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## Issue on Advances in Autonomous Vehicle Technologies for Urban Environment, 1/2 (6), pp.4- 23. <inria-00115112v2> (2008)

### Citations

718 | Efficient variants of the icp algorithm
- Rusinkiewicz, Levoy
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...is the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) [35]. This iterative method is very straightforward but provides slow convergence rates and small attraction regions. This is why many variants have been proposed =-=[24]-=-, changing the point to point association methods or changing the optimization metrics [16]. Recently a new approach has been proposed [8, 11]. Instead of matching two cloud of points, a cloud of poin... |

660 | Iterative point matching for registration of free-form curves and surfaces.
- Zhang
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...an be used both to estimate small displacements between two measures, and to recognize a revisited place. The classic method for scan matching (both in 2D and 3D) is the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) =-=[35]-=-. This iterative method is very straightforward but provides slow convergence rates and small attraction regions. This is why many variants have been proposed [24], changing the point to point associa... |

457 |
On curves of minimal length with a constraint on average curvature and with prescribed
- Dubins
- 1957
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...cillatory and poor quality trajectories with low convergence (Fig. 6(b)). The first non-holonomic metric was based on real path length calculation, a summation of straight segments and arc of circles =-=[4]-=-. Later, the continuous curvature (CC) metric was presented in [25]. Basically, this metric connects the straight path and the arc of circle of the dubbins path, where there is a discontinuity in the ... |

368 | Robotic mapping: A survey
- Thrun
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... is well know that it exists a duality between creating consistent maps and localizing the robot, such duality has been extensively studied as the Simultaneous Localization And Mapping (SLAM) problem =-=[28]-=-. Unfortunately most of the works in SLAM suppose a static environment. The presence of moving obstacles will contaminate the map and perturb the data association between two observations. For the pla... |

262 | Randomized kinodynamic motion planning with moving obstacles,”
- Hsu, Kindel, et al.
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ion problems and cannot account for general kinematic or dynamic system's constraints. Recent random techniques have been presented with very fast and impressive results for higher dimension problems =-=[12]-=-. The real time constraint is however never explicitly considered and therefore no computation time upper bound can be guaranteed. Due to the complexity of the motion planning problem, sometimes refer... |

124 |
Minerva: A second generation mobile tour-guide robot,”
- Thrun, Bennewitz, et al.
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...the environment model construction, and disregard the moving obstacles. Some interesting autonomous navigation systems considering moving obstacles and relaxed geometric constraints were presented by =-=[29]-=- and more recently by [18, 21]. In the last years significant advances have provided medium to high speed autonomous vehicles evolving in outdoor [30, 13]. These systems are able to evolve in structur... |

115 | Simultaneous localization, mapping and moving object tracking
- Wang, Thorpe, et al.
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...their future position. We can see that for autonomous navigation, as a strict minimum, the robot requires to solve the Simultaneous Localization, Mapping and Moving Objects Tracking (SLAMMOT) problem =-=[32]-=-. In the following paragraphs we will propose a solution to this problem and then we will discuss the additional considerations required 4when integrating perception and planning. The key point to cre... |

113 | Anytime Dynamic A*: An Anytime, Replanning Algorithm,”
- Likhachev, Ferguson, et al.
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... also referred to as motion planning methods, consist in calculating a priori a complete motion plan to the goal. Some approaches based on improved dynamic programming techniques, have been presented =-=[14]-=-. These methods however are restricted to low dimension problems and cannot account for general kinematic or dynamic system's constraints. Recent random techniques have been presented with very fast a... |

107 | Multi-scale EM-ICP: A Fast and Robust Approach for Surface Registration.
- Granger, Pennec
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...action regions. This is why many variants have been proposed [24], changing the point to point association methods or changing the optimization metrics [16]. Recently a new approach has been proposed =-=[8, 11]-=-. Instead of matching two cloud of points, a cloud of points is matched over a distribution of probabilities indicating the probable presence of an object at each point of the space. This 5approach ha... |

99 | The normal distributions transform: A new approach to laser scan matching,” in
- Biber
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...int search and providing more robust results with faster convergence rates. One method of this family, called Normal Distribution Transform (NDT) has been successfully applied to robotic applications =-=[1]-=-. This method can be seen as a crude but fast approximation for modelling the space occupancy probability distribution, or as an enhanced version of the traditional occupancy grid representation [9]. ... |

77 | Safe motion planning in dynamic environments,”
- Petti, Fraichard
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ars when safety has to be checked for the continuous sequence of states defining the trajectory. In order to solve this problem and further reduce the complexity of the PMP algorithm, we presented in =-=[20]-=- a property that simplifies the safety checking for a trajectory. This property is important since first, it proves a trajectory is continuously safe while the states safety is verified discretely onl... |

40 |
Winning the darpa grand challenge
- Thrun, Montemerlo, et al.
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...d relaxed geometric constraints were presented by [29] and more recently by [18, 21]. In the last years significant advances have provided medium to high speed autonomous vehicles evolving in outdoor =-=[30, 13]-=-. These systems are able to evolve in structured and non structured environment, considering the dynamic constraints of the vehicle and the presence of static obstacles. Recently an autonomous navigat... |

37 | Mobile robot simultaneous localization and mapping in dynamic environments.
- Wolf, Sukhatme
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...is available it is possible to enhance the matching method using stochastic search or with a multiresolution extension [8, 23]. 6Table 1 Inverse observation model for the static occupancy probability =-=[34]-=-. P (Sxt−1) P (S x| ot) P (Sxt | Sxt−1, ot) Free Free Low Unknown Free Low Occupied Free Low Free Occupied Low Unknown Occupied High Occupied Occupied High In the next subsection we will discuss how t... |

33 | The CyCab: a car-like robot navigating autonomously and safely among pedestrians
- Pradalier, Hermosillo, et al.
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ..., considering the dynamic constraints of the vehicle and the presence of static obstacles. Recently an autonomous navigation architecture integrating moving obstacles and safety notions was presented =-=[22]-=-. However they rely on a structured environment assumption and do not explicitly integrate the dynamic environment considerations at the planning stage. Finally some previous works have discussed the ... |

27 | Towards lazy data association in SLAM.
- Hähnel, Burgard, et al.
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... the non availability regions of the GPS are variable, 100% success rates will be not possible to ensure. In such situations erroneous data association detection and correction methods can be applied =-=[10]-=-. 7 Conclusion and perspectives In this paper, we analyzed the main difficulties associated to the navigation of driverless vehicles in urban environments. We propose a perception-planning duo able to... |

25 | Motion prediction for moving objects: A statistical approach
- Vasquez, Fraichard
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...f surrounding obstacles depends on their position. It would be interesting to be able to model their maximum speed as a function of the space in order to make worst case estimations less conservative =-=[31, 33]-=-. Once we are able to create a consistent world model in real time, we now need to construct a trajectory that respects both safety and computation time constraints. 93 Planning in dynamic environment... |

23 | Metric-based scan matching algorithms for mobile robot displacement estimation,”
- Minguez, Lamiraux, et al.
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...t provides slow convergence rates and small attraction regions. This is why many variants have been proposed [24], changing the point to point association methods or changing the optimization metrics =-=[16]-=-. Recently a new approach has been proposed [8, 11]. Instead of matching two cloud of points, a cloud of points is matched over a distribution of probabilities indicating the probable presence of an o... |

22 | A multi-resolution pyramid for outdoor robot terrain perception,”
- Montemerlo, Thrun
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... When using vision as the base sensor the error augment exponentially with the distance thus the proposed approach would be inadequate. In such case a multiresolution grid approach should be explored =-=[17]-=-. The second derivatives of the score function can be written explicitly, so the Hessian matrix can be evaluated at the computed optimum point. Then this matrix can be used to approximate the uncertai... |

21 | Towards object mapping in dynamic environments with mobile robots - Biswas, Limketkai, et al. - 2002 |

21 | Autonomous driving in structured and unstructured environments
- Kolski, Ferguson, et al.
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...d relaxed geometric constraints were presented by [29] and more recently by [18, 21]. In the last years significant advances have provided medium to high speed autonomous vehicles evolving in outdoor =-=[30, 13]-=-. These systems are able to evolve in structured and non structured environment, considering the dynamic constraints of the vehicle and the presence of static obstacles. Recently an autonomous navigat... |

17 | Marker-free registration of terrestrial laser scans using the normal distribution transform
- Ripperda, Brenner
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...more robust, it is at least more adequate than plain ICP. If more computing time is available it is possible to enhance the matching method using stochastic search or with a multiresolution extension =-=[8, 23]-=-. 6Table 1 Inverse observation model for the static occupancy probability [34]. P (Sxt−1) P (S x| ot) P (Sxt | Sxt−1, ot) Free Free Low Unknown Free Low Occupied Free Low Free Occupied Low Unknown Occ... |

16 | Modeling the static and the dynamic parts of the environment to improve sensor-based navigation
- Montesano, Minguez, et al.
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...truction, and disregard the moving obstacles. Some interesting autonomous navigation systems considering moving obstacles and relaxed geometric constraints were presented by [29] and more recently by =-=[18, 21]-=-. In the last years significant advances have provided medium to high speed autonomous vehicles evolving in outdoor [30, 13]. These systems are able to evolve in structured and non structured environm... |

12 |
Pedestrian recognition and tracking of vehicles using a vehicle based multilayer laserscanner
- Fuerstenberg, Dietmayer
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... multiple moving objects is a classical problem. In the general case this problem is very hard, however it has be shown experimentally that simple methods are good enough to cope with urban scenarios =-=[7, 32]-=-. We use a similar approach to [7]. 2.4 Safety considerations In the driverless vehicle context, safety is associated to collision free trajectories. Since the world model provided by the perception m... |

11 |
An Experimental Investigation into the Performance of GPS-based Vehicle Positioning in Very Dense Urban Areas.
- Chao, Chen, et al.
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... the uncertainty of the position anywhere over the globe to less than 30 meters of error. However these systems require a wireless link with satellites, which are commonly unreachable in dense cities =-=[3]-=-. A realistic estimation is 50% of availability. Successful city sized SLAM will depend on the adequate fusing of GPS measures with other sensors measures in order to bound the pose uncertainty up to ... |

11 | Automated 3D Model Generation for Urban Environments - Frueh - 2002 |

11 | Safe robot driving in cluttered environments
- Thorpe, Carlson, et al.
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ate the dynamic environment considerations at the planning stage. Finally some previous works have discussed the safety issues 3in urban environments and their relation to the perception requirements =-=[26]-=-. Previous approaches differ in several ways, however it is clear that an autonomous robot placed in a partially predictable dynamic environment must have perceptive, deliberative and reactive capabil... |

8 | Dependable perception for robots
- Thorpe, Clatz, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ks for a larger map. In section 6 we discuss the city sized SLAM problem. In outdoor mobile robotics, the sensors commonly employed to observe the surrounds are video cameras, radars and laser scans =-=[27]-=-. We choose the last one due to its larger range (more than 180 ◦ and 40 meters) and high precision (±1◦ and ±0.1 meters). Notice that the laser scanner measures provide information about the presence... |

7 |
Automated public vehicles : A first step towards the automated highway
- Parent
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...with respect to congestion, pollution, and safety. A large effort has been put in industrial countries into developing new types of transportation systems, the Cybercars, as an answer to this problem =-=[19]-=-. Cybercars are city vehicles with fully automated driving capabilities. Such autonomous systems cannot be realized without using several capabilities designed to work together in a single application... |

6 | Toward online probabilistic path replanning in dynamic environments
- Philippsen, Jensen, et al.
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...truction, and disregard the moving obstacles. Some interesting autonomous navigation systems considering moving obstacles and relaxed geometric constraints were presented by [29] and more recently by =-=[18, 21]-=-. In the last years significant advances have provided medium to high speed autonomous vehicles evolving in outdoor [30, 13]. These systems are able to evolve in structured and non structured environm... |

5 |
Mapping with Mobile Robots
- Haehnel
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s [1]. This method can be seen as a crude but fast approximation for modelling the space occupancy probability distribution, or as an enhanced version of the traditional occupancy grid representation =-=[9]-=-. Instead of approximating the occupancy probability by a grid of squares, it is approximated by a grid of overlapping gaussian distributions. The space is subdivided in a grid and each cell is associ... |

5 | Planning continuous-curvature paths for car-like robots,"
- Scheuer, Fraichard
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... 6(b)). The first non-holonomic metric was based on real path length calculation, a summation of straight segments and arc of circles [4]. Later, the continuous curvature (CC) metric was presented in =-=[25]-=-. Basically, this metric connects the straight path and the arc of circle of the dubbins path, where there is a discontinuity in the curvature, with a clothoid. This metric is very natural to the syst... |

4 |
Eric Grimson. Learning semantic scene models by trajectory analysis
- Wang, Tieu
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...f surrounding obstacles depends on their position. It would be interesting to be able to model their maximum speed as a function of the space in order to make worst case estimations less conservative =-=[31, 33]-=-. Once we are able to create a consistent world model in real time, we now need to construct a trajectory that respects both safety and computation time constraints. 93 Planning in dynamic environment... |

3 |
Haitao Zhang, Olaf Hall-Holt. Range image registration via probability field
- Kaufman
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...action regions. This is why many variants have been proposed [24], changing the point to point association methods or changing the optimization metrics [16]. Recently a new approach has been proposed =-=[8, 11]-=-. Instead of matching two cloud of points, a cloud of points is matched over a distribution of probabilities indicating the probable presence of an object at each point of the space. This 5approach ha... |

3 | 3d modelling for underground mining vehicles
- Magnusson, Duckett, et al.
- 2005
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ap to evaluate thus optimization methods such as gradient descent and Newton's can be applied directly. It has been experimentally validated that this approach is both faster and more robust than ICP =-=[15]-=-. Since the grid of gaussians can be updated incrementally, it does not only provide a good scan matching method, but it can also be used as a map representation. Since the gaussians are estimated usi... |