enz was with Cone... |

1 | A physical large-signal Si MOSFET model for RF circuit design - Ho, Green, et al. - 1997 |

1 | RF modeling of MOSFETs,” in Analog Circuit Design - Klaassen, Nauta, et al. - 1996 |

1 |
MOS transistor modeling and parameter extraction valid up to 10-GHz
- “Accurate
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...width and since the terminal resistances are inversely proportional to , the time constant due to the terminal resistances depend only on the gate length , the overlap length , or the diffusion width =-=[31]-=-. The latter dimensions are usually taken as minimum to achieve the highest cutoff frequency. Therefore, the poles due to the ter3 Strictly speaking, capacitances g and g in this paper should not be c... |

1 | Microwave modeling and circuit design with sub-micron CMOS technologies - Biber - 1998 |

1 | Modeling the MOS transistor at high frequencies - Sansen, Vandeloo - 1986 |

1 | Measuring and fitting of the small-signal model of the MOS transistor for high frequency applications - Vandeloo, Sansen - 1988 |

1 | High-Speed Semiconductor Devices - Beneking - 1994 |

1 |
High frequency noise of MOSFETs—II
- Chen, Deen, et al.
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...strate resistance when doing noise calculation and noise optimization. The noise parameters of an -channel device have been measured and carefully de-embedded using the methodology presented in [68], =-=[69]-=-, and [74]. The parameters are presented in Fig. 17 and are compared to the results obtained from simulation using the complete subcircuit of Fig. 1 with the additional induced gate noise source added... |

1 |
simulations and physics of the channel noise parameters within MOS transistors
- “RF
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...and therefore reduces to . For short-channel, increases in strong inversion to about six times the long-channel value. This is in good agreement with the measured data [70] and device simulation data =-=[76]-=-. C. Induced Gate Noise At HF, the local channel voltage fluctuations due to thermal noise couple to the gate through the oxide capacitance and cause an induced gate noise current to flow (cf. Fig. 14... |

1 |
et al., “BSIM3, Version 3.0
- Cheng
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...cuits. Although good results can be obtained at low frequency (typically below 100 MHz), the simulation of RF circuits in the GHz frequency range with the available compact MOS models such as BSIM3v3 =-=[2]-=-, MOS Model 9 [3] or EKV [4] without consideration of all the parasitic components, gives inaccurate or even wrong results. These models have therefore to be enhanced in order to be used for RF CMOS I... |