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212
Universal coalgebra: a theory of systems
, 2000
"... In the semantics of programming, nite data types such as finite lists, have traditionally been modelled by initial algebras. Later final coalgebras were used in order to deal with in finite data types. Coalgebras, which are the dual of algebras, turned out to be suited, moreover, as models for certa ..."
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Cited by 408 (42 self)
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In the semantics of programming, nite data types such as finite lists, have traditionally been modelled by initial algebras. Later final coalgebras were used in order to deal with in finite data types. Coalgebras, which are the dual of algebras, turned out to be suited, moreover, as models for certain types of automata and more generally, for (transition and dynamical) systems. An important property of initial algebras is that they satisfy the familiar principle of induction. Such a principle was missing for coalgebras until the work of Aczel (NonWellFounded sets, CSLI Leethre Notes, Vol. 14, center for the study of Languages and information, Stanford, 1988) on a theory of nonwellfounded sets, in which he introduced a proof principle nowadays called coinduction. It was formulated in terms of bisimulation, a notion originally stemming from the world of concurrent programming languages. Using the notion of coalgebra homomorphism, the definition of bisimulation on coalgebras can be shown to be formally dual to that of congruence on algebras. Thus, the three basic notions of universal algebra: algebra, homomorphism of algebras, and congruence, turn out to correspond to coalgebra, homomorphism of coalgebras, and bisimulation, respectively. In this paper, the latter are taken
The Linear TimeBranching Time Spectrum II  The semantics of sequential systems with silent moves
, 1993
"... ion Rule (KFAR) (Baeten, Bergstra & Klop [3]), expresses a global fairness assumption. It says that when possible a system will escape from any cycle of internal actions. Some form of KFAR is crucial for many protocal verifications with unreliable channels, and for that reason preorders and equi ..."
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Cited by 375 (21 self)
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ion Rule (KFAR) (Baeten, Bergstra & Klop [3]), expresses a global fairness assumption. It says that when possible a system will escape from any cycle of internal actions. Some form of KFAR is crucial for many protocal verifications with unreliable channels, and for that reason preorders and equivalences that satisfy KFAR are of special interest. Must preorders and divergence sensitive ones cannot satisfy KFAR. In Bergstra, Klop & Olderog [7] it is shown that the combination of KFAR with failure semantics is inconsistent, but they formulate a weaker version of KFAR that is satisfied in failure maysemantics. Still the combination of KFAR \Gamma and the liveness requirement appears to require global testing, and is only satisfied in the semantics between contrasimulation (C) and stability respecting branching bisimulation (BB s ). These requirements would reduce the number of suitable preorders to 18. It is in general a good strategy to do your verifications using the finest preorde...
Bisimulation can't be traced
, 1995
"... In the concurrent language CCS, hvo programs are considered the same if they are bzsimilar. Several years and many researchers have demonstrated that the theory of bisimulation is mathematically appealing and useful in practice. However, bisimulation makes too many distinctions between programs. W ..."
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Cited by 242 (2 self)
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In the concurrent language CCS, hvo programs are considered the same if they are bzsimilar. Several years and many researchers have demonstrated that the theory of bisimulation is mathematically appealing and useful in practice. However, bisimulation makes too many distinctions between programs. We consider the problem of adding operations to CCS to make bisimulation fully abstract. We define the class of GSOS operations, generalizing the style and technical advantages of CCS operations. We characterize GSOS congruence in as a bisimulationlike relation called ready simulation. Bisimulation is strictly finer than ready simulation, and hence
Towards a Mathematical Operational Semantics
 In Proc. 12 th LICS Conf
, 1997
"... We present a categorical theory of `wellbehaved' operational semantics which aims at complementing the established theory of domains and denotational semantics to form a coherent whole. It is shown that, if the operational rules of a programming language can be modelled as a natural transforma ..."
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Cited by 173 (8 self)
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We present a categorical theory of `wellbehaved' operational semantics which aims at complementing the established theory of domains and denotational semantics to form a coherent whole. It is shown that, if the operational rules of a programming language can be modelled as a natural transformation of a suitable general form, depending on functorial notions of syntax and behaviour, then one gets both an operational model and a canonical, internally fully abstract denotational model for free; moreover, both models satisfy the operational rules. The theory is based on distributive laws and bialgebras; it specialises to the known classes of wellbehaved rules for structural operational semantics, such as GSOS.
Structural Operational Semantics
 Handbook of Process Algebra
, 1999
"... Structural Operational Semantics (SOS) provides a framework to give an operational semantics to programming and specification languages, which, because of its intuitive appeal and flexibility, has found considerable application in the theory of concurrent processes. Even though SOS is widely use ..."
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Cited by 152 (20 self)
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Structural Operational Semantics (SOS) provides a framework to give an operational semantics to programming and specification languages, which, because of its intuitive appeal and flexibility, has found considerable application in the theory of concurrent processes. Even though SOS is widely used in programming language semantics at large, some of its most interesting theoretical developments have taken place within concurrency theory. In particular, SOS has been successfully applied as a formal tool to establish results that hold for whole classes of process description languages. The concept of rule format has played a major role in the development of this general theory of process description languages, and several such formats have been proposed in the research literature. This chapter presents an exposition of existing rule formats, and of the rich body of results that are guaranteed to hold for any process description language whose SOS is within one of these formats. As far as possible, the theory is developed for SOS with features like predicates and negative premises.
Deriving Bisimulation Congruences for Reactive Systems
 In Proc. of CONCUR 2000, 2000. LNCS 1877
, 2000
"... . The dynamics of reactive systems, e.g. CCS, has often been de ned using a labelled transition system (LTS). More recently it has become natural in de ning dynamics to use reaction rules  i.e. unlabelled transition rules  together with a structural congruence. But LTSs lead more naturally to beha ..."
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Cited by 136 (13 self)
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. The dynamics of reactive systems, e.g. CCS, has often been de ned using a labelled transition system (LTS). More recently it has become natural in de ning dynamics to use reaction rules  i.e. unlabelled transition rules  together with a structural congruence. But LTSs lead more naturally to behavioural equivalences. So one would like to derive from reaction rules a suitable LTS. This paper shows how to derive an LTS for a wide range of reactive systems. A label for an agent a is de ned to be any context F which intuitively is just large enough so that the agent Fa (\a in context F ") is able to perform a reaction. The key contribution of this paper is a precise de nition of \just large enough", in terms of the categorical notion of relative pushout (RPO), which ensures that bisimilarity is a congruence when sucient RPOs exist. Two examples  a simpli ed form of action calculi and termrewriting  are given, for which it is shown that su cient RPOs indeed exist. The thrust of thi...
Proving congruence of bisimulation in functional programming languages
 Information and Computation
, 1996
"... Email: howe research.att.com We give a method for proving congruence of bisimulationlike equivalences in functional programming languages. The method applies to languages that can be presented as a set of expressions together with an evaluation relation. We use this method to show that some genera ..."
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Cited by 133 (1 self)
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Email: howe research.att.com We give a method for proving congruence of bisimulationlike equivalences in functional programming languages. The method applies to languages that can be presented as a set of expressions together with an evaluation relation. We use this method to show that some generalizations of Abramsky's applicative bisimulation are congruences whenever evaluation can be specified by a certain natural form of structured operational semantics. One of the generalizations handles nondeterminism and diverging computations.] 1996 Academic Press, Inc. 1.
A Congruence Theorem for Structured Operational Semantics With Predicates
, 1993
"... . We proposed a syntactical format, the path format, for structured operational semantics in which predicates may occur. We proved that strong bisimulation is a congruence for all the operators that can be defined within the path format. To show that this format is useful we provided many examples t ..."
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Cited by 130 (5 self)
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. We proposed a syntactical format, the path format, for structured operational semantics in which predicates may occur. We proved that strong bisimulation is a congruence for all the operators that can be defined within the path format. To show that this format is useful we provided many examples that we took from the literature about CCS, CSP, and ACP; they do satisfy the path format but no formats proposed by others. The examples include concepts like termination, convergence, divergence, weak bisimulation, a zero object, side conditions, functions, real time, discrete time, sequencing, negative premises, negative conclusions, and priorities (or a combination of these notions). Key Words & Phrases: structured operational semantics, term deduction system, transition system specification, structured state system, labelled transition system, strong bisimulation, congruence theorem, predicate. 1980 Mathematics Subject Classification (1985 Revision): 68Q05, 68Q55. CR Categories: D.3.1...
The Linear TimeBranching Time Spectrum I  The Semantics of Concrete, Sequential Processes
 Handbook of Process Algebra, chapter 1
"... this paper various semantics in the linear time  branching time spectrum are presented in a uniform, modelindependent way. Restricted to the class of finitely branching, concrete, sequential processes, only fifteen of them turn out to be different, and most semantics found in the literature that ..."
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Cited by 126 (6 self)
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this paper various semantics in the linear time  branching time spectrum are presented in a uniform, modelindependent way. Restricted to the class of finitely branching, concrete, sequential processes, only fifteen of them turn out to be different, and most semantics found in the literature that can be defined uniformly in terms of action relations coincide with one of these fifteen. Several testing scenarios, motivating these semantics, are presented, phrased in terms of `button pushing experiments' on generative and reactive machines. Finally twelve of these semantics are applied to a simple language for finite, concrete, sequential, nondeterministic processes, and for each of them a complete axiomatization is provided.