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PolynomialTime Algorithms for Prime Factorization and Discrete Logarithms on a Quantum Computer
 SIAM J. on Computing
, 1997
"... A digital computer is generally believed to be an efficient universal computing device; that is, it is believed able to simulate any physical computing device with an increase in computation time by at most a polynomial factor. This may not be true when quantum mechanics is taken into consideration. ..."
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Cited by 1277 (4 self)
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A digital computer is generally believed to be an efficient universal computing device; that is, it is believed able to simulate any physical computing device with an increase in computation time by at most a polynomial factor. This may not be true when quantum mechanics is taken into consideration. This paper considers factoring integers and finding discrete logarithms, two problems which are generally thought to be hard on a classical computer and which have been used as the basis of several proposed cryptosystems. Efficient randomized algorithms are given for these two problems on a hypothetical quantum computer. These algorithms take a number of steps polynomial in the input size, e.g., the number of digits of the integer to be factored.
Faulttolerant quantum computation
 In Proc. 37th FOCS
, 1996
"... It has recently been realized that use of the properties of quantum mechanics might speed up certain computations dramatically. Interest in quantum computation has since been growing. One of the main difficulties in realizing quantum computation is that decoherence tends to destroy the information i ..."
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Cited by 264 (5 self)
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It has recently been realized that use of the properties of quantum mechanics might speed up certain computations dramatically. Interest in quantum computation has since been growing. One of the main difficulties in realizing quantum computation is that decoherence tends to destroy the information in a superposition of states in a quantum computer, making long computations impossible. A further difficulty is that inaccuracies in quantum state transformations throughout the computation accumulate, rendering long computations unreliable. However, these obstacles may not be as formidable as originally believed. For any quantum computation with t gates, we show how to build a polynomial size quantum circuit that tolerates O(1 / log c t) amounts of inaccuracy and decoherence per gate, for some constant c; the previous bound was O(1 /t). We do this by showing that operations can be performed on quantum data encoded by quantum errorcorrecting codes without decoding this data. 1.
Quantum measurements and the Abelian stabilizer problem
"... We present a polynomial quantum algorithm for the Abelian stabilizer problem which includes both factoring and the discrete logarithm. Thus we extend famous Shor’s results [7]. Our method is based on a procedure for measuring an eigenvalue of a unitary operator. Another application of this procedure ..."
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Cited by 196 (0 self)
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We present a polynomial quantum algorithm for the Abelian stabilizer problem which includes both factoring and the discrete logarithm. Thus we extend famous Shor’s results [7]. Our method is based on a procedure for measuring an eigenvalue of a unitary operator. Another application of this procedure is a polynomial quantum Fourier transform algorithm for an arbitrary finite Abelian group. The paper also contains a rather detailed introduction to the theory of quantum computation.
Tight bounds on quantum searching
, 1996
"... We provide a tight analysis of Grover’s algorithm for quantum database searching. We give a simple closedform formula for the probability of success after any given number of iterations of the algorithm. This allows us to determine the number of iterations necessary to achieve almost certainty of f ..."
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Cited by 124 (9 self)
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We provide a tight analysis of Grover’s algorithm for quantum database searching. We give a simple closedform formula for the probability of success after any given number of iterations of the algorithm. This allows us to determine the number of iterations necessary to achieve almost certainty of finding the answer. Furthermore, we analyse the behaviour of the algorithm when the element to be found appears more than once in the table and we provide a new algorithm to find such an element even when the number of solutions is not known ahead of time. Finally, we provide a lower bound on the efficiency of any possible quantum database searching algorithm and we show that Grover’s algorithm comes within 2.62 % of being optimal.
An Introduction to Quantum Computing for NonPhysicists
 Los Alamos Physics Preprint Archive http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/quantph/9809016
, 2000
"... ..."
Oracle quantum computing
 Brassard & U.Vazirani, Strengths and weaknesses of quantum computing
, 1994
"... \Because nature isn't classical, dammit..." ..."
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Cited by 115 (8 self)
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\Because nature isn't classical, dammit..."
An exact quantum polynomialtime algorithm for Simon's problem
 IN PROCEEDINGS OF THE 5TH ISRAELI SYMPOSIUM ON THEORY OF COMPUTING AND SYSTEMS (ISTCS'97
, 1997
"... We investigate the power of quantum computers when they are required to return an answer that is guaranteed to be correct after a time that is upperbounded by a polynomial in the worst case. We show that a natural generalization of Simon’s problem can be solved in this way, whereas previous algorit ..."
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Cited by 96 (10 self)
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We investigate the power of quantum computers when they are required to return an answer that is guaranteed to be correct after a time that is upperbounded by a polynomial in the worst case. We show that a natural generalization of Simon’s problem can be solved in this way, whereas previous algorithms required quantum polynomial time in the expected sense only, without upper bounds on the worstcase running time. This is achieved by generalizing both Simon’s and Grover’s algorithms and combining them in a novel way. It follows that there is a decision problem that can be solved in exact quantum polynomial time, which would require expected exponential time on any classical boundederror probabilistic computer if the data is supplied as a black box.
Universality in quantum computation
 Proc. R. Soc. London A
, 1995
"... We show that in quantum computation almost every gate that operates on two or more bits is a universal gate. We discuss various physical considerations bearing on the proper definition of universality for computational components such as logic gates. ..."
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Cited by 95 (2 self)
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We show that in quantum computation almost every gate that operates on two or more bits is a universal gate. We discuss various physical considerations bearing on the proper definition of universality for computational components such as logic gates.
Succinct Quantum Proofs for Properties of Finite Groups
 In Proc. IEEE FOCS
, 2000
"... In this paper we consider a quantum computational variant of nondeterminism based on the notion of a quantum proof, which is a quantum state that plays a role similar to a certificate in an NPtype proof. Specifically, we consider quantum proofs for properties of blackbox groups, which are finite g ..."
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Cited by 83 (3 self)
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In this paper we consider a quantum computational variant of nondeterminism based on the notion of a quantum proof, which is a quantum state that plays a role similar to a certificate in an NPtype proof. Specifically, we consider quantum proofs for properties of blackbox groups, which are finite groups whose elements are encoded as strings of a given length and whose group operations are performed by a group oracle. We prove that for an arbitrary group oracle there exist succinct (polynomiallength) quantum proofs for the Group NonMembership problem that can be checked with small error in polynomial time on a quantum computer. Classically this is impossibleit is proved that there exists a group oracle relative to which this problem does not have succinct proofs that can be checked classically with bounded error in polynomial time (i.e., the problem is not in MA relative to the group oracle constructed). By considering a certain subproblem of the Group NonMembership problem we obtain a simple proof that there exists an oracle relative to which BQP is not contained in MA. Finally, we show that quantum proofs for nonmembership and classical proofs for various other group properties can be combined to yield succinct quantum proofs for other group properties not having succinct proofs in the classical setting, such as verifying that a number divides the order of a group and verifying that a group is not a simple group.
The Complexity of the Local Hamiltonian Problem
 In Proc. of 24th FSTTCS
, 2004
"... The kLOCAL HAMILTONIAN problem is a natural complete problem for the complexity class QMA, the quantum analog of NP. It is similar in spirit to MAXkSAT, which is NPcomplete for k ≥ 2. It was known that the problem is QMAcomplete for any k ≥ 3. On the other hand 1LOCAL HAMILTONIAN is in P, and h ..."
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Cited by 78 (7 self)
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The kLOCAL HAMILTONIAN problem is a natural complete problem for the complexity class QMA, the quantum analog of NP. It is similar in spirit to MAXkSAT, which is NPcomplete for k ≥ 2. It was known that the problem is QMAcomplete for any k ≥ 3. On the other hand 1LOCAL HAMILTONIAN is in P, and hence not believed to be QMAcomplete. The complexity of the 2LOCAL HAMILTONIAN problem has long been outstanding. Here we settle the question and prove that it is QMAcomplete. One component in our proof is a powerful technique for analyzing the sum of two Hamiltonians; this technique is based on perturbation theory and we believe that it might prove useful elsewhere. Our proof also implies that adiabatic computation with twolocal interactions on qubits is equivalent to standard quantum computation. 1