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378
Span: An energyefficient coordination algorithm for topology maintenance in ad hoc wireless networks
 ACM Wireless Networks Journal
, 2001
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Comparison of Broadcasting Techniques for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
 MOBIHOC'02
, 2002
"... Network wide broadcasting in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks provides important control and route establishment functionality for a number of unicast and multicast protocols. Considering its wide use as a building block for other network layer protocols, the MANET community needs to standardize a single meth ..."
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Cited by 519 (4 self)
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Network wide broadcasting in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks provides important control and route establishment functionality for a number of unicast and multicast protocols. Considering its wide use as a building block for other network layer protocols, the MANET community needs to standardize a single methodology that efficiently delivers a packet from one node to all other network nodes. Despite a considerable number of proposed broadcasting schemes, no comprehensive comparative analysis has been previously done. This paper provides such analysis by classifying existing broadcasting schemes into categories and simulating a subset of each category, thus supplying a condensed but comprehensive side by side comparison. The simulations are designed to pinpoint, in each category, specific failures to network conditions that are relevant to MANETs, e.g., bandwidth congestion and dynamic topologies. In addition, protocol extensions using adaptive responses to network conditions are proposed, implemented and analyzed for one broadcasting scheme that performs well in the comparative study.
Mobile ad hoc networking: imperatives and challenges
, 2003
"... Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) represent complex distributed systems that comprise wireless mobile nodes that can freely and dynamically selforganize into arbitrary and temporary, "adhoc" network topologies, allowing people and devices to seamlessly internetwork in areas with no preexi ..."
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Cited by 317 (8 self)
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Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) represent complex distributed systems that comprise wireless mobile nodes that can freely and dynamically selforganize into arbitrary and temporary, "adhoc" network topologies, allowing people and devices to seamlessly internetwork in areas with no preexisting communication infrastructure, e.g., disaster recovery environments. Ad hoc networking concept is not a new one, having been around in various forms for over 20 years. Traditionally, tactical networks have been the only communication networking application that followed the ad hoc paradigm. Recently, the introduction of new technologies such as the Bluetooth, IEEE 802.11 and Hyperlan are helping enable eventual commercial MANET deployments outside the military domain. These recent evolutions have been generating a renewed and growing interest in the research and development of MANET. This paper attempts to provide a comprehensive overview of this dynamic field. It first explains the important role that mobile ad hoc networks play in the evolution of future wireless technologies. Then, it reviews the latest research activities in these areas, including a summary of MANET's characteristics, capabilities, applications, and design constraints. The paper concludes by presenting a set of challenges and problems requiring further research in the future.
Distributed Construction of Connected Dominating Set in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks
 Mobile Networks and Applications
, 2002
"... Connected dominating set (CDS) has been proposed as virtual backbone or spine of wireless ad hoc networks. Three distributed approximation algorithms have been proposed in the literature for minimum CDS. ..."
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Cited by 276 (20 self)
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Connected dominating set (CDS) has been proposed as virtual backbone or spine of wireless ad hoc networks. Three distributed approximation algorithms have been proposed in the literature for minimum CDS.
Multipoint relaying for flooding broadcast messages in mobile wireless networks
, 2002
"... In this paper we discuss the mechanism of multipoint relays (MPRs) to efficiently do the flooding of broadcast messages in the mobile wireless networks. Multipoint relaying is a technique to reduce the number of redundant retransmissions while diffusing a broadcast message in the network. We discus ..."
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Cited by 218 (1 self)
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In this paper we discuss the mechanism of multipoint relays (MPRs) to efficiently do the flooding of broadcast messages in the mobile wireless networks. Multipoint relaying is a technique to reduce the number of redundant retransmissions while diffusing a broadcast message in the network. We discuss the principle and the functioning of MPRs, and propose a heuristic to select these MPRs in a mobile wireless environment. We also analyze the complexity of this heuristic and prove that the computation of a multipoint relay set with minimal size is NPcomplete. Finally, we present some simulation results to show the efficiency of multipoint relays.
Geometric Spanner for Routing in Mobile Networks
, 2001
"... Abstract—We propose a new routing graph, the restricted Delaunay graph (RDG), for mobile ad hoc networks. Combined with a node clustering algorithm, the RDG can be used as an underlying graph for geographic routing protocols. This graph has the following attractive properties: 1) it is planar; 2) be ..."
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Cited by 183 (18 self)
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Abstract—We propose a new routing graph, the restricted Delaunay graph (RDG), for mobile ad hoc networks. Combined with a node clustering algorithm, the RDG can be used as an underlying graph for geographic routing protocols. This graph has the following attractive properties: 1) it is planar; 2) between any two graph nodes there exists a path whose length, whether measured in terms of topological or Euclidean distance, is only a constant times the minimum length possible; and 3) the graph can be maintained efficiently in a distributed manner when the nodes move around. Furthermore, each node only needs constant time to make routing decisions. We show by simulation that the RDG outperforms previously proposed routing graphs in the context of the Greedy perimeter stateless routing (GPSR) protocol. Finally, we investigate theoretical bounds on the quality of paths discovered using GPSR. Index Terms—Geographical routing, spanners, wireless ad hoc networks. I.
On Reducing Broadcast Redundancy in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks
, 2003
"... Unlike in a wired network, a packet transmitted by a node in an ad hoc wireless network can reach all neighbors. Therefore, the total number of transmissions (forward nodes) is generally used as the cost criterion for broadcasting. The problem of finding the minimum number of forward nodes is NPcomp ..."
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Cited by 158 (23 self)
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Unlike in a wired network, a packet transmitted by a node in an ad hoc wireless network can reach all neighbors. Therefore, the total number of transmissions (forward nodes) is generally used as the cost criterion for broadcasting. The problem of finding the minimum number of forward nodes is NPcomplete. Among various approximation approaches, dominant pruning [7] utilizes 2hop neighborhood information to reduce redundant transmissions. In this paper, we analyze some deficiencies of the dominant pruning algorithm and propose two better approximation algorithms: total dominant pruning and partial dominant pruning. Both algorithms utilize 2hop neighborhood information more effectively to reduce redundant transmissions. Simulation results of applying these two algorithms show performance improvements compared with the original dominant pruning. In addition, two termination criteria are discussed and compared through simulation.
On Calculating PowerAware Connected Dominating Sets for Efficient Routing in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks
 IEEE/KICS JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATIONS AND NETWORKS
, 2002
"... Efficient routing among a set of mobile hosts (also called nodes) is one of the most important functions in ad hoc wireless networks. Routing based on a connected dominating set is a promising approach, where the searching space for a route is reduced to nodes in the set. A set is dominating if al ..."
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Cited by 146 (11 self)
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Efficient routing among a set of mobile hosts (also called nodes) is one of the most important functions in ad hoc wireless networks. Routing based on a connected dominating set is a promising approach, where the searching space for a route is reduced to nodes in the set. A set is dominating if all the nodes in the system are either in the set or neighbors of nodes in the set. Wu and Li [1] proposed a simple and efficient distributed algorithm for calculating connected dominating set in ad hoc wireless networks, where connections of nodes are determined by geographical distances of nodes. In general, nodes in the connected dominating set consume more energy in order to handle various bypass traffics than nodes outside the set. To prolong the life span of each node, and hence, the network by balancing the energy consumption in the network, nodes should be alternated in being chosen to form a connected dominating set. In this paper, we propose a method of calculating poweraware connected dominating set. Our simulation results show that the proposed approach outperforms several existing approaches in terms of life span of the network.
An extended localized algorithm for connected dominating set formation in ad hoc wireless networks
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PARALLEL AND DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS
, 2004
"... Efficient routing among a set of mobile hosts is one of the most important functions in ad hoc wireless networks. Routing based on a connected dominating set is a promising approach, where the search space for a route is reduced to the hosts in the set. A set is dominating if all the hosts in the sy ..."
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Cited by 143 (15 self)
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Efficient routing among a set of mobile hosts is one of the most important functions in ad hoc wireless networks. Routing based on a connected dominating set is a promising approach, where the search space for a route is reduced to the hosts in the set. A set is dominating if all the hosts in the system are either in the set or neighbors of hosts in the set. The efficiency of dominatingsetbased routing mainly depends on the overhead introduced in the formation of the dominating set and the size of the dominating set. In this paper, we first review a localized formation of a connected dominating set called marking process and dominatingsetbased routing. Then, we propose a dominant pruning rule to reduce the size of the dominating set. This dominant pruning rule (called Rule k) is a generalization of two existing rules (called Rule 1 and Rule 2, respectively). We prove that the vertex set derived by applying Rule k is still a connected dominating set. Rule k is more effective in reducing the dominating set derived from the marking process than the combination of Rules 1 and 2 and, surprisingly, in a restricted implementation with local neighborhood information, Rule k has the same communication complexity and less computation complexity. Simulation results confirm that Rule k outperforms Rules 1 and 2, especially in networks with relatively high vertex degree and high percentage of unidirectional links. We also prove that an upper bound exists on the average size of the dominating set derived from Rule k in its restricted implementation.
ConstantTime Distributed Dominating Set Approximation
 In Proc. of the 22 nd ACM Symposium on the Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC
, 2003
"... Finding a small dominating set is one of the most fundamental problems of traditional graph theory. In this paper, we present a new fully distributed approximation algorithm based on LP relaxation techniques. For an arbitrary parameter k and maximum degree #, our algorithm computes a dominating set ..."
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Cited by 134 (22 self)
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Finding a small dominating set is one of the most fundamental problems of traditional graph theory. In this paper, we present a new fully distributed approximation algorithm based on LP relaxation techniques. For an arbitrary parameter k and maximum degree #, our algorithm computes a dominating set of expected size O k# log #DSOPT rounds where each node has to send O k messages of size O(log #). This is the first algorithm which achieves a nontrivial approximation ratio in a constant number of rounds.