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50
Randomized rumor spreading
 In IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science
, 2000
"... We investigate the class of socalled epidemic algorithms that are commonly used for the lazy transmission of updates to distributed copies of a database. These algorithms use a simple randomized communication mechanism to ensure robustness. Suppose players communicate in parallel rounds in each of ..."
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Cited by 282 (2 self)
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We investigate the class of socalled epidemic algorithms that are commonly used for the lazy transmission of updates to distributed copies of a database. These algorithms use a simple randomized communication mechanism to ensure robustness. Suppose players communicate in parallel rounds in each of which every player calls a randomly selected communication partner. In every round, players can generate rumors (updates) that are to be distributed among all players. Whenever communication is established between two players, each one must decide which of the rumors to transmit. The major problem (arising due to the randomization) is that players might not know which rumors their partners have already received. For example, a standard algorithm forwarding each rumor from the calling to the called players for rounds needs to transmit the rumor times in order to ensure that every player finally receives the rumor with high probability. We investigate whether such a large communication overhead is inherent to epidemic algorithms. On the positive side, we show that the communication overhead can be reduced significantly. We give an algorithm using only transmissions and rounds. In addition, we prove the robustness of this algorithm, e.g., against adversarial failures. On the negative side, we show that any addressoblivious algorithm (i.e., an algorithm that does not use the addresses of communication partners) needs to send messages for each rumor regardless of the number of rounds. Furthermore, we give a general lower bound showing that time and communicationoptimality cannot be achieved simultaneously using random phone calls, that is, every algorithm that distributes a rumor
The Akamai network: A platform for highperformance Internet applications
 SIGOPS Oper. Syst. Rev
, 2010
"... Comprising more than 61,000 servers located across nearly 1,000 networks in 70 countries worldwide, the Akamai platform delivers hundreds of billions of Internet interactions daily, helping thousands of enterprises boost the performance and reliability of their Internet applications. In this paper, ..."
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Cited by 114 (15 self)
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Comprising more than 61,000 servers located across nearly 1,000 networks in 70 countries worldwide, the Akamai platform delivers hundreds of billions of Internet interactions daily, helping thousands of enterprises boost the performance and reliability of their Internet applications. In this paper, we give an overview of the components and capabilities of this largescale distributed computing platform, and offer some insight into its architecture, design principles, operation, and management.
A constantfactor approximation algorithm for packet routing, and balancing local vs. global criteria
 In Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on the Theory of Computing (STOC
, 1997
"... Abstract. We present the first constantfactor approximation algorithm for a fundamental problem: the storeandforward packet routing problem on arbitrary networks. Furthermore, the queue sizes required at the edges are bounded by an absolute constant. Thus, this algorithmbalances a global criterio ..."
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Cited by 57 (4 self)
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Abstract. We present the first constantfactor approximation algorithm for a fundamental problem: the storeandforward packet routing problem on arbitrary networks. Furthermore, the queue sizes required at the edges are bounded by an absolute constant. Thus, this algorithmbalances a global criterion (routing time) with a local criterion (maximum queue size) and shows how to get simultaneous good bounds for both. For this particular problem, approximating the routing time well, even without considering the queue sizes, was open. We then consider a class of such local vs. global problems in the context of covering integer programs and show how to improve the local criterion by a logarithmic factor by losing a constant factor in the global criterion.
Approximate Load Balancing on Dynamic and Asynchronous Networks
 In Proceedings of the 25th Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing
, 1993
"... This paper presents a simple local algorithm for load balancing in a distributed network. The algorithm makes no assumption about the structure of the network. It can be executed on a synchronous network with fixed topology, a synchronous network with dynamically changing topology, or an asynchronou ..."
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Cited by 48 (3 self)
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This paper presents a simple local algorithm for load balancing in a distributed network. The algorithm makes no assumption about the structure of the network. It can be executed on a synchronous network with fixed topology, a synchronous network with dynamically changing topology, or an asynchronous network. It works quickly and balances well when the network has an expansion property. In particular, we show that in an nnode networkwith maximumdegree d whose live edges, at every time step, form a ¯expander, the algorithm will balance the load to within an additive O(d log n=¯) term in O(\Delta log(n\Delta)=¯) time, where \Delta is the initial imbalance. The algorithm improves upon previous approaches that yield O(n) time bounds in dynamic and asynchronous networks. 1 Introduction One of the most fundamental problems to solve on a parallel computer or distributed network is to balance the load or work that must be performed among the various processors. This paper analyzes a sim...
Towards onchip faulttolerant communication
 In Proceedings of ASPDAC
, 2003
"... Abstract — As CMOS technology scales down into the deepsubmicron (DSM) domain, devices and interconnects are subject to new types of malfunctions and failures that are harder to predict and avoid with the current systemonchip (SoC) design methodologies. Relaxing the requirement of 100 % correctnes ..."
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Cited by 41 (5 self)
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Abstract — As CMOS technology scales down into the deepsubmicron (DSM) domain, devices and interconnects are subject to new types of malfunctions and failures that are harder to predict and avoid with the current systemonchip (SoC) design methodologies. Relaxing the requirement of 100 % correctness in operation drastically reduces the costs of design but, at the same time, requires SoCs be designed with some degree of systemlevel faulttolerance. In this paper, we introduce a highlevel model of DSM failure patterns and propose a new communication paradigm for SoCs, namely stochastic communication. Specifically, for a generic tilebased architecture, we propose a randomized algorithm which not only separates computation from communication, but also provides the required faulttolerance to onchip failures. This new technique is easy and cheap to implement in SoCs that integrate a large number of communicating IP cores. I.
Packet Routing In FixedConnection Networks: A Survey
, 1998
"... We survey routing problems on fixedconnection networks. We consider many aspects of the routing problem and provide known theoretical results for various communication models. We focus on (partial) permutation, krelation routing, routing to random destinations, dynamic routing, isotonic routing ..."
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Cited by 35 (3 self)
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We survey routing problems on fixedconnection networks. We consider many aspects of the routing problem and provide known theoretical results for various communication models. We focus on (partial) permutation, krelation routing, routing to random destinations, dynamic routing, isotonic routing, fault tolerant routing, and related sorting results. We also provide a list of unsolved problems and numerous references.
OnChip Stochastic Communication
, 2003
"... As CMOS technology scales down into the deepsubmicron (DSM) domain, the costs of design and verification for SystemsOnChip (SoCs) are rapidly increasing due to the inefficiency of traditional CAD tools. Relaxing the requirement of 100% correctness for devices and interconnects drastically reduces ..."
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Cited by 34 (6 self)
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As CMOS technology scales down into the deepsubmicron (DSM) domain, the costs of design and verification for SystemsOnChip (SoCs) are rapidly increasing due to the inefficiency of traditional CAD tools. Relaxing the requirement of 100% correctness for devices and interconnects drastically reduces the costs of design but, at the same time, requires that SoCs be designed with some systemlevel faulttolerance. In this paper, we introduce a new communication paradigm for SoCs, namely stochastic communication. The newly proposed scheme not only separates communication from computation, but also provides the required builtin faulttolerance to DSM failures, is scalable and cheap to implement. For a generic tilebased architecture, we show how a ubiquitous multimedia application (an MP3 encoder) can be implemented using stochastic communication in an efficient and robust manner. More precisely, up to 70% data upsets, 80% packet drops because of buffer overflow, and severe levels of synchronization failures can be tolerated while maintaining a low latency.
Models and Techniques for Communication in Dynamic Networks Christian
 In Proc. of the 19th Symp. on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS
, 2001
"... In this paper we will present various models and techniques for communication in dynamic networks. Dynamic networks are networks of dynamically changing bandwidth or topology. Situations in which dynamic networks occur are, for example: faulty networks (links go up and down), the Internet (the bandw ..."
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Cited by 26 (2 self)
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In this paper we will present various models and techniques for communication in dynamic networks. Dynamic networks are networks of dynamically changing bandwidth or topology. Situations in which dynamic networks occur are, for example: faulty networks (links go up and down), the Internet (the bandwidth of connections may vary), and wireless networks (mobile units move around). We investigate the problem of how to ensure connectivity, how to route, and how to perform admission control in these networks. Some of these problems have already been partly solved, but many problems are still wide open. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of recent results in this area, to identify some of the most interesting open problems and to suggest models and techniques that allow us to study them.
On the runtime and robustness of randomized broadcasting
 In Proc. of ISAAC’ 06
, 2006
"... Abstract. One of the most frequently studied problems in the context of information dissemination in communication networks is the broadcasting problem. In this paper, we study the following randomized broadcasting protocol. At some time t an information r is placed at one of the nodes of a graph. I ..."
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Cited by 25 (6 self)
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Abstract. One of the most frequently studied problems in the context of information dissemination in communication networks is the broadcasting problem. In this paper, we study the following randomized broadcasting protocol. At some time t an information r is placed at one of the nodes of a graph. In the succeeding steps, each informed node chooses one neighbor, independently and uniformly at random, and informs this neighbor by sending a copy of r to it. In this work, we develop tight bounds on the runtime of the algorithm described above, and analyze its robustness. First, it is shown that on Δregular graphs this algorithm requires at least log2 − 1 N +log Δ