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68
Structured compressed sensing: From theory to applications
 IEEE TRANS. SIGNAL PROCESS
, 2011
"... Compressed sensing (CS) is an emerging field that has attracted considerable research interest over the past few years. Previous review articles in CS limit their scope to standard discretetodiscrete measurement architectures using matrices of randomized nature and signal models based on standard ..."
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Cited by 104 (16 self)
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Compressed sensing (CS) is an emerging field that has attracted considerable research interest over the past few years. Previous review articles in CS limit their scope to standard discretetodiscrete measurement architectures using matrices of randomized nature and signal models based on standard sparsity. In recent years, CS has worked its way into several new application areas. This, in turn, necessitates a fresh look on many of the basics of CS. The random matrix measurement operator must be replaced by more structured sensing architectures that correspond to the characteristics of feasible acquisition hardware. The standard sparsity prior has to be extended to include a much richer class of signals and to encode broader data models, including continuoustime signals. In our overview, the theme is exploiting signal and measurement structure in compressive sensing. The prime focus is bridging theory and practice; that is, to pinpoint the potential of structured CS strategies to emerge from the math to the hardware. Our summary highlights new directions as well as relations to more traditional CS, with the hope of serving both as a review to practitioners wanting to join this emerging field, and as a reference for researchers that attempts to put some of the existing ideas in perspective of practical applications.
Exploiting structure in waveletbased Bayesian compressive sensing
, 2009
"... Bayesian compressive sensing (CS) is considered for signals and images that are sparse in a wavelet basis. The statistical structure of the wavelet coefficients is exploited explicitly in the proposed model, and therefore this framework goes beyond simply assuming that the data are compressible in a ..."
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Cited by 91 (14 self)
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Bayesian compressive sensing (CS) is considered for signals and images that are sparse in a wavelet basis. The statistical structure of the wavelet coefficients is exploited explicitly in the proposed model, and therefore this framework goes beyond simply assuming that the data are compressible in a wavelet basis. The structure exploited within the wavelet coefficients is consistent with that used in waveletbased compression algorithms. A hierarchical Bayesian model is constituted, with efficient inference via Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling. The algorithm is fully developed and demonstrated using several natural images, with performance comparisons to many stateoftheart compressivesensing inversion algorithms.
Kronecker Compressive Sensing
"... Compressive sensing (CS) is an emerging approach for acquisition of signals having a sparse or compressible representation in some basis. While the CS literature has mostly focused on problems involving 1D signals and 2D images, many important applications involve signals that are multidimensional ..."
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Cited by 38 (2 self)
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Compressive sensing (CS) is an emerging approach for acquisition of signals having a sparse or compressible representation in some basis. While the CS literature has mostly focused on problems involving 1D signals and 2D images, many important applications involve signals that are multidimensional; in this case, CS works best with representations that encapsulate the structure of such signals in every dimension. We propose the use of Kronecker product matrices in CS for two purposes. First, we can use such matrices as sparsifying bases that jointly model the different types of structure present in the signal. Second, the measurement matrices used in distributed settings can be easily expressed as Kronecker product matrices. The Kronecker product formulation in these two settings enables the derivation of analytical bounds for sparse approximation of multidimensional signals and CS recovery performance as well as a means to evaluate novel distributed measurement schemes.
Compressive Acquisition of Dynamic Scenes
"... Compressive sensing (CS) is a new approach for the acquisition and recovery of sparse signals and images that enables sampling rates significantly below the classical Nyquist rate. Despite significant progress in the theory and methods of CS, little headway has been made in compressive video acquis ..."
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Cited by 37 (10 self)
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Compressive sensing (CS) is a new approach for the acquisition and recovery of sparse signals and images that enables sampling rates significantly below the classical Nyquist rate. Despite significant progress in the theory and methods of CS, little headway has been made in compressive video acquisition and recovery. Video CS is complicated by the ephemeral nature of dynamic events, which makes direct extensions of standard CS imaging architectures and signal models infeasible. In this paper, we develop a new framework for video CS for dynamic textured scenes that models the evolution of the scene as a linear dynamical system (LDS). This reduces the video recovery problem to first estimating the model parameters of the LDS from compressive measurements, from which the image frames are then reconstructed. We exploit the lowdimensional dynamic parameters (the state sequence) and highdimensional static parameters (the observation matrix) of the LDS to devise a novel compressive measurement strategy that measures only the dynamic part of the scene at each instant and accumulates measurements over time to estimate the static parameters. This enables us to considerably lower the compressive measurement rate considerably. We validate our approach with a range of experiments including classification experiments that highlight the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Compressive MUSIC: revisiting the link between compressive sensing and array signal processing
 IEEE Trans. on Information Theory
, 2012
"... Abstract—The multiple measurement vector (MMV) problem addresses the identification of unknown input vectors that share common sparse support. Even though MMV problems have been traditionally addressed within the context of sensor array signal processing, the recent trend is to apply compressive sen ..."
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Cited by 23 (4 self)
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Abstract—The multiple measurement vector (MMV) problem addresses the identification of unknown input vectors that share common sparse support. Even though MMV problems have been traditionally addressed within the context of sensor array signal processing, the recent trend is to apply compressive sensing (CS) due to its capability to estimate sparse support even with an insufficient number of snapshots, in which case classical array signal processing fails. However, CS guarantees the accurate recovery in a probabilistic manner, which often shows inferior performance in the regime where the traditional array signal processing approaches succeed. The apparent dichotomy between the probabilistic CS and deterministic sensor array signal processing has not been fully understood. The main contribution of the present article is a unified approach that revisits the link between CS and array signal processing first unveiled in the mid 1990s by Feng and Bresler. The new algorithm, which we call compressive MUSIC, identifies the parts of support using CS, after which the remaining supports are estimated using a novel generalized MUSIC criterion. Using a large system MMV model, we show that our compressive MUSIC requires a smaller number of sensor elements for accurate support recovery than the existing CS methods and that it can approach the optimalbound with finite number of snapshots even in cases where the signals are linearly dependent. Index Terms—Compressive sensing, multiple measurement vector problem, joint sparsity, MUSIC, SOMP, thresholding. I.
Learning sparse codes for hyperspectral imagery
 IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing
, 2011
"... The spectral features in hyperspectral imagery (HSI) contain significant structure that, if properly characterized could enable more efficient data acquisition and improved data analysis. Because most pixels contain reflectances of just a few materials, we propose that a sparse coding model is well ..."
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Cited by 19 (2 self)
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The spectral features in hyperspectral imagery (HSI) contain significant structure that, if properly characterized could enable more efficient data acquisition and improved data analysis. Because most pixels contain reflectances of just a few materials, we propose that a sparse coding model is wellmatched to HSI data. Sparsity models consider each pixel as a combination of just a few elements from a larger dictionary, and this approach has proven effective in a wide range of applications. Furthermore, previous work has shown that optimal sparse coding dictionaries can be learned from a dataset with no other a priori information (in contrast to many HSI “endmember ” discovery algorithms that assume the presence of pure spectra or side information). We modified an existing unsupervised learning approach and applied it to HSI data (with significant ground truth labeling) to learn an optimal sparse coding dictionary. Using this learned dictionary, we demonstrate three main findings: i) the sparse coding model learns spectral signatures of materials in the scene and locally approximates nonlinear manifolds for individual materials, ii) this learned dictionary can be used to infer HSIresolution data with very high accuracy from simulated imagery collected at multispectrallevel resolution, and iii) this learned dictionary improves the performance of a supervised classification algorithm, both in terms of the classifier complexity and generalization from very small training sets.
Multiframe image estimation for coded aperture snapshot spectral imagers
 Applied Optics
, 2010
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ModelBased Compressive Sensing for Signal Ensembles
"... Abstract—Compressive sensing (CS) is an alternative to Shannon/Nyquist sampling for acquiring sparse or compressible signals. Instead of taking N periodic samples, we measure M ≪ N inner products with random vectors and then recover the signal via a sparsityseeking optimization or greedy algorithm. ..."
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Cited by 14 (3 self)
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Abstract—Compressive sensing (CS) is an alternative to Shannon/Nyquist sampling for acquiring sparse or compressible signals. Instead of taking N periodic samples, we measure M ≪ N inner products with random vectors and then recover the signal via a sparsityseeking optimization or greedy algorithm. A new framework for CS based on unions of subspaces can improve signal recovery by including dependencies between values and locations of the signal’s significant coefficients. In this paper, we extend this framework to the acquisition of signal ensembles under a common sparse supports model. The new framework provides recovery algorithms with theoretical performance guarantees. Additionally, the framework scales naturally to large sensor networks: the number of measurements needed for each signal does not increase as the network becomes larger. Furthermore, the complexity of the recovery algorithm is only linear in the size of the network. We provide experimental results using synthetic and realworld signals that confirm these benefits. I.
Hyperspectral image compressed sensing via lowrank and jointsparse matrix recovery
 ICASSP
"... We propose a novel approach to reconstruct Hyperspectral images from very few number of noisy compressive measurements. Our reconstruction approach is based on a convex minimization which penalizes both the nuclear norm and the ℓ2,1 mixednorm of the data matrix. Thus, the solution tends to have a s ..."
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Cited by 12 (1 self)
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We propose a novel approach to reconstruct Hyperspectral images from very few number of noisy compressive measurements. Our reconstruction approach is based on a convex minimization which penalizes both the nuclear norm and the ℓ2,1 mixednorm of the data matrix. Thus, the solution tends to have a simultaneous lowrank and jointsparse structure. We explain how these two assumptions fit Hyperspectral data, and by severals simulations we show that our proposed reconstruction scheme significantly enhances the stateoftheart tradeoffs between the reconstruction error and the required number of CS measurements. Index Terms — Hyperspectral images, Compressed sensing, Joint sparse signals, Low rank matrix recovery, Nuclear norm
1 Coded Hyperspectral Imaging and Blind Compressive Sensing
"... Blind compressive sensing (CS) is considered for reconstruction of hyperspectral data imaged by a coded aperture camera. The measurements are manifested as a superposition of the coded wavelengthdependent data, with the ambient threedimensional hyperspectral datacube mapped to a twodimensional mea ..."
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Cited by 10 (4 self)
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Blind compressive sensing (CS) is considered for reconstruction of hyperspectral data imaged by a coded aperture camera. The measurements are manifested as a superposition of the coded wavelengthdependent data, with the ambient threedimensional hyperspectral datacube mapped to a twodimensional measurement. The hyperspectral datacube is recovered using a Bayesian implementation of blind CS. Several demonstration experiments are presented, including measurements performed using a coded aperture snapshot spectral imager (CASSI) camera. The proposed approach is capable of efficiently reconstructing large hyperspectral datacubes. Comparisons are made between the proposed algorithm and other techniques employed in compressive sensing, dictionary learning and matrix factorization. Index Terms hyperspectral images, image reconstruction, projective transformation, dictionary learning, nonparametric Bayesian, BetaBernoulli model, coded aperture snapshot spectral imager (CASSI). I.