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MONA: Monadic SecondOrder Logic in Practice
 IN PRACTICE, IN TOOLS AND ALGORITHMS FOR THE CONSTRUCTION AND ANALYSIS OF SYSTEMS, FIRST INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP, TACAS '95, LNCS 1019
, 1995
"... The purpose of this article is to introduce Monadic Secondorder Logic as a practical means of specifying regularity. The logic is a highly succinct alternative to the use of regular expressions. We have built a tool MONA, which acts as a decision procedure and as a translator to finitestate au ..."
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Cited by 149 (20 self)
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The purpose of this article is to introduce Monadic Secondorder Logic as a practical means of specifying regularity. The logic is a highly succinct alternative to the use of regular expressions. We have built a tool MONA, which acts as a decision procedure and as a translator to finitestate automata. The tool is based on new algorithms for minimizing finitestate automata that use binary decision diagrams (BDDs) to represent transition functions in compressed form. A byproduct of this work is a new bottomup algorithm to reduce BDDs in linear time without hashing. The potential
Mona Fido: The LogicAutomaton Connection in Practice
, 1998
"... We discuss in this paper how connections, discovered almost forty years ago, between logics and automata can be used in practice. For such logics expressing regular sets, we have developed tools that allow efficient symbolic reasoning not attainable by theorem proving or symbolic model checking. ..."
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Cited by 57 (10 self)
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We discuss in this paper how connections, discovered almost forty years ago, between logics and automata can be used in practice. For such logics expressing regular sets, we have developed tools that allow efficient symbolic reasoning not attainable by theorem proving or symbolic model checking. We explain how the logicautomaton connection is already exploited in a limited way for the case of Quantified Boolean Logic, where Binary Decision Diagrams act as automata. Next, we indicate how BDD data structures and algorithms can be extended to yield a practical decision procedure for a more general logic, namely WS1S, the Weak Secondorder theory of One Successor. Finally, we mention applications of the automatonlogic connection to software engineering and program verification. 1
Hardware Verification using Monadic SecondOrder Logic
 IN COMPUTER AIDED VERIFICATION : 7TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE, CAV '95, LNCS 939
, 1995
"... We show how the secondorder monadic theory of strings can be used to specify hardware components and their behavior. This logic admits a decision procedure and countermodel generator based on canonical automata for formulas. We have used a system implementing these concepts to verify, or find e ..."
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Cited by 26 (10 self)
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We show how the secondorder monadic theory of strings can be used to specify hardware components and their behavior. This logic admits a decision procedure and countermodel generator based on canonical automata for formulas. We have used a system implementing these concepts to verify, or find errors in, a number of circuits proposed in the literature. The techniques we use make it easier to identify regularity in circuits, including those that are parameterized or have parameterized behavioral specifications. Our proofs are semantic and do not require lemmas or induction as would be needed when employing a conventional theory of strings as a recursive data type.
Automata Based Symbolic Reasoning in Hardware Verification
, 1998
"... . We present a new approach to hardware verification based on describing circuits in Monadic Secondorder Logic (M2L). We show how to use this logic to represent generic designs like nbit adders, which are parameterized in space, and sequential circuits, where time is an unbounded parameter. M2L ad ..."
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Cited by 20 (11 self)
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. We present a new approach to hardware verification based on describing circuits in Monadic Secondorder Logic (M2L). We show how to use this logic to represent generic designs like nbit adders, which are parameterized in space, and sequential circuits, where time is an unbounded parameter. M2L admits a decision procedure, implemented in the Mona tool [17], which reduces formulas to canonical automata. The decision problem for M2L is nonelementary decidable and thus unlikely to be usable in practice. However, we have used Mona to automatically verify, or find errors in, a number of circuits studied in the literature. Previously published machine proofs of the same circuits are based on deduction and may involve substantial interaction with the user. Moreover, our approach is orders of magnitude faster for the examples considered. We show why the underlying computations are feasible and how our use of Mona generalizes standard BDDbased hardware reasoning. 1. Introduction Correctnes...
Representation and Symbolic Manipulation of Linearly Inductive Boolean Functions
 In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on ComputerAided Design. IEEE Computer
, 1993
"... We consider a class of practically useful Boolean functions, called Linearly Inductive Functions (LIFs), and present a canonical representation as well as algorithms for their automatic symbolic manipulation. LIFs can be used to capture structural induction in parameterized circuit descriptions, whe ..."
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Cited by 10 (1 self)
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We consider a class of practically useful Boolean functions, called Linearly Inductive Functions (LIFs), and present a canonical representation as well as algorithms for their automatic symbolic manipulation. LIFs can be used to capture structural induction in parameterized circuit descriptions, whereby our LIF representation provides a fixedsized representation for all size instances of a circuit. Furthermore, since LIFs can naturally capture the temporal induction inherent in sequential system descriptions, our representation also provides a canonical form for sequential functions. This allows for a wide range of applications of symbolic LIF manipulation in the verification and synthesis of digital systems. We also present practical results from a preliminary implementation of a general purpose LIF package. 1 Introduction Symbolic manipulation of Boolean functions has found numerous applications in the area of VLSI design automation [5]. These applications are greatly facilitated ...
Interactive Verification Exploiting Program Design Knowledge: A ModelChecker for UNITY
, 1996
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Binary Decision Graphs
 Static Analyis Symposium SAS’99, LNCS 1694
, 1999
"... Binary Decision Graphs are an extension of Binary Decision Diagrams that can represent some infinite boolean functions. Three refinements of BDGs corresponding to classes of infinite functions of increasing complexity are presented. The first one is closed by intersection and union, the second o ..."
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Cited by 5 (3 self)
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Binary Decision Graphs are an extension of Binary Decision Diagrams that can represent some infinite boolean functions. Three refinements of BDGs corresponding to classes of infinite functions of increasing complexity are presented. The first one is closed by intersection and union, the second one by intersection, and the last one by all boolean operations. The first two classes give rise to a canonical representation, which, when restricted to finite functions, are the classical BDDs. The paper also gives new insights in to the notion of variable names and the possibility of sharing variable names that can be of interest in the case of finite functions.
Decision Procedures for Inductive Boolean Functions based on Alternating Automata
 In 12th International Conference on ComputerAided Veri CAV'00, volume 1855 of LNCS
, 2000
"... We show how alternating automata provide decision procedures for the equality of inductively defined Boolean functions and present applications to reasoning about parameterized families of circuits. We use alternating word automata to formalize families of linearly structured circuits and alternatin ..."
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Cited by 3 (1 self)
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We show how alternating automata provide decision procedures for the equality of inductively defined Boolean functions and present applications to reasoning about parameterized families of circuits. We use alternating word automata to formalize families of linearly structured circuits and alternating tree automata to formalize families of tree structured circuits. We provide complexity bounds for deciding the equality of function (or circuit) families and show how our decision procedures can be implemented using BDDs. In comparison to previous work, our approach is simpler, has better complexity bounds, and, in the case of tree structured families, is more general.
Monadic Secondorder Logic for Parameterized Verification
 Basic Research in Computer Science
, 1994
"... Much work in automatic verification considers families of similar finitestate systems. But an often overlooked property is that sometimes a single finitestate system can be used to describe a parameterized, infinite family of systems. Thus verification of unbounded state spaces can take place ..."
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Cited by 2 (1 self)
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Much work in automatic verification considers families of similar finitestate systems. But an often overlooked property is that sometimes a single finitestate system can be used to describe a parameterized, infinite family of systems. Thus verification of unbounded state spaces can take place by reduction to finite ones.
Tradeoffs in canonical sequential function representations
 In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computer Design
, 1994
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