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522
Lazy Satisfiability Modulo Theories
 JOURNAL ON SATISFIABILITY, BOOLEAN MODELING AND COMPUTATION 3 (2007) 141Â224
, 2007
"... Satisfiability Modulo Theories (SMT) is the problem of deciding the satisfiability of a firstorder formula with respect to some decidable firstorder theory T (SMT (T)). These problems are typically not handled adequately by standard automated theorem provers. SMT is being recognized as increasingl ..."
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Cited by 189 (50 self)
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Satisfiability Modulo Theories (SMT) is the problem of deciding the satisfiability of a firstorder formula with respect to some decidable firstorder theory T (SMT (T)). These problems are typically not handled adequately by standard automated theorem provers. SMT is being recognized as increasingly important due to its applications in many domains in different communities, in particular in formal verification. An amount of papers with novel and very efficient techniques for SMT has been published in the last years, and some very efficient SMT tools are now available. Typical SMT (T) problems require testing the satisfiability of formulas which are Boolean combinations of atomic propositions and atomic expressions in T, so that heavy Boolean reasoning must be efficiently combined with expressive theoryspecific reasoning. The dominating approach to SMT (T), called lazy approach, is based on the integration of a SAT solver and of a decision procedure able to handle sets of atomic constraints in T (Tsolver), handling respectively the Boolean and the theoryspecific components of reasoning. Unfortunately, neither the problem of building an efficient SMT solver, nor even that
Translating pseudoboolean constraints into SAT
 Journal on Satisfiability, Boolean Modeling and Computation
, 2006
"... In this paper, we describe and evaluate three different techniques for translating pseudoboolean constraints (linear constraints over boolean variables) into clauses that can be handled by a standard SATsolver. We show that by applying a proper mix of translation techniques, a SATsolver can perfor ..."
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Cited by 185 (2 self)
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In this paper, we describe and evaluate three different techniques for translating pseudoboolean constraints (linear constraints over boolean variables) into clauses that can be handled by a standard SATsolver. We show that by applying a proper mix of translation techniques, a SATsolver can perform on a par with the best existing native pseudoboolean solvers. This is particularly valuable in those cases where the constraint problem of interest is naturally expressed as a SAT problem, except for a handful of constraints. Translating those constraints to get a pure clausal problem will take full advantage of the latest improvements in SAT research. A particularly interesting result of this work is the efficiency of sorting networks to express pseudoboolean constraints. Although tangential to this presentation, the result gives a suggestion as to how synthesis tools may be modified to produce arithmetic circuits more suitable for SAT based reasoning. Keywords: pseudoBoolean, SATsolver, SAT translation, integer linear programming
Test Input Generation with Java PathFinder
"... We show how model checking and symbolic execution can be used to generate test inputs to achieve structural coverage of code that manipulates complex data structures. We focus on obtaining branchcoverage during unit testing of some of the core methods of the redblack tree implementation in the Jav ..."
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Cited by 185 (7 self)
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We show how model checking and symbolic execution can be used to generate test inputs to achieve structural coverage of code that manipulates complex data structures. We focus on obtaining branchcoverage during unit testing of some of the core methods of the redblack tree implementation in the Java TreeMap library, using the Java PathFinder model checker. Three di#erent test generation techniques will be introduced and compared, namely, straight model checking of the code, model checking used in a blackbox fashion to generate all inputs up to a fixed size, and lastly, model checking used during whitebox test input generation. The main contribution of this work is to show how e#cient whitebox test input generation can be done for code manipulating complex data, taking into account complex method preconditions.
Cache Miss Equations: A Compiler Framework for Analyzing and Tuning Memory Behavior
 ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems
, 1999
"... This article describes methods for generating and solving Cache Miss Equations (CMEs) that give a detailed representation of cache behavior, including conflict misses, in looporiented scientific code. Implemented within the SUIF compiler framework, our approach extends traditional compiler reuse an ..."
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Cited by 168 (1 self)
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This article describes methods for generating and solving Cache Miss Equations (CMEs) that give a detailed representation of cache behavior, including conflict misses, in looporiented scientific code. Implemented within the SUIF compiler framework, our approach extends traditional compiler reuse analysis to generate linear Diophantine equations that summarize each loop's memory behavior. While solving these equations is in general di# cult, we show that is also unnecessary, as mathematical techniques for manipulating Diophantine equations allow us to relatively easily compute and/or reduce the number of possible solutions, where each solution corresponds to a potential cache miss. The mathematical precision of CMEs allows us to find true optimal solutions for transformations such as blocking or padding. The generality of CMEs also allows us to reason about interactions between transformations applied in concert. The article also gives examples of their use to determine array padding and o#set amounts that minimize cache misses, and to determine optimal blocking factors for tiled code. Overall, these equations represent an analysis framework that o#ers the generality and precision needed for detailed compiler optimizations
Proving the correctness of reactive systems using sized types
, 1996
"... { rjmh, pareto, sabry We have designed and implemented a typebased analysis for proving some baaic properties of reactive systems. The analysis manipulates rich type expressions that contain information about the sizes of recursively defined data structures. Sized types are useful for detecting d ..."
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Cited by 152 (3 self)
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{ rjmh, pareto, sabry We have designed and implemented a typebased analysis for proving some baaic properties of reactive systems. The analysis manipulates rich type expressions that contain information about the sizes of recursively defined data structures. Sized types are useful for detecting deadlocks, nontermination, and other errors in embedded programs. To establish the soundness of the analysis we have developed an appropriate semantic model of sized types. 1 Embedded Functional Programs In a reactive system, the control software must continuously react to inputs from the environment. We distinguish a class of systems where the embedded programs can be naturally expressed as functional programs manipulating streams. This class of programs appears to be large enough for many purposes [2] and is the core of more expressive formalisms that accommodate asynchronous events, nondeterminism, etc. The fundamental criterion for the correctness of programs embedded in reactive systems is Jwene.ss. Indeed, before considering the properties of the output, we must ensure that there is some output in the first place: the program must continuous] y react to the input streams by producing elements on the output streams. This latter property may fail in various ways: e the computation of a stream element may depend on itself creating a “black hole, ” or e the computation of one of the output streams may demand elements from some input stream at different rates, which requires unbounded buffering, or o the computation of a stream element may exhaust the physical resources of the machine or even diverge.
Analyzing Memory Accesses in x86 Executables
 In CC
, 2004
"... This paper concerns staticanalysis algorithms for analyzing x86 executables. ..."
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Cited by 147 (28 self)
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This paper concerns staticanalysis algorithms for analyzing x86 executables.
Symbolic Bounds Analysis of Pointers, Array Indices, and Accessed Memory Regions
 PLDI 2000
, 2000
"... This paper presents a novel framework for the symbolic bounds analysis of pointers, array indices, and accessed memory regions. Our framework formulates each analysis problem as a system of inequality constraints between symbolic bound polynomials. It then reduces the constraint system to a linear p ..."
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Cited by 134 (15 self)
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This paper presents a novel framework for the symbolic bounds analysis of pointers, array indices, and accessed memory regions. Our framework formulates each analysis problem as a system of inequality constraints between symbolic bound polynomials. It then reduces the constraint system to a linear program. The solution to the linear program provides symbolic lower and upper bounds for the values of pointer and array index variables and for the regions of memory that each statement and procedure accesses. This approach eliminates fundamental problems associated with applying standard xedpoint approaches to symbolic analysis problems. Experimental results from our implemented compiler show that the analysis can solve several important problems, including static race detection, automatic parallelization, static detection of array bounds violations, elimination of array bounds checks, and reduction of the number of bits used to store computed values.
Automatic Program Parallelization
, 1993
"... This paper presents an overview of automatic program parallelization techniques. It covers dependence analysis techniques, followed by a discussion of program transformations, including straightline code parallelization, do loop transformations, and parallelization of recursive routines. The last s ..."
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Cited by 124 (8 self)
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This paper presents an overview of automatic program parallelization techniques. It covers dependence analysis techniques, followed by a discussion of program transformations, including straightline code parallelization, do loop transformations, and parallelization of recursive routines. The last section of the paper surveys several experimental studies on the effectiveness of parallelizing compilers.
A practical automatic polyhedral parallelizer and locality optimizer
 In PLDI ’08: Proceedings of the ACM SIGPLAN 2008 conference on Programming language design and implementation
, 2008
"... We present the design and implementation of an automatic polyhedral sourcetosource transformation framework that can optimize regular programs (sequences of possibly imperfectly nested loops) for parallelism and locality simultaneously. Through this work, we show the practicality of analytical mod ..."
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Cited by 122 (8 self)
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We present the design and implementation of an automatic polyhedral sourcetosource transformation framework that can optimize regular programs (sequences of possibly imperfectly nested loops) for parallelism and locality simultaneously. Through this work, we show the practicality of analytical modeldriven automatic transformation in the polyhedral model.Unlike previous polyhedral frameworks, our approach is an endtoend fully automatic one driven by an integer linear optimization framework that takes an explicit view of finding good ways of tiling for parallelism and locality using affine transformations. The framework has been implemented into a tool to automatically generate OpenMP parallel code from C program sections. Experimental results from the tool show very high performance for local and parallel execution on multicores, when compared with stateoftheart compiler frameworks from the research community as well as the best native production compilers. The system also enables the easy use of powerful empirical/iterative optimization for general arbitrarily nested loop sequences.
Cache Miss Equations: An Analytical Representation of Cache Misses
 In Proceedings of the 1997 ACM International Conference on Supercomputing
, 1997
"... With the widening performance gap between processors and main memory, efficient memory accessing behavior is necessary for good program performance. Both handtuning and compiler optimization techniques are often used to transform codes to improve memory performance. Effective transformations requir ..."
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Cited by 115 (4 self)
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With the widening performance gap between processors and main memory, efficient memory accessing behavior is necessary for good program performance. Both handtuning and compiler optimization techniques are often used to transform codes to improve memory performance. Effective transformations require detailed knowledge about the frequency and causes of cache misses in the code.