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## An Introduction to Real-Time Operating Systems: Scheduling Theory (1992)

Citations: | 8 - 0 self |

### Citations

14047 |
Computers and intractability. A guide to the theory of NPcompleteness
- Garey
- 1979
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... algorithms, service disciplines, etc. which do not allow preemption among tasks. 53sNP the class of decision problems that can be solved in polynomial time by a non-deterministic Turing machine (see =-=[11]-=- or [25]. NP-complete a problem P is NP-complete if P is NP-hard and P 2NP. NP-hard a problem P is NP-hard if 8P 0 2NP, P 0 reduces to P. off-line refers to a computation which is done before the syst... |

3746 | Scheduling algorithms for multiprogramming in a hard-real-time environment
- Liu, Layland
- 1973
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ited by Coffman and Bruno [7] and the survey of recent results by Lawler et al. [21] which is a revised version of the survey by Graham et al. [13]. The periodic scheduling results of Liu and Layland =-=[28]-=- and Serlin [39] which are summarized in [12] are classified as deterministic scheduling results and have significant practical value. The rate monotonic scheduling algorithm described by Liu and Layl... |

701 |
The rate monotonic scheduling algorithm: Exact characterization and average case behavior.
- Lehoczky, Sha, et al.
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... telephone 4 2 15 s 2 ms smoke detector 5 2 15 s 2 ms motion detector 6 2 15 s 2 ms toilet overflow detector Table 3: Example Task Set with Rate Monotonic Priority Assignment given by Lehoczky et al. =-=[23]-=-. If we have a task set 1� 2� ...� n that meets all of the above requirements and that is in priority order (i < j ) the priority of i is higher than the priority of j), then i will meet all of its de... |

497 |
Introduction to Sequencing and Scheduling
- Baker
- 1974
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ts of scheduling theory, both deterministic and stochastic. This book is set in the language of industrial management although application to computer scheduling is straightforward. The book by Baker =-=[1]-=- also provides an introductory treatment of deterministic scheduling. And the survey by Gonzalez [12] provides an introductory description of computer applications of deterministic scheduling theory. ... |

403 |
fundamental Design Problems of Distributed Systems for the Hard Real-Time Environment
- Mok
- 1983
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...thm. Mok showed that least-slack-time scheduling is optimal in that if any algorithm can schedule a given task set with no missed deadlines, then the least-slack-time scheduling algorithm can as well =-=[32]-=-. The “time slice swapping” technique Mok used to prove this is the same as that used by Dertouzos in showing the optimality of earliest-deadline-first scheduling [9]. 6.3. Practical Considerations Dy... |

390 |
Aperiodic task scheduling for hard real-time systems,”
- Sprunt, Sha, et al.
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...has a chance to execute. In an effort to improve the average response times of aperiodic activities while still retaining the predictabilityof the rate monotonic analysis, aperiodic server algorithms =-=[24, 42, 43]-=- have been developed 35sand analyzed. These servers are periodic activities which provide service for aperiodic activities but are scheduled in the framework of the rate monotonic algorithm. The defer... |

310 |
Theory of scheduling.
- Conway, Maxwell, et al.
- 1967
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...emerged from study in this area. Several introductory articles and books are available which deal with the approach and results available in deterministic scheduling theory. The book by Conway et al. =-=[8]-=- is the first collection and summary of the results of scheduling theory, both deterministic and stochastic. This book is set in the language of industrial management although application to computer ... |

257 |
Complexity of machine scheduling problems
- Lenstra, Kan
- 1979
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ask fails to meet its deadline. On 2 identical parallel processors, minimize maximum completion time (with no preemptions, equal release times, and no precedence constraints). This problem is NP-hard =-=[4, 26]-=-. 29sPjpmtnjCmax J3jpij =1jCmax 4.5. Scheduling in Practice On identical parallel processors, minimize maximum completion time with preemptions allowed (with equal release times and no precedence cons... |

256 | Algorithms for Scheduling Imprecise Computations
- Liu, Lin, et al.
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ocessor time that can be allotted to the computation will refine the minimal result, increasing its accuracy. This approach to real-time scheduling is described in an introductory paper by Liu et al. =-=[29]-=- on which this section is based. Shih et al. [40] and Chung et al. [6] discuss other more detailed aspects of this work, and Lin et al. [27] describe a language implementation which provides construct... |

250 |
Control robotics: the procedural control of physical processors
- Dertouzos
- 1974
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...arliest-deadline-first algorithm is optimal in the following sense: if any algorithm can schedule a particular task set without missing any deadlines, the earliestdeadline-first algorithm can as well =-=[9]-=-. Dertouzos proved this using the following general technique. Consider the task set shown in Figure 21. All of the tasks meet their deadlines even though there is one pair of tasks which is not in ea... |

241 |
Enhanced Aperiodic Responsiveness in a Hard Real-Time Environment.
- Lehoczky, Sha, et al.
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...has a chance to execute. In an effort to improve the average response times of aperiodic activities while still retaining the predictabilityof the rate monotonic analysis, aperiodic server algorithms =-=[24, 42, 43]-=- have been developed 35sand analyzed. These servers are periodic activities which provide service for aperiodic activities but are scheduled in the framework of the rate monotonic algorithm. The defer... |

236 |
Various optimizers for single-stage production
- SMITH
- 1956
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...or this problem [20]. On a single processor, minimize the sum of weighted completion times with no preemptions, no precedence constraints, and equal arrival times. The solution is to use Smith’s rule =-=[41]-=- to schedule tasks in order of non-increasing ratios w j=pj. On a single processor, minimize the number of tasks that miss their deadlines (no preemptions, no precedence constraints, and equal release... |

210 |
Computer and Job-Shop Scheduling Theory,
- Coffman
- 1976
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...more tutorial approach to presenting scheduling results. And he also introduces areas for further research. Other comprehensive surveys in this area include the collection edited by Coffman and Bruno =-=[7]-=- and the survey of recent results by Lawler et al. [21] which is a revised version of the survey by Graham et al. [13]. The periodic scheduling results of Liu and Layland [28] and Serlin [39] which ar... |

190 | Machine-independent virtual memory management for paged uniprocessor and multiprocessor architectures.
- Rashid, Tevanian, et al.
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ermine whether a general task set with arbitrary value functions could be effectively scheduled. In related work, Tokuda et al. [44] modified the model and implemented it on the Mach operating system =-=[36]-=-. In this more practical work, they allowed only piecewise-linear value functions with three linear sections instead of two-section functions with the more general functions. Figure 26 shows some exam... |

162 |
A time driven scheduling model for real-time operating systems
- Jensen, Locke, et al.
- 1985
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... off-line analysis results in a simple scheduling rule that can be applied at run-time. More recently, Jensen et al. explored the use of value functions in modern real-time computer operating systems =-=[17]-=-. They proposed and evaluated several different heuristic policies for making 39svalue 0 R D time Figure 23: Linear Value Function scheduling decisions based on the value of ready jobs. These scheduli... |

155 |
Rinnooy Kan. Optimization and approximation in deterministic sequencing and scheduling: A survey. Annals of Discrete Mathematics
- Graham, Lawler, et al.
- 1979
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ever, provide a clear classification of deterministic scheduling problems and results, although he includes a table of references and an indication of their applicability. The survey by Graham et al. =-=[13]-=- of deterministic scheduling results provides both an effective classification of deterministic scheduling problems and a broad survey of results. The introductory article by Blazewicz [3] also uses t... |

155 |
The deferrable server algorithm for enhanced aperiodic responsiveness in hard real-time environments,
- Strosnider, Lehoczky, et al.
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...has a chance to execute. In an effort to improve the average response times of aperiodic activities while still retaining the predictabilityof the rate monotonic analysis, aperiodic server algorithms =-=[24, 42, 43]-=- have been developed 35sand analyzed. These servers are periodic activities which provide service for aperiodic activities but are scheduled in the framework of the rate monotonic algorithm. The defer... |

150 |
Synchronization in real-time systems: A Priority Inheritance Approach
- Rajkumar
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...oss some communication medium between two processors. Rajkumar developed synchronizationalgorithmsand accompanying analysistechniques based on the rate monotonic scheduling paradigm in his PhD thesis =-=[34, 35]-=-. This work addresses the problem of uniprocessor synchronization and includes policies for managing semaphore queues and synchronization requests. The problem of end-to-end analysis with more than on... |

139 |
Scheduling periodic jobs that allow imprecise results
- Chung, Liu, et al.
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nimal result, increasing its accuracy. This approach to real-time scheduling is described in an introductory paper by Liu et al. [29] on which this section is based. Shih et al. [40] and Chung et al. =-=[6]-=- discuss other more detailed aspects of this work, and Lin et al. [27] describe a language implementation which provides constructs for real-time programming using imprecise results. 8.1. Basic Schedu... |

133 |
Scheduling a production line to minimize maximum tardiness
- Jackson
- 1955
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...th no preemptions, no precedence constraints (independent tasks), and release dates at t = 0. Jackson’s rule solves this problem: schedule the tasks using the earliest deadline first selection policy =-=[16]-=-. On a single processor we wish to minimize the maximum lateness, Lmax, subject to general precedence constraints on the tasks. We note that the implicit details of this specification include: there i... |

122 |
Scheduling with deadlines and loss functions.
- McNaughton
- 1959
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... Practice On identical parallel processors, minimize maximum completion time with preemptions allowed (with equal release times and no precedence constraints). McNaughton gave a simple O(n) algorithm =-=[31]-=-. In a 3-machine job shop, we wish to minimize maximum completion time where tasks have unit processing time. Preemptions are not allowed and tasks are all released at time t = 0. This (simply specifi... |

109 |
Software Architecture for Hard Real-Time Applications: Cyclic Executives vs. Fixed Priority Executives”,
- Locke
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... Locke describes the cyclic executive approach along with the fixed priority executive approach, and he discusses the implications and relative advantages and disadvantages between the two approaches =-=[30]-=-. Many systems use variations on the basic cyclic executive approach [5, 10, 37]. It is interesting to note that much of the discussion of practical real-time scheduling techniques such as the cyclic ... |

103 |
Scheduling independent tasks to reduce mean finishing time,”
- Bruno, Coffman, et al.
- 1974
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ask fails to meet its deadline. On 2 identical parallel processors, minimize maximum completion time (with no preemptions, equal release times, and no precedence constraints). This problem is NP-hard =-=[4, 26]-=-. 29sPjpmtnjCmax J3jpij =1jCmax 4.5. Scheduling in Practice On identical parallel processors, minimize maximum completion time with preemptions allowed (with equal release times and no precedence cons... |

102 |
An n job, one machine sequencing algorithm for minimizing the number of late jobs
- Moore
- 1968
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...w j=pj. On a single processor, minimize the number of tasks that miss their deadlines (no preemptions, no precedence constraints, and equal release times). Moore provided the solution to this problem =-=[33]-=-: schedule tasks in earliest-deadline-first order, removing the scheduled task with the largest processing time when the most recently added task fails to meet its deadline. On 2 identical parallel pr... |

72 | The cyclic executive model and Ada. - Baker, Shaw - 1989 |

72 |
Optimal sequencing of a single machine subject to precedence constraints
- Lawler
- 1973
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...licit details of this specification include: there is no preemption, tasks are all released at time t = 0, and there are no additional resources. There is a polynomial time algorithm for this problem =-=[20]-=-. On a single processor, minimize the sum of weighted completion times with no preemptions, no precedence constraints, and equal arrival times. The solution is to use Smith’s rule [41] to schedule tas... |

58 |
A Functional Equation and its Application to Resource Allocation and Sequencing Problems
- Lawler, Moore
- 1969
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...l value in schedule a computer system where the computation time of the tasks are very small compared with the time required to compute a dynamic programming result. In related work, Lawler and Moore =-=[22]-=- describe dynamic programming solutions to a variety of similar problems such as minimization of the weighted number of tardy jobs, maximization of weighted earliness, minimization of tardiness with r... |

47 | Deterministic processor scheduling.
- Gonzalez
- 1977
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...strial management although application to computer scheduling is straightforward. The book by Baker [1] also provides an introductory treatment of deterministic scheduling. And the survey by Gonzalez =-=[12]-=- provides an introductory description of computer applications of deterministic scheduling theory. Gonzalez does a nice job of introducingthe topic and of briefly presenting many of the fundamental re... |

37 |
Task Synchronization in Real-Time Systems.”
- Rajkumar
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...oss some communication medium between two processors. Rajkumar developed synchronizationalgorithmsand accompanying analysistechniques based on the rate monotonic scheduling paradigm in his PhD thesis =-=[34, 35]-=-. This work addresses the problem of uniprocessor synchronization and includes policies for managing semaphore queues and synchronization requests. The problem of end-to-end analysis with more than on... |

33 |
Scheduling of time critical processes.
- Serlin
- 1972
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...and Bruno [7] and the survey of recent results by Lawler et al. [21] which is a revised version of the survey by Graham et al. [13]. The periodic scheduling results of Liu and Layland [28] and Serlin =-=[39]-=- which are summarized in [12] are classified as deterministic scheduling results and have significant practical value. The rate monotonic scheduling algorithm described by Liu and Layland [28] (and in... |

32 |
Expressing and Maintaining Timing Constraints in FLEX”.
- Lin, Natarajan
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...eduling is described in an introductory paper by Liu et al. [29] on which this section is based. Shih et al. [40] and Chung et al. [6] discuss other more detailed aspects of this work, and Lin et al. =-=[27]-=- describe a language implementation which provides constructs for real-time programming using imprecise results. 8.1. Basic Scheduling Environment In order to use the imprecise computation technique, ... |

28 |
Implementation of a time driven scheduler for real- time operating systems
- Tokuda, Wendorf, et al.
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e based on different heuristics and were evaluated by simulation. Tokuda et al. describe an implementation of several heuristics and give a performance evaluation of the their value-function approach =-=[44]-=- . 7.1. Value Functions A loss function is a special case of a value function where the value of the associated task is constant until a particular point in time or deadline, and then the loss functio... |

25 |
On synchronization in hard real-time systems
- Faulk, Parnas
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ity executive approach, and he discusses the implications and relative advantages and disadvantages between the two approaches [30]. Many systems use variations on the basic cyclic executive approach =-=[5, 10, 37]-=-. It is interesting to note that much of the discussion of practical real-time scheduling techniques such as the cyclic executive has been motivated by the mandated use of Ada in real-time systems and... |

14 |
Selected topics in scheduling theory
- Blazewicz
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ham et al. [13] of deterministic scheduling results provides both an effective classification of deterministic scheduling problems and a broad survey of results. The introductory article by Blazewicz =-=[3]-=- also uses the classification system presented by Graham et al. [13]. Blazewicz takes a more tutorial approach to presenting scheduling results. And he also introduces areas for further research. Othe... |

14 |
Rinnooy Kan. Recent developement in deterministic sequencing and scheduling
- Lawler, Lenstra, et al.
- 1982
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s. And he also introduces areas for further research. Other comprehensive surveys in this area include the collection edited by Coffman and Bruno [7] and the survey of recent results by Lawler et al. =-=[21]-=- which is a revised version of the survey by Graham et al. [13]. The periodic scheduling results of Liu and Layland [28] and Serlin [39] which are summarized in [12] are classified as deterministic sc... |

13 |
Rinnooy Kan, A.: Computational complexity of discrete optimization
- Lenstra
- 1979
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tricted problems an optimal solution exists, most problems, especially the more practical problems, are very difficult. Many of the optimization problems have been shown to be NP-hard; Lenstra et al. =-=[25]-=- give a brief introduction to some of the important ideas in complexity. To try to find approximate solutions to practical problems, various techniques are used which typically relax some of the assum... |

8 |
Designing real time systems in Ada
- Hood, Grover
- 1986
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ed for the specific application domain. Hood and Grover give a detailed description of the model and variations on the central theme, and they discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the approach =-=[15]-=-. Their treatment of the model is very general, although a primary focus of the report is to evaluate Ada for use in implementing cyclic executives. Baker and Shaw take a more formal approach to defin... |

8 |
On scheduling problems with deferral costs
- Lawler
- 1964
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...of value function. This case was analyzed by Schild and Fredman [38] who proposed an exponential algorithm for computing minimal schedules. Another formulation of the same problem was given by Lawler =-=[19]-=- who defined deferral cost functions with no deadlines, implying the 8i� d i = 0 restriction that McNaughton explicitly imposed. Lawler described dynamic programming and linear programming methods for... |

4 |
Scheduling tasks with deadlines and non-linear loss functions." Management Science 9
- Schild, Fredman
- 1962
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... explored in the following sections), a particular scheduling policy results in a schedule with minimal loss. Schild and Feldman extended the theory using similar models with quadratic loss functions =-=[38]-=-. Greenberger used a cost analysis for time-sharing systems [14]. These results from operations research tend to be off-line rather than on-line scheduling algorithms, although in some cases, the off-... |

2 |
Architecture of the Space Shuttle Primary
- Carlow
- 1984
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ity executive approach, and he discusses the implications and relative advantages and disadvantages between the two approaches [30]. Many systems use variations on the basic cyclic executive approach =-=[5, 10, 37]-=-. It is interesting to note that much of the discussion of practical real-time scheduling techniques such as the cyclic executive has been motivated by the mandated use of Ada in real-time systems and... |

2 |
The priority problem and computer time sharing
- Greenberger
- 1966
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...licy results in a schedule with minimal loss. Schild and Feldman extended the theory using similar models with quadratic loss functions [38]. Greenberger used a cost analysis for time-sharing systems =-=[14]-=-. These results from operations research tend to be off-line rather than on-line scheduling algorithms, although in some cases, the off-line analysis results in a simple scheduling rule that can be ap... |

2 | Queueing Systems, Vol. 1: Theory (Wiley Interscience - Kleinrock - 1975 |

1 | Cited by Graham et al - Lenstra, Kan, et al. - 1977 |