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273
Robust face recognition via sparse representation
 IEEE TRANS. PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE
, 2008
"... We consider the problem of automatically recognizing human faces from frontal views with varying expression and illumination, as well as occlusion and disguise. We cast the recognition problem as one of classifying among multiple linear regression models, and argue that new theory from sparse signa ..."
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Cited by 916 (41 self)
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We consider the problem of automatically recognizing human faces from frontal views with varying expression and illumination, as well as occlusion and disguise. We cast the recognition problem as one of classifying among multiple linear regression models, and argue that new theory from sparse signal representation offers the key to addressing this problem. Based on a sparse representation computed by ℓ 1minimization, we propose a general classification algorithm for (imagebased) object recognition. This new framework provides new insights into two crucial issues in face recognition: feature extraction and robustness to occlusion. For feature extraction, we show that if sparsity in the recognition problem is properly harnessed, the choice of features is no longer critical. What is critical, however, is whether the number of features is sufficiently large and whether the sparse representation is correctly computed. Unconventional features such as downsampled images and random projections perform just as well as conventional features such as Eigenfaces and Laplacianfaces, as long as the dimension of the feature space surpasses certain threshold, predicted by the theory of sparse representation. This framework can handle errors due to occlusion and corruption uniformly, by exploiting the fact that these errors are often sparse w.r.t. to the standard (pixel) basis. The theory of sparse representation helps predict how much occlusion the recognition algorithm can handle and how to choose the training images to maximize robustness to occlusion. We conduct extensive experiments on publicly available databases to verify the efficacy of the proposed algorithm, and corroborate the above claims.
Model selection through sparse maximum likelihood estimation
 Journal of Machine Learning Research
, 2008
"... We consider the problem of estimating the parameters of a Gaussian or binary distribution in such a way that the resulting undirected graphical model is sparse. Our approach is to solve a maximum likelihood problem with an added ℓ1norm penalty term. The problem as formulated is convex but the memor ..."
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Cited by 337 (2 self)
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We consider the problem of estimating the parameters of a Gaussian or binary distribution in such a way that the resulting undirected graphical model is sparse. Our approach is to solve a maximum likelihood problem with an added ℓ1norm penalty term. The problem as formulated is convex but the memory requirements and complexity of existing interior point methods are prohibitive for problems with more than tens of nodes. We present two new algorithms for solving problems with at least a thousand nodes in the Gaussian case. Our first algorithm uses block coordinate descent, and can be interpreted as recursive ℓ1norm penalized regression. Our second algorithm, based on Nesterov’s first order method, yields a complexity estimate with a better dependence on problem size than existing interior point methods. Using a log determinant relaxation of the log partition function (Wainwright and Jordan, 2006), we show that these same algorithms can be used to solve an approximate sparse maximum likelihood problem for the binary case. We test our algorithms on synthetic data, as well as on gene expression and senate voting records data.
Online learning for matrix factorization and sparse coding
, 2010
"... Sparse coding—that is, modelling data vectors as sparse linear combinations of basis elements—is widely used in machine learning, neuroscience, signal processing, and statistics. This paper focuses on the largescale matrix factorization problem that consists of learning the basis set in order to ad ..."
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Cited by 317 (31 self)
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Sparse coding—that is, modelling data vectors as sparse linear combinations of basis elements—is widely used in machine learning, neuroscience, signal processing, and statistics. This paper focuses on the largescale matrix factorization problem that consists of learning the basis set in order to adapt it to specific data. Variations of this problem include dictionary learning in signal processing, nonnegative matrix factorization and sparse principal component analysis. In this paper, we propose to address these tasks with a new online optimization algorithm, based on stochastic approximations, which scales up gracefully to large data sets with millions of training samples, and extends naturally to various matrix factorization formulations, making it suitable for a wide range of learning problems. A proof of convergence is presented, along with experiments with natural images and genomic data demonstrating that it leads to stateoftheart performance in terms of speed and optimization for both small and large data sets.
An interiorpoint method for largescale l1regularized logistic regression
 Journal of Machine Learning Research
, 2007
"... Logistic regression with ℓ1 regularization has been proposed as a promising method for feature selection in classification problems. In this paper we describe an efficient interiorpoint method for solving largescale ℓ1regularized logistic regression problems. Small problems with up to a thousand ..."
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Cited by 284 (8 self)
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Logistic regression with ℓ1 regularization has been proposed as a promising method for feature selection in classification problems. In this paper we describe an efficient interiorpoint method for solving largescale ℓ1regularized logistic regression problems. Small problems with up to a thousand or so features and examples can be solved in seconds on a PC; medium sized problems, with tens of thousands of features and examples, can be solved in tens of seconds (assuming some sparsity in the data). A variation on the basic method, that uses a preconditioned conjugate gradient method to compute the search step, can solve very large problems, with a million features and examples (e.g., the 20 Newsgroups data set), in a few minutes, on a PC. Using warmstart techniques, a good approximation of the entire regularization path can be computed much more efficiently than by solving a family of problems independently.
Infinite Latent Feature Models and the Indian Buffet Process
, 2005
"... We define a probability distribution over equivalence classes of binary matrices with a finite number of rows and an unbounded number of columns. This distribution ..."
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Cited by 274 (46 self)
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We define a probability distribution over equivalence classes of binary matrices with a finite number of rows and an unbounded number of columns. This distribution
Covariance regularization by thresholding
, 2007
"... This paper considers regularizing a covariance matrix of p variables estimated from n observations, by hard thresholding. We show that the thresholded estimate is consistent in the operator norm as long as the true covariance matrix is sparse in a suitable sense, the variables are Gaussian or subGa ..."
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Cited by 154 (11 self)
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This paper considers regularizing a covariance matrix of p variables estimated from n observations, by hard thresholding. We show that the thresholded estimate is consistent in the operator norm as long as the true covariance matrix is sparse in a suitable sense, the variables are Gaussian or subGaussian, and (log p)/n → 0, and obtain explicit rates. The results are uniform over families of covariance matrices which satisfy a fairly natural notion of sparsity. We discuss an intuitive resampling scheme for threshold selection and prove a general crossvalidation result that justifies this approach. We also compare thresholding to other covariance estimators in simulations and on an example from climate data. 1. Introduction. Estimation
Visual Tracking Decomposition
 in CVPR
, 2010
"... We propose a novel tracking algorithm that can work robustly in a challenging scenario such that several kinds of appearance and motion changes of an object occur at the same time. Our algorithm is based on a visual tracking decomposition scheme for the efficient design of observation and motion mod ..."
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Cited by 121 (5 self)
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We propose a novel tracking algorithm that can work robustly in a challenging scenario such that several kinds of appearance and motion changes of an object occur at the same time. Our algorithm is based on a visual tracking decomposition scheme for the efficient design of observation and motion models as well as trackers. In our scheme, the observation model is decomposed into multiple basic observation models that are constructed by sparse principal component analysis (SPCA) of a set of feature templates. Each basic observation model covers a specific appearance of the object. The motion model is also represented by the combination of multiple basic motion models, each of which covers a different type of motion. Then the multiple basic trackers are designed by associating the basic observation models and the basic motion models, so that each specific tracker takes charge of a certain change in the object. All basic trackers are then integrated into one compound tracker through an interactive Markov Chain Monte Carlo (IMCMC) framework in which the basic trackers communicate with one another interactively while run in parallel. By exchanging information with others, each tracker further improves its performance, which results in increasing the whole performance of tracking. Experimental results show that our method tracks the object accurately and reliably in realistic videos where the appearance and motion are drastically changing over time. 1.
Convex and SemiNonnegative Matrix Factorizations
, 2008
"... We present several new variations on the theme of nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF). Considering factorizations of the form X = F GT, we focus on algorithms in which G is restricted to contain nonnegative entries, but allow the data matrix X to have mixed signs, thus extending the applicable ra ..."
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Cited by 109 (9 self)
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We present several new variations on the theme of nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF). Considering factorizations of the form X = F GT, we focus on algorithms in which G is restricted to contain nonnegative entries, but allow the data matrix X to have mixed signs, thus extending the applicable range of NMF methods. We also consider algorithms in which the basis vectors of F are constrained to be convex combinations of the data points. This is used for a kernel extension of NMF. We provide algorithms for computing these new factorizations and we provide supporting theoretical analysis. We also analyze the relationships between our algorithms and clustering algorithms, and consider the implications for sparseness of solutions. Finally, we present experimental results that explore the properties of these new methods.
Optimal Solutions for Sparse Principal Component Analysis
"... Given a sample covariance matrix, we examine the problem of maximizing the variance explained by a linear combination of the input variables while constraining the number of nonzero coefficients in this combination. This is known as sparse principal component analysis and has a wide array of applica ..."
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Cited by 97 (13 self)
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Given a sample covariance matrix, we examine the problem of maximizing the variance explained by a linear combination of the input variables while constraining the number of nonzero coefficients in this combination. This is known as sparse principal component analysis and has a wide array of applications in machine learning and engineering. We formulate a new semidefinite relaxation to this problem and derive a greedy algorithm that computes a full set of good solutions for all target numbers of non zero coefficients, with total complexity O(n 3), where n is the number of variables. We then use the same relaxation to derive sufficient conditions for global optimality of a solution, which can be tested in O(n 3) per pattern. We discuss applications in subset selection and sparse recovery and show on artificial examples and biological data that our algorithm does provide globally optimal solutions in many cases.