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18
Experiences with an Interactive Museum TourGuide Robot
, 1998
"... This article describes the software architecture of an autonomous, interactive tourguide robot. It presents a modular and distributed software architecture, which integrates localization, mapping, collision avoidance, planning, and various modules concerned with user interaction and Webbased telep ..."
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Cited by 329 (72 self)
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This article describes the software architecture of an autonomous, interactive tourguide robot. It presents a modular and distributed software architecture, which integrates localization, mapping, collision avoidance, planning, and various modules concerned with user interaction and Webbased telepresence. At its heart, the software approach relies on probabilistic computation, online learning, and anytime algorithms. It enables robots to operate safely, reliably, and at high speeds in highly dynamic environments, and does not require any modifications of the environment to aid the robot's operation. Special emphasis is placed on the design of interactive capabilities that appeal to people's intuition. The interface provides new means for humanrobot interaction with crowds of people in public places, and it also provides people all around the world with the ability to establish a "virtual telepresence" using the Web. To illustrate our approach, results are reported obtained in mid...
Topological Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM): Toward Exact Localization Without Explicit Localization
 IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation
, 2001
"... One of the critical components of mapping an unknown environment is the robot's ability to locate itself on a partially explored map. This becomes challenging when the robot experiences positioning error, does not have an external positioning device, nor the luxury of engineered landmarks place ..."
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Cited by 224 (10 self)
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One of the critical components of mapping an unknown environment is the robot's ability to locate itself on a partially explored map. This becomes challenging when the robot experiences positioning error, does not have an external positioning device, nor the luxury of engineered landmarks placed in its free space. This paper presents a new method for simultaneous localization and mapping that exploits the topology of the robot's free space to localize the robot on a partially constructed map. The topology of the environment is encoded in a topological map; the particular topological map used in this paper is the generalized Voronoi graph (GVG), which also encodes some metric information about the robot's environment, as well. In this paper, we present the lowlevel control laws that generate the GVG edges and nodes, thereby allowing for exploration of an unknown space. With these prescribed control laws, the GVG (or other topological map) can be viewed as an arbitrator for a hybrid control system that determines when to invoke a particular lowlevel controller from a set of controllers all working toward the highlevel capability of mobile robot exploration. The main contribution, however, is using the graph structure of the GVG, via a graph matching process, to localize the robot. Experimental results verify the described work. Index TermsExploration, localization, mapping, mobile robots, motion planning, tologoical maps, Voronoi diagrams. I.
Vision for Mobile Robot Navigation: A Survey
 IEEE, TRANS. PAMI
, 2002
"... This paper surveys the developments of the last 20 years in the area of vision for mobile robot navigation. Two major components of the paper deal with indoor navigation and outdoor navigation. For each component, we have further subdivided our treatment of the subject on the basis of structured an ..."
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Cited by 222 (4 self)
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This paper surveys the developments of the last 20 years in the area of vision for mobile robot navigation. Two major components of the paper deal with indoor navigation and outdoor navigation. For each component, we have further subdivided our treatment of the subject on the basis of structured and unstructured environments. For indoor robots in structured environments, we have dealt separately with the cases of geometrical and topological models of space. For unstructured environments, we have discussed the cases of navigation using optical flows, using methods from the appearancebased paradigm, and by recognition of specific objects in the environment.
Probabilistic Algorithms and the Interactive Museum TourGuide Robot Minerva
, 2000
"... This paper describes Minerva, an interactive tourguide robot that was successfully deployed in a Smithsonian museum. Minerva's software is pervasively probabilistic, relying on explicit representations of uncertainty in perception and control. This article describes ..."
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Cited by 196 (38 self)
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This paper describes Minerva, an interactive tourguide robot that was successfully deployed in a Smithsonian museum. Minerva's software is pervasively probabilistic, relying on explicit representations of uncertainty in perception and control. This article describes
Learning Maps for Indoor Mobile Robot Navigation
 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (ACCEPTED FOR PUBLICATION)
, 1997
"... Autonomous robots must be able to learn and maintain models of their environments. Research on mobile robot navigation has produced two major paradigms for mapping indoor environments: gridbased and topological. While gridbased methods produce accurate metric maps, their complexity often prohibits ..."
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Cited by 92 (10 self)
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Autonomous robots must be able to learn and maintain models of their environments. Research on mobile robot navigation has produced two major paradigms for mapping indoor environments: gridbased and topological. While gridbased methods produce accurate metric maps, their complexity often prohibits efficient planning and problem solving in largescale indoor environments. Topological maps, on the other hand, can be used much more efficiently, yet accurate and consistent topological maps are often difficult to learn and maintain in largescale environments, particularly if momentary sensor data is highly ambiguous. This paper describes an approach that integrates both paradigms: gridbased and topological. Gridbased maps are learned using artificial neural networks and naive Bayesian integration. Topological maps are generated on top of the gridbased maps, by partitioning the latter into coherent regions. By combining both paradigms, the approach presented here gains advantages from both worlds: accuracy/consistency and efficiency. The paper gives results for autonomous exploration, mapping and operation of a mobile robot in populated multiroom environments.
Interactive motion planning using hardwareaccelerated computation of generalized Voronoi diagrams
 IN IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ROBOTICS AND AUTOMATION
, 2000
"... We present techniques for fast motion planning by using discrete approximations of generalized Voronoi diagrams, computed with graphics hardware. Approaches based on this diagram computation are applicable to both static and dynamic environments of fairly high complexity. We compute a discrete Voron ..."
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Cited by 30 (1 self)
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We present techniques for fast motion planning by using discrete approximations of generalized Voronoi diagrams, computed with graphics hardware. Approaches based on this diagram computation are applicable to both static and dynamic environments of fairly high complexity. We compute a discrete Voronoi diagram by rendering a threedimensional distance mesh for each Voronoi site. The sites can be points, line segments, polygons, polyhedra, curves and surfaces. The computation of the generalized Voronoi diagram provides fast proximity query toolkits for motion planning. The tools provide the distance to the nearest obstacle stored in the Zbu er, as well as the Voronoi boundaries, Voronoi vertices and weighted Voronoi graphs extracted from the frame bu er using continuation methods. We have implemented these algorithms and demonstrated their performance for path planning in a complex dynamic environment composed ofmorethan 140,000 polygons.
Towards Exact Localization without Explicit Localization with the Generalized Voronoi Graph
 In IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, Lueven
, 1998
"... . Sensor based exploration is a task which enables a robot to explore and map an unknown environment, using sensor information. The map used in this paper is the generalized Voronoi graph (GVG). The robot explores an unknown environment using an already developed incremental construction procedure t ..."
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Cited by 23 (4 self)
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. Sensor based exploration is a task which enables a robot to explore and map an unknown environment, using sensor information. The map used in this paper is the generalized Voronoi graph (GVG). The robot explores an unknown environment using an already developed incremental construction procedure to generate the GVG using sensor information. This paper presents some initial results which uses the GVG for robot localization, while mitigating the need to update encoder values. Experimental results verify the described work. 1 Introduction Sensor based exploration enables a robot to explore an unknown environment, and using its sensor information, build a map of that environment. A critical component to this task is the robot's ability to ascertain its location in the partially explored map or to determine that it has entered new territory. Many conventional methods attempt to make this determination via a localization scheme which updates the (x; y) coordinates of the robot. Most robo...
A Logical Account of Causal and Topological Maps
, 2001
"... The Spatial Semantic Hierarchy (SSH) is a set of distinct representations for large scale space, each with its own ontology and each abstracted from the levels below it. At the control level, the agent and its environment are modeled as continuous dynamical systems whose equilibrium points are abstr ..."
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Cited by 18 (3 self)
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The Spatial Semantic Hierarchy (SSH) is a set of distinct representations for large scale space, each with its own ontology and each abstracted from the levels below it. At the control level, the agent and its environment are modeled as continuous dynamical systems whose equilibrium points are abstracted to a discrete set of distinctive states. The control laws whose execution defines trajectories linking these states are abstracted to actions, giving a discrete causal graph representation for the state space. The causal graph of states and actions is in turn abstracted to a topological network of places and paths (i.e. the topological map). Local metrical models of places and paths can be built within the framework of the control, causal and topological levels while avoiding problems of global consistency. ...
Sensor Based Planning: Using a Honing Strategy and Local Map Method to Implement the Generalized Voronoi Graph
 In SPIE Conference on Systems and Manufacturing
, 1997
"... This work prescribes the procedures that are required to implement, on a conventional mobile robot, a sensor based motion planning algorithm based on the generalized Voronoi graph (GVG). The GVG isaroadmap of a static environment � recall that a roadmap is a onedimensional representation of an envi ..."
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Cited by 11 (2 self)
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This work prescribes the procedures that are required to implement, on a conventional mobile robot, a sensor based motion planning algorithm based on the generalized Voronoi graph (GVG). The GVG isaroadmap of a static environment � recall that a roadmap is a onedimensional representation of an environment which the robot can use to plan a path between any two points in that environment. Once the robot has constructed the roadmap, it has in essence explored the environment. This work describes some issues in incrementally constructing the GVG with a mobile robot with a ring of sonar sensors. Speci cally, we consider some issues in specularity and deadreckoning error reduction.
Autonomous Navigation and Mapping Using Monocular LowResolution Grayscale Vision
"... An algorithm is proposed to answer the challenges of autonomous corridor navigation and mapping by a mobile robot equipped with a single forwardfacing camera. Using a combination of corridor ceiling lights, visual homing, and entropy, the robot is able to perform straight line navigation down the c ..."
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Cited by 5 (2 self)
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An algorithm is proposed to answer the challenges of autonomous corridor navigation and mapping by a mobile robot equipped with a single forwardfacing camera. Using a combination of corridor ceiling lights, visual homing, and entropy, the robot is able to perform straight line navigation down the center of an unknown corridor. Turning at the end of a corridor is accomplished using Jeffrey divergence and timetocollision, while deflection from dead ends and blank walls uses a scalar entropy measure of the entire image. When combined, these metrics allow the robot to navigate in both textured and untextured environments. The robot can autonomously explore an unknown indoor environment, recovering from difficult situations like corners, blank walls, and initial heading toward a wall. While exploring, the algorithm constructs a Voronoibased topogeometric map with nodes representing distinctive places like doors, water fountains, and other corridors. Because the algorithm is based entirely upon lowresolution (32 × 24) grayscale images, processing occurs at over 1000 frames per second. 1.