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Semantics and Complexity of SPARQL
"... SPARQL is the standard language for querying RDF data. In this article, we address systematically the formal study of the database aspects of SPARQL, concentrating in its graph pattern matching facility. We provide a compositional semantics for the core part of SPARQL, and study the complexity of th ..."
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Cited by 269 (24 self)
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SPARQL is the standard language for querying RDF data. In this article, we address systematically the formal study of the database aspects of SPARQL, concentrating in its graph pattern matching facility. We provide a compositional semantics for the core part of SPARQL, and study the complexity of the evaluation of several fragments of the language. Among other complexity results, we show that the evaluation of general SPARQL patterns is PSPACEcomplete. We identify a large class of SPARQL patterns, defined by imposing a simple and natural syntactic restriction, where the query evaluation problem can be solved more efficiently. This restriction gives rise to the class of welldesigned patterns. We show that the evaluation problem is coNPcomplete for welldesigned patterns. Moreover, we provide several rewriting rules for welldesigned patterns whose application may have a considerable impact in the cost of evaluating SPARQL queries.
A comparison of structural CSP decomposition methods
 Artificial Intelligence
, 2000
"... We compare tractable classes of constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs). We first give a uniform presentation of the major structural CSP decomposition methods. We then introduce a new class of tractable CSPs based on the concept of hypertree decomposition recently developed in Database Theory. We i ..."
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Cited by 178 (27 self)
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We compare tractable classes of constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs). We first give a uniform presentation of the major structural CSP decomposition methods. We then introduce a new class of tractable CSPs based on the concept of hypertree decomposition recently developed in Database Theory. We introduce a framework for comparing parametric decompositionbased methods according to tractability criteria and compare the most relevant methods. We show that the method of hypertree decomposition dominates the others in the case of general (nonbinary) CSPs.
ConjunctiveQuery Containment and Constraint Satisfaction
 Journal of Computer and System Sciences
, 1998
"... Conjunctivequery containment is recognized as a fundamental problem in database query evaluation and optimization. At the same time, constraint satisfaction is recognized as a fundamental problem in artificial intelligence. What do conjunctivequery containment and constraint satisfaction have in c ..."
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Cited by 168 (14 self)
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Conjunctivequery containment is recognized as a fundamental problem in database query evaluation and optimization. At the same time, constraint satisfaction is recognized as a fundamental problem in artificial intelligence. What do conjunctivequery containment and constraint satisfaction have in common? Our main conceptual contribution in this paper is to point out that, despite their very different formulation, conjunctivequery containment and constraint satisfaction are essentially the same problem. The reason is that they can be recast as the following fundamental algebraic problem: given two finite relational structures A and B, is there a homomorphism h : A ! B? As formulated above, the homomorphism problem is uniform in the sense that both relational structures A and B are part of the input. By fixing the structure B, one obtains the following nonuniform problem: given a finite relational structure A, is there a homomorphism h : A ! B? In general, nonuniform tractability results do not uniformize. Thus, it is natural to ask: which tractable cases of nonuniform tractability results for constraint satisfaction and conjunctivequery containment do uniformize? Our main technical contribution in this paper is to show that several cases of tractable nonuniform constraint satisfaction problems do indeed uniformize. We exhibit three nonuniform tractability results that uniformize and, thus, give rise to polynomialtime solvable cases of constraint satisfaction and conjunctivequery containment.
Pure Nash Equilibria: Hard and Easy Games
"... In this paper we investigate complexity issues related to pure Nash equilibria of strategic games. We show that, even in very restrictive settings, determining whether a game has a pure Nash Equilibrium is NPhard, while deciding whether a game has a strong Nash equilibrium is Stcomplete. We then s ..."
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Cited by 81 (5 self)
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In this paper we investigate complexity issues related to pure Nash equilibria of strategic games. We show that, even in very restrictive settings, determining whether a game has a pure Nash Equilibrium is NPhard, while deciding whether a game has a strong Nash equilibrium is Stcomplete. We then study practically relevant restrictions that lower the complexity. In particular, we are interested in quantitative and qualitative restrictions of the way each player's move depends on moves of other players. We say that a game has small neighborhood if the &quot; utility function for each player depends only on (the actions of) a logarithmically small number of other players, The dependency structure of a game G can he expressed by a graph G(G) or by a hypergraph II(G). Among other results, we show that if jC has small neighborhood and if II(G) has botmdecl hypertree width (or if G(G) has bounded treewidth), then finding pure Nash and Pareto equilibria is feasible in polynomial time. If the game is graphical, then these problems are LOGCFLcomplete and thus in the class _NC ~ of highly parallelizable problems. 1 Introduction and Overview of Results The theory of strategic games and Nash equilibria has important applications in economics and decision making [31, 2]. Determining whether Nash equilibria exist, and effectively computing
Xpath leashed
 IN ACM COMPUTING SURVEYS
, 2007
"... This survey gives an overview of formal results on the XML query language XPath. We identify several important fragments of XPath, focusing on subsets of XPath 1.0. We then give results on the expressiveness of XPath and its fragments compared to other formalisms for querying trees, algorithms and c ..."
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Cited by 52 (3 self)
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This survey gives an overview of formal results on the XML query language XPath. We identify several important fragments of XPath, focusing on subsets of XPath 1.0. We then give results on the expressiveness of XPath and its fragments compared to other formalisms for querying trees, algorithms and complexity bounds for evaluation of XPath queries, and static analysis of XPath queries.
Specifying and reasoning about dynamic accesscontrol policies
 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science
, 2006
"... Abstract. Accesscontrol policies have grown from simple matrices to nontrivial specifications written in sophisticated languages. The increasing complexity of these policies demands correspondingly strong automated reasoning techniques for understanding and debugging them. The need for these techn ..."
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Cited by 51 (3 self)
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Abstract. Accesscontrol policies have grown from simple matrices to nontrivial specifications written in sophisticated languages. The increasing complexity of these policies demands correspondingly strong automated reasoning techniques for understanding and debugging them. The need for these techniques is even more pressing given the rich and dynamic nature of the environments in which these policies evaluate. We define a framework to represent the behavior of accesscontrol policies in a dynamic environment. We then specify several interesting, decidable analyses using firstorder temporal logic. Our work illustrates the subtle interplay between logical and statebased methods, particularly in the presence of threevalued policies. We also define a notion of policy equivalence that is especially useful for modular reasoning. 1
The Complexity of Causality and Responsibility for Query Answers and nonAnswers
"... An answer to a query has a welldefined lineage expression (alternatively called howprovenance) that explains how the answer was derived. Recent work has also shown how to compute the lineage of a nonanswer to a query. However, the cause of an answer or nonanswer is a more subtle notion and consi ..."
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Cited by 44 (4 self)
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An answer to a query has a welldefined lineage expression (alternatively called howprovenance) that explains how the answer was derived. Recent work has also shown how to compute the lineage of a nonanswer to a query. However, the cause of an answer or nonanswer is a more subtle notion and consists, in general, of only a fragment of the lineage. In this paper, we adapt Halpern, Pearl, and Chockler’s recent definitions of causality and responsibility to define the causes of answers and nonanswers to queries, and their degree of responsibility. Responsibility captures the notion of degree of causality and serves to rank potentially many causes by their relative contributions to the effect. Then, we study the complexity of computing causes and responsibilities for conjunctive queries. It is known that computing causes is NPcomplete in general. Our first main result shows that all causes to conjunctive queries can be computed by a relational query which may involve negation. Thus, causality can be computed in PTIME, and very efficiently so. Next, we study computing responsibility. Here, we prove that the complexity depends on the conjunctive query and demonstrate a dichotomy between PTIME and NPcomplete cases. For the PTIME cases, we give a nontrivial algorithm, consisting of a reduction to the maxflow computation problem. Finally, we prove that, even when it is in PTIME, responsibility is complete for LOGSPACE, implying that, unlike causality, it cannot be computed by a relational query. 1.
When is the evaluation of conjunctive queries tractable
 In Proceedings of the 33rd ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing
, 2001
"... zINRIARocquencourt Abstract The evaluation of conjunctive queries is hard both with respect to its combined complexity (NPcomplete) and its parameterized complexity (W[1]complete). It becomes tractable (PTIME for combined complexity, FPT for parameterized complexity), when the underlying graphs o ..."
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Cited by 42 (4 self)
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zINRIARocquencourt Abstract The evaluation of conjunctive queries is hard both with respect to its combined complexity (NPcomplete) and its parameterized complexity (W[1]complete). It becomes tractable (PTIME for combined complexity, FPT for parameterized complexity), when the underlying graphs of the conjunctive queries have bounded treewidth [2]. We show that, in some sense, this is optimal both with respect to combined and parameterized complexity: For every class C of graphs, the evaluation of all conjunctive queries whose underlying graph is in C is tractable if, and only if, C has bounded treewidth. A technical result of independent interest is that the colored grid homomorphism problem is NPcomplete and, if parameterized by the grid size, W[1]complete. 1. Introduction Conjunctive queries are relational database queries expressed by formulas of firstorder logic that are of the form
LOGICS FOR UNRANKED TREES: AN OVERVIEW
 CONSIDERED FOR PUBLICATION IN LOGICAL METHODS IN COMPUTER SCIENCE
, 2006
"... Labeled unranked trees are used as a model of XML documents, and logical languages for them have been studied actively over the past several years. Such logics have different purposes: some are better suited for extracting data, some for expressing navigational properties, and some make it easy to ..."
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Cited by 40 (7 self)
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Labeled unranked trees are used as a model of XML documents, and logical languages for them have been studied actively over the past several years. Such logics have different purposes: some are better suited for extracting data, some for expressing navigational properties, and some make it easy to relate complex properties of trees to the existence of tree automata for those properties. Furthermore, logics differ significantly in their modelchecking properties, their automata models, and their behavior on ordered and unordered trees. In this paper we present a survey of logics for unranked trees.
Width parameters beyond treewidth and their applications
 Computer Journal
, 2007
"... Besides the very successful concept of treewidth (see [Bodlaender, H. and Koster, A. (2007) Combinatorial optimisation on graphs of bounded treewidth. These are special issues on Parameterized Complexity]), many concepts and parameters measuring the similarity or dissimilarity of structures compare ..."
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Cited by 40 (0 self)
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Besides the very successful concept of treewidth (see [Bodlaender, H. and Koster, A. (2007) Combinatorial optimisation on graphs of bounded treewidth. These are special issues on Parameterized Complexity]), many concepts and parameters measuring the similarity or dissimilarity of structures compared to trees have been born and studied over the past years. These concepts and parameters have proved to be useful tools in many applications, especially in the design of efficient algorithms. Our presented novel look at the contemporary developments of these ‘width ’ parameters in combinatorial structures delivers—besides traditional treewidth and derived dynamic programming schemes—also a number of other useful parameters like branchwidth, rankwidth (cliquewidth) or hypertreewidth. In this contribution, we demonstrate how ‘width ’ parameters of graphs and generalized structures (such as matroids or hypergraphs), can be used to improve the design of parameterized algorithms and the structural analysis in other applications on an abstract level.