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245
The Nature of Statistical Learning Theory
, 1999
"... Statistical learning theory was introduced in the late 1960’s. Until the 1990’s it was a purely theoretical analysis of the problem of function estimation from a given collection of data. In the middle of the 1990’s new types of learning algorithms (called support vector machines) based on the deve ..."
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Cited by 12976 (32 self)
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Statistical learning theory was introduced in the late 1960’s. Until the 1990’s it was a purely theoretical analysis of the problem of function estimation from a given collection of data. In the middle of the 1990’s new types of learning algorithms (called support vector machines) based on the developed theory were proposed. This made statistical learning theory not only a tool for the theoretical analysis but also a tool for creating practical algorithms for estimating multidimensional functions. This article presents a very general overview of statistical learning theory including both theoretical and algorithmic aspects of the theory. The goal of this overview is to demonstrate how the abstract learning theory established conditions for generalization which are more general than those discussed in classical statistical paradigms and how the understanding of these conditions inspired new algorithmic approaches to function estimation problems. A more
A tutorial on support vector machines for pattern recognition
 Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery
, 1998
"... The tutorial starts with an overview of the concepts of VC dimension and structural risk minimization. We then describe linear Support Vector Machines (SVMs) for separable and nonseparable data, working through a nontrivial example in detail. We describe a mechanical analogy, and discuss when SV ..."
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Cited by 3319 (12 self)
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The tutorial starts with an overview of the concepts of VC dimension and structural risk minimization. We then describe linear Support Vector Machines (SVMs) for separable and nonseparable data, working through a nontrivial example in detail. We describe a mechanical analogy, and discuss when SVM solutions are unique and when they are global. We describe how support vector training can be practically implemented, and discuss in detail the kernel mapping technique which is used to construct SVM solutions which are nonlinear in the data. We show how Support Vector machines can have very large (even infinite) VC dimension by computing the VC dimension for homogeneous polynomial and Gaussian radial basis function kernels. While very high VC dimension would normally bode ill for generalization performance, and while at present there exists no theory which shows that good generalization performance is guaranteed for SVMs, there are several arguments which support the observed high accuracy of SVMs, which we review. Results of some experiments which were inspired by these arguments are also presented. We give numerous examples and proofs of most of the key theorems. There is new material, and I hope that the reader will find that even old material is cast in a fresh light.
Online Learning with Kernels
, 2003
"... Kernel based algorithms such as support vector machines have achieved considerable success in various problems in the batch setting where all of the training data is available in advance. Support vector machines combine the socalled kernel trick with the large margin idea. There has been little u ..."
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Cited by 2807 (126 self)
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Kernel based algorithms such as support vector machines have achieved considerable success in various problems in the batch setting where all of the training data is available in advance. Support vector machines combine the socalled kernel trick with the large margin idea. There has been little use of these methods in an online setting suitable for realtime applications. In this paper we consider online learning in a Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Space. By considering classical stochastic gradient descent within a feature space, and the use of some straightforward tricks, we develop simple and computationally efficient algorithms for a wide range of problems such as classification, regression, and novelty detection. In addition to allowing the exploitation of the kernel trick in an online setting, we examine the value of large margins for classification in the online setting with a drifting target. We derive worst case loss bounds and moreover we show the convergence of the hypothesis to the minimiser of the regularised risk functional. We present some experimental results that support the theory as well as illustrating the power of the new algorithms for online novelty detection. In addition
A tutorial on support vector regression
, 2004
"... In this tutorial we give an overview of the basic ideas underlying Support Vector (SV) machines for function estimation. Furthermore, we include a summary of currently used algorithms for training SV machines, covering both the quadratic (or convex) programming part and advanced methods for dealing ..."
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Cited by 828 (3 self)
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In this tutorial we give an overview of the basic ideas underlying Support Vector (SV) machines for function estimation. Furthermore, we include a summary of currently used algorithms for training SV machines, covering both the quadratic (or convex) programming part and advanced methods for dealing with large datasets. Finally, we mention some modifications and extensions that have been applied to the standard SV algorithm, and discuss the aspect of regularization from a SV perspective.
Estimating the Support of a HighDimensional Distribution
, 1999
"... Suppose you are given some dataset drawn from an underlying probability distribution P and you want to estimate a "simple" subset S of input space such that the probability that a test point drawn from P lies outside of S is bounded by some a priori specified between 0 and 1. We propo ..."
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Cited by 766 (29 self)
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Suppose you are given some dataset drawn from an underlying probability distribution P and you want to estimate a "simple" subset S of input space such that the probability that a test point drawn from P lies outside of S is bounded by some a priori specified between 0 and 1. We propose a method to approach this problem by trying to estimate a function f which is positive on S and negative on the complement. The functional form of f is given by a kernel expansion in terms of a potentially small subset of the training data; it is regularized by controlling the length of the weight vector in an associated feature space. The expansion coefficients are found by solving a quadratic programming problem, which we do by carrying out sequential optimization over pairs of input patterns. We also provide a preliminary theoretical analysis of the statistical performance of our algorithm. The algorithm is a natural extension of the support vector algorithm to the case of unlabelled d...
An introduction to kernelbased learning algorithms
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON NEURAL NETWORKS
, 2001
"... This paper provides an introduction to support vector machines (SVMs), kernel Fisher discriminant analysis, and ..."
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Cited by 589 (54 self)
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This paper provides an introduction to support vector machines (SVMs), kernel Fisher discriminant analysis, and
Convolution Kernels on Discrete Structures
, 1999
"... We introduce a new method of constructing kernels on sets whose elements are discrete structures like strings, trees and graphs. The method can be applied iteratively to build a kernel on an infinite set from kernels involving generators of the set. The family of kernels generated generalizes the fa ..."
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Cited by 510 (0 self)
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We introduce a new method of constructing kernels on sets whose elements are discrete structures like strings, trees and graphs. The method can be applied iteratively to build a kernel on an infinite set from kernels involving generators of the set. The family of kernels generated generalizes the family of radial basis kernels. It can also be used to define kernels in the form of joint Gibbs probability distributions. Kernels can be built from hidden Markov random elds, generalized regular expressions, pairHMMs, or ANOVA decompositions. Uses of the method lead to open problems involving the theory of infinitely divisible positive definite functions. Fundamentals of this theory and the theory of reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces are reviewed and applied in establishing the validity of the method.
Just Relax: Convex Programming Methods for Identifying Sparse Signals in Noise
, 2006
"... This paper studies a difficult and fundamental problem that arises throughout electrical engineering, applied mathematics, and statistics. Suppose that one forms a short linear combination of elementary signals drawn from a large, fixed collection. Given an observation of the linear combination that ..."
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Cited by 496 (2 self)
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This paper studies a difficult and fundamental problem that arises throughout electrical engineering, applied mathematics, and statistics. Suppose that one forms a short linear combination of elementary signals drawn from a large, fixed collection. Given an observation of the linear combination that has been contaminated with additive noise, the goal is to identify which elementary signals participated and to approximate their coefficients. Although many algorithms have been proposed, there is little theory which guarantees that these algorithms can accurately and efficiently solve the problem. This paper studies a method called convex relaxation, which attempts to recover the ideal sparse signal by solving a convex program. This approach is powerful because the optimization can be completed in polynomial time with standard scientific software. The paper provides general conditions which ensure that convex relaxation succeeds. As evidence of the broad impact of these results, the paper describes how convex relaxation can be used for several concrete signal recovery problems. It also describes applications to channel coding, linear regression, and numerical analysis.
New Support Vector Algorithms
, 2000
"... this article with the regression case. To explain this, we will introduce a suitable definition of a margin that is maximized in both cases ..."
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Cited by 461 (42 self)
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this article with the regression case. To explain this, we will introduce a suitable definition of a margin that is maximized in both cases
Benchmarking Least Squares Support Vector Machine Classifiers
 NEURAL PROCESSING LETTERS
, 2001
"... In Support Vector Machines (SVMs), the solution of the classification problem is characterized by a (convex) quadratic programming (QP) problem. In a modified version of SVMs, called Least Squares SVM classifiers (LSSVMs), a least squares cost function is proposed so as to obtain a linear set of eq ..."
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Cited by 446 (46 self)
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In Support Vector Machines (SVMs), the solution of the classification problem is characterized by a (convex) quadratic programming (QP) problem. In a modified version of SVMs, called Least Squares SVM classifiers (LSSVMs), a least squares cost function is proposed so as to obtain a linear set of equations in the dual space. While the SVM classifier has a large margin interpretation, the LSSVM formulation is related in this paper to a ridge regression approach for classification with binary targets and to Fisher's linear discriminant analysis in the feature space. Multiclass categorization problems are represented by a set of binary classifiers using different output coding schemes. While regularization is used to control the effective number of parameters of the LSSVM classifier, the sparseness property of SVMs is lost due to the choice of the 2norm. Sparseness can be imposed in a second stage by gradually pruning the support value spectrum and optimizing the hyperparameters during the sparse approximation procedure. In this paper, twenty public domain benchmark datasets are used to evaluate the test set performance of LSSVM classifiers with linear, polynomial and radial basis function (RBF) kernels. Both the SVM and LSSVM classifier with RBF kernel in combination with standard crossvalidation procedures for hyperparameter selection achieve comparable test set performances. These SVM and LSSVM performances are consistently very good when compared to a variety of methods described in the literature including decision tree based algorithms, statistical algorithms and instance based learning methods. We show on ten UCI datasets that the LSSVM sparse approximation procedure can be successfully applied.