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Universally composable security: A new paradigm for cryptographic protocols
, 2013
"... We present a general framework for representing cryptographic protocols and analyzing their security. The framework allows specifying the security requirements of practically any cryptographic task in a unified and systematic way. Furthermore, in this framework the security of protocols is preserved ..."
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Cited by 842 (43 self)
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We present a general framework for representing cryptographic protocols and analyzing their security. The framework allows specifying the security requirements of practically any cryptographic task in a unified and systematic way. Furthermore, in this framework the security of protocols is preserved under a general protocol composition operation, called universal composition. The proposed framework with its securitypreserving composition operation allows for modular design and analysis of complex cryptographic protocols from relatively simple building blocks. Moreover, within this framework, protocols are guaranteed to maintain their security in any context, even in the presence of an unbounded number of arbitrary protocol instances that run concurrently in an adversarially controlled manner. This is a useful guarantee, that allows arguing about the security of cryptographic protocols in complex and unpredictable environments such as modern communication networks.
NonMalleable Cryptography
 SIAM Journal on Computing
, 2000
"... The notion of nonmalleable cryptography, an extension of semantically secure cryptography, is defined. Informally, in the context of encryption the additional requirement is that given the ciphertext it is impossible to generate a different ciphertext so that the respective plaintexts are related. ..."
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Cited by 490 (21 self)
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The notion of nonmalleable cryptography, an extension of semantically secure cryptography, is defined. Informally, in the context of encryption the additional requirement is that given the ciphertext it is impossible to generate a different ciphertext so that the respective plaintexts are related. The same concept makes sense in the contexts of string commitment and zeroknowledge proofs of possession of knowledge. Nonmalleable schemes for each of these three problems are presented. The schemes do not assume a trusted center; a user need not know anything about the number or identity of other system users. Our cryptosystem is the first proven to be secure against a strong type of chosen ciphertext attack proposed by Rackoff and Simon, in which the attacker knows the ciphertext she wishes to break and can query the decryption oracle on any ciphertext other than the target.
How to Go Beyond the BlackBox Simulation Barrier
 In 42nd FOCS
, 2001
"... The simulation paradigm is central to cryptography. A simulator is an algorithm that tries to simulate the interaction of the adversary with an honest party, without knowing the private input of this honest party. Almost all known simulators use the adversary’s algorithm as a blackbox. We present t ..."
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Cited by 240 (13 self)
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The simulation paradigm is central to cryptography. A simulator is an algorithm that tries to simulate the interaction of the adversary with an honest party, without knowing the private input of this honest party. Almost all known simulators use the adversary’s algorithm as a blackbox. We present the first constructions of nonblackbox simulators. Using these new nonblackbox techniques we obtain several results that were previously proven to be impossible to obtain using blackbox simulators. Specifically, assuming the existence of collision resistent hash functions, we construct a new zeroknowledge argument system for NP that satisfies the following properties: 1. This system has a constant number of rounds with negligible soundness error. 2. It remains zero knowledge even when composed concurrently n times, where n is the security parameter. Simultaneously obtaining 1 and 2 has been recently proven to be impossible to achieve using blackbox simulators. 3. It is an ArthurMerlin (public coins) protocol. Simultaneously obtaining 1 and 3 was known to be impossible to achieve with a blackbox simulator. 4. It has a simulator that runs in strict polynomial time, rather than in expected polynomial time. All previously known constantround, negligibleerror zeroknowledge arguments utilized expected polynomialtime simulators.
Noninteractive ZeroKnowledge
 SIAM J. COMPUTING
, 1991
"... This paper investigates the possibility of disposing of interaction between prover and verifier in a zeroknowledge proof if they share beforehand a short random string. Without any assumption, it is proven that noninteractive zeroknowledge proofs exist for some numbertheoretic languages for which ..."
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Cited by 216 (19 self)
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This paper investigates the possibility of disposing of interaction between prover and verifier in a zeroknowledge proof if they share beforehand a short random string. Without any assumption, it is proven that noninteractive zeroknowledge proofs exist for some numbertheoretic languages for which no efficient algorithm is known. If deciding quadratic residuosity (modulo composite integers whose factorization is not known) is computationally hard, it is shown that the NPcomplete language of satisfiability also possesses noninteractive zeroknowledge proofs.
Practical Verifiable Encryption and Decryption of Discrete Logarithms
, 2003
"... Abstract. This paper addresses the problem of designing practical protocols for proving properties about encrypted data. To this end, it presents a variant of the new public key encryption of Cramer and Shoup based on Paillier’s decision composite residuosity assumption, along with efficient protoco ..."
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Cited by 170 (23 self)
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Abstract. This paper addresses the problem of designing practical protocols for proving properties about encrypted data. To this end, it presents a variant of the new public key encryption of Cramer and Shoup based on Paillier’s decision composite residuosity assumption, along with efficient protocols for verifiable encryption and decryption of discrete logarithms (and more generally, of representations with respect to multiple bases). This is the first verifiable encryption system that provides chosen ciphertext security and avoids inefficient cutandchoose proofs. The presented protocols have numerous applications, including key escrow, optimistic fair exchange, publicly verifiable secret and signature sharing, universally composable commitments, group signatures, and confirmer signatures. 1
Universally Composable TwoParty and MultiParty Secure Computation
, 2002
"... We show how to securely realize any twoparty and multiparty functionality in a universally composable way, regardless of the number of corrupted participants. That is, we consider an asynchronous multiparty network with open communication and an adversary that can adaptively corrupt as many pa ..."
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Cited by 155 (34 self)
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We show how to securely realize any twoparty and multiparty functionality in a universally composable way, regardless of the number of corrupted participants. That is, we consider an asynchronous multiparty network with open communication and an adversary that can adaptively corrupt as many parties as it wishes. In this setting, our protocols allow any subset of the parties (with pairs of parties being a special case) to securely realize any desired functionality of their local inputs, and be guaranteed that security is preserved regardless of the activity in the rest of the network. This implies that security is preserved under concurrent composition of an unbounded number of protocol executions, it implies nonmalleability with respect to arbitrary protocols, and more. Our constructions are in the common reference string model and rely on standard intractability assumptions.
Efficient Concurrent ZeroKnowledge in the Auxiliary String Model
, 2000
"... We show that if any oneway function exists, then 3round concurrent zeroknowledge arguments for all NP problems can be built in a model where a short auxiliary string with a prescribed distribution is available to the players. We also show that a wide range of known efficient proofs of knowledge ..."
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Cited by 130 (2 self)
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We show that if any oneway function exists, then 3round concurrent zeroknowledge arguments for all NP problems can be built in a model where a short auxiliary string with a prescribed distribution is available to the players. We also show that a wide range of known efficient proofs of knowledge using specialized assumptions can be modified to work in this model with no essential loss of efficiency. We argue that the assumptions of the model will be satisfied in many practical scenarios where public key cryptography is used, in particular our construction works given any secure public key infrastructure. Finally, we point out that in a model with preprocessing (and no auxiliary string) proposed earlier, concurrent zeroknowledge for NP can be based on any oneway function.
BlackBox Concurrent ZeroKnowledge Requires (almost) Logarithmically Many Rounds
 SIAM Journal on Computing
, 2002
"... We show that any concurrent zeroknowledge protocol for a nontrivial language (i.e., for a language outside BPP), whose security is proven via blackbox simulation, must use at least ~ \Omega\Gamma/10 n) rounds of interaction. This result achieves a substantial improvement over previous lower bound ..."
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Cited by 105 (9 self)
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We show that any concurrent zeroknowledge protocol for a nontrivial language (i.e., for a language outside BPP), whose security is proven via blackbox simulation, must use at least ~ \Omega\Gamma/10 n) rounds of interaction. This result achieves a substantial improvement over previous lower bounds, and is the first bound to rule out the possibility of constantround concurrent zeroknowledge when proven via blackbox simulation. Furthermore, the bound is polynomially related to the number of rounds in the best known concurrent zeroknowledge protocol for languages in NP (which is established via blackbox simulation).
On the Limitations of Universally Composable TwoParty Computation without Setup Assumptions
 Journal of Cryptology
, 2003
"... Abstract. The recently proposed universally composable (UC) security framework, for analyzing security of cryptographic protocols, provides very strong security guarantees. In particular, a protocol proven secure in this framework is guaranteed to maintain its security even when deployed in arbitrar ..."
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Cited by 104 (18 self)
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Abstract. The recently proposed universally composable (UC) security framework, for analyzing security of cryptographic protocols, provides very strong security guarantees. In particular, a protocol proven secure in this framework is guaranteed to maintain its security even when deployed in arbitrary multiparty, multiprotocol, multiexecution environments. Protocols for securely carrying out essentially any cryptographic task in a universally composable way exist, both in the case of an honest majority (in the plain model, i.e., without setup assumptions) and in the case of no honest majority (in the common reference string model). However, in the plain model, little was known for the case of no honest majority and, in particular, for the important special case of twoparty protocols. We study the feasibility of universally composable twoparty function evaluation in the plain model. Our results show that very few functions can be computed in this model so as to provide the UC security guarantees. Specifically, for the case of deterministic functions, we provide a full characterization of the functions computable in this model. (Essentially, these are the functions that depend on at most one of the parties’ inputs, and furthermore are “efficiently invertible ” in a sense defined within.) For the case of probabilistic functions, we show that the only functions computable in this model are those where one of the parties can essentially uniquely determine the joint output. 1
Resettable zeroknowledge
, 2000
"... We introduce the notion of Resettable ZeroKnowledge (rZK), a new security measure for cryptographic protocols which strengthens the classical notion of zeroknowledge. In essence, an rZK protocol is one that remains zero knowledge even if an adversary can interact with the prover many times, each ..."
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Cited by 80 (6 self)
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We introduce the notion of Resettable ZeroKnowledge (rZK), a new security measure for cryptographic protocols which strengthens the classical notion of zeroknowledge. In essence, an rZK protocol is one that remains zero knowledge even if an adversary can interact with the prover many times, each time resetting the prover to its initial state and forcing it to use the same random tape. All known examples of zeroknowledge proofs and arguments are trivially breakable in this setting. Moreover, by definition, all zeroknowledge proofs of knowledge are breakable in this setting. Under general complexity assumptions, which hold for example if the Discrete Logarithm Problem is hard, we construct: ffl Resettable ZeroKnowledge proofsystems for NP with nonconstant number of rounds. ffl Fiveround Resettable WitnessIndistinguishable proofsystems for NP. ffl Fourround Resettable ZeroKnowledge arguments for NP in the public key model: where verifiers have fixed, public keys associated with them.