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150
Modelbased evaluation: From dependability to security
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON DEPENDABLE AND SECURE COMPUTING
, 2004
"... The development of techniques for quantitative, modelbased evaluation of computer system dependability has a long and rich history. A wide array of modelbased evaluation techniques are now available, ranging from combinatorial methods, which are useful for quick, roughcut analyses, to statebased ..."
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Cited by 99 (5 self)
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The development of techniques for quantitative, modelbased evaluation of computer system dependability has a long and rich history. A wide array of modelbased evaluation techniques are now available, ranging from combinatorial methods, which are useful for quick, roughcut analyses, to statebased methods, such as Markov reward models, and detailed, discreteevent simulation. The use of quantitative techniques for security evaluation is much less common, and has typically taken the form of formal analysis of small parts of an overall design, or experimental red teambased approaches. Alone, neither of these approaches is fully satisfactory, and we argue that there is much to be gained through the development of a sound modelbased methodology for quantifying the security one can expect from a particular design. In this work, we survey existing modelbased techniques for evaluating system dependability, and summarize how they are now being extended to evaluate system security. We find that many techniques from dependability evaluation can be applied in the security domain, but that significant challenges remain, largely due to fundamental differences between the accidental nature of the faults commonly assumed in dependability evaluation, and the intentional, human nature of cyber attacks.
GreatSPN 1.7: GRaphical Editor and Analyzer for Timed and Stochastic Petri Nets
, 1995
"... This paper describes the GreatSPN 1.7 package for the modeling, validation, and performance evaluation of distributed systems using Generalized Stochastic Petri Nets and their colored extension. The tool provides a friendly framework to experiment with timed Petri net based modeling techniques. It i ..."
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Cited by 98 (17 self)
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This paper describes the GreatSPN 1.7 package for the modeling, validation, and performance evaluation of distributed systems using Generalized Stochastic Petri Nets and their colored extension. The tool provides a friendly framework to experiment with timed Petri net based modeling techniques. It implements efficient analysis algorithms to allow its use on "real" applications, not only toy examples. Developed in a University for non profit purposes, it is distributed free of charge to other universities for educational and research purposes. An overview of the complete architecture of the package is given together with examples of its application. Then the various analysis and simulation modules are described. 1 Introduction GreatSPN 1.7 is a tool for the modeling and analysis of systems, based on the Petri net formalism. In this paper we first briefly describe the historical evolution of the package, which explains the reasons for some implementation choices as well as the intended p...
A Characterization of the Stochastic Process Underlying a Stochastic Petri Net
 IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering
, 1994
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TimeNET  A Toolkit for Evaluating NonMarkovian Stochastic Petri Nets
 Performance Evaluation
, 1995
"... This paper describes TimeNET (Timed Net Evaluation Tool), a software package for the modeling and evaluation of stochastic Petri nets with nonexponentially distributed firing times. TimeNET has been developed at the Technische Universität Berlin in several research projects. A graphical user interf ..."
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Cited by 74 (15 self)
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This paper describes TimeNET (Timed Net Evaluation Tool), a software package for the modeling and evaluation of stochastic Petri nets with nonexponentially distributed firing times. TimeNET has been developed at the Technische Universität Berlin in several research projects. A graphical user interface is provided for the model specification and several specialized analysis and simulation components are used for the automated model evaluation. The implementation of the analysis and simulation components is based on recent research results. Both the general structure and the underlying algorithms of TimeNET are described. An example illustrates the modeling and evaluation process using TimeNET. Keywords: Performance and Dependability Modeling Tool Analysis and Simulation of Stochastic Petri Nets Graphical User Interface * R. German's work was supported by the Siemens Corporate Research and Development. ** A. Zimmermann's work was supported by the German Research Council under grant H...
Fluid stochastic Petri nets: Theory applications and solution techniques
 European Journal of Operational Research
, 1998
"... In this paper we introduce a new class of stochastic Petri nets in which one or more places can hold uid rather than discrete tokens. We de ne a class of uid stochastic Petri nets in such awaythat the discrete and continuous portions may a ect each other. Following this de nition we provide equation ..."
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Cited by 70 (10 self)
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In this paper we introduce a new class of stochastic Petri nets in which one or more places can hold uid rather than discrete tokens. We de ne a class of uid stochastic Petri nets in such awaythat the discrete and continuous portions may a ect each other. Following this de nition we provide equations for their transient and steadystate behavior. We present several examples showing the utility of the construct in communication network modeling and reliability analysis, and discuss important special cases. We then discuss numerical methods for computing the transient behavior of such nets. Finally, some numerical examples are presented.
The UltraSAN Modeling Environment
, 1995
"... Modelbased evaluation of computer systems and networks is an increasingly important activity. For modeling to be used effectively, software environments are needed that ease model specification, construction, and solution. Easy to use, graphical methods for model specification that support solution ..."
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Cited by 69 (15 self)
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Modelbased evaluation of computer systems and networks is an increasingly important activity. For modeling to be used effectively, software environments are needed that ease model specification, construction, and solution. Easy to use, graphical methods for model specification that support solution of families of models with differing parameter values, are also needed. Since no model solution technique is ideal for all situations, multiple analysis and simulationbased solution techniques should be supported. This paper describes UltraSAN, one such software environment. The design of UltraSAN reflects its two main purposes: to facilitate the evaluation of realistic computer systems and networks, and to provide a testbed for investigating new modeling techniques. In UltraSAN models are specified using stochastic activity networks, a stochastic variant of Petri nets, using a graphical XWindow based interface that supports largescale model specification, construction, and solution. Models may be parameterized to reduce the effort required to solve families of models, and a variety of analysis and simulationbased solution techniques are supported. The package has a modular organization that makes it easy to add new construction and solution techniques as they become available. In addition to describing the features, capabilities, and organization of UltraSAN, the paper illustrates the use of the package in the solution for the unreliability of a faulttolerant multiprocessor using two solution techniques.
Stochastic petri nets: An elementary introduction
 In Advances in Petri Nets
, 1989
"... ABSTRACT Petri nets in which random firing delays are associated with transitions whose ..."
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Cited by 69 (0 self)
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ABSTRACT Petri nets in which random firing delays are associated with transitions whose
DSPNexpress: A Software Package for the Efficient Solution of Deterministic and Stochastic Petri Nets
 Performance Evaluation
, 1995
"... This paper describes the analysis tool DSPNexpress which has been developed at the Technical University of Berlin since 1991. The development of DSPNexpress has been motivated by the lack of a powerful software package for the numerical solution of Deterministic and Stochastic Petri Nets (DSPNs) ..."
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Cited by 44 (2 self)
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This paper describes the analysis tool DSPNexpress which has been developed at the Technical University of Berlin since 1991. The development of DSPNexpress has been motivated by the lack of a powerful software package for the numerical solution of Deterministic and Stochastic Petri Nets (DSPNs) and the complexity requirements imposed by evaluating memory consistency models for multicomputer systems. The development of DSPNexpress has gained by the authors experience with the version 1.4 of the software package GreatSPN. However, opposed to GreatSPN, the software architecture of DSPNexpress is particularly tailored to the numerical evaluation of DSPNs. Furthermore, DSPNexpress contains a graphical interface running under the X11 window system. To the best of the authors knowledge, DSPNexpress is the first software package which contains an efficient numerical algorithm for computing steadystate solutions of DSPNs. Short Title: The Software Package DSPNexpress Keywords: ...
Analysis of deterministic and stochastic Petri nets
 Performance Evaluation
, 1993
"... We present a time and space efficient algorithm for computing steady state solutions of deterministic and stochastic Petri nets (DSPNs) with both stochastic and structural extensions. The algorithm can deal with different execution policies associated with deterministic transitions of a DSPN. The de ..."
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Cited by 38 (6 self)
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We present a time and space efficient algorithm for computing steady state solutions of deterministic and stochastic Petri nets (DSPNs) with both stochastic and structural extensions. The algorithm can deal with different execution policies associated with deterministic transitions of a DSPN. The definition of a subordinated Markov chain (SMC) is refined to reduce the computational cost of deriving the transition probabilities of the embedded Markov chain (EMC) underlying a DSPN. Closedform expressions of these transition probabilities are presented for some SMC topologies. Moreover, we propose to make use of the reward structure defined on the DSPN to reduce memory requirements. The usefulness of the proposed extensions and the steps of the solution algorithm are illustrated using a DSPN of a simple communication protocol. 1