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Rewriting Logic Semantics: From Language Specifications to Formal Analysis Tools
 In Proceedings of the IJCAR 2004. LNCS
, 2004
"... Abstract. Formal semantic definitions of concurrent languages, when specified in a wellsuited semantic framework and supported by generic and efficient formal tools, can be the basis of powerful software analysis tools. Such tools can be obtained for free from the semantic definitions; in our exper ..."
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Cited by 52 (14 self)
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Abstract. Formal semantic definitions of concurrent languages, when specified in a wellsuited semantic framework and supported by generic and efficient formal tools, can be the basis of powerful software analysis tools. Such tools can be obtained for free from the semantic definitions; in our experience in just the few weeks required to define a language’s semantics even for large languages like Java. By combining, yet distinguishing, both equations and rules, rewriting logic semantic definitions unify both the semantic equations of equational semantics (in their higherorder denotational version or their firstorder algebraic counterpart) and the semantic rules of SOS. Several limitations of both SOS and equational semantics are thus overcome within this unified framework. By using a highperformance implementation of rewriting logic such as Maude, a language’s formal specification can be automatically transformed into an efficient interpreter. Furthermore, by using Maude’s breadth first search command, we also obtain for free a semidecision procedure for finding failures of safety properties; and by using Maude’s LTL model checker, we obtain, also for free, a decision procedure for LTL properties of finitestate programs. These possibilities, and the competitive performance of the analysis tools thus obtained, are illustrated by means of a concurrent Camllike language; similar experience with Java (source and JVM) programs is also summarized. 1
Cartesian Closed Double Categories, their LambdaNotation, and the PiCalculus
, 1999
"... We introduce the notion of cartesian closed double category to provide mobile calculi for communicating systems with specific semantic models: One dimension is dedicated to compose systems and the other to compose their computations and their observations. Also, inspired by the connection between s ..."
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Cited by 22 (12 self)
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We introduce the notion of cartesian closed double category to provide mobile calculi for communicating systems with specific semantic models: One dimension is dedicated to compose systems and the other to compose their computations and their observations. Also, inspired by the connection between simply typed calculus and cartesian closed categories, we define a new typed framework, called double notation, which is able to express the abstraction /application and pairing/projection operations in all dimensions. In this development, we take the categorical presentation as a guidance in the interpretation of the formalism. A case study of the ßcalculus, where the double  notation straightforwardly handles name passing and creation, concludes the presentation.
Implementing CCS in Maude 2
 Proceedings Fourth International Workshop on Rewriting Logic and its Applications, WRLA 2002
, 2002
"... This paper describes in detail how to bridge the gap between theory and practice in a new implementation of the CCS operational semantics in Maude, where transitions become rewrites and inference rules become conditional rewrite rules with rewrites in the conditions, as made possible by the new feat ..."
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Cited by 21 (5 self)
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This paper describes in detail how to bridge the gap between theory and practice in a new implementation of the CCS operational semantics in Maude, where transitions become rewrites and inference rules become conditional rewrite rules with rewrites in the conditions, as made possible by the new features in Maude 2.0. We implement both the usual transition semantics and the weak transition semantics where internal actions are not observed, and on top of them we also implement the HennessyMilner modal logic for describing processes. We compare this implementation with a previous one where transitions become judgements and inference rules become rewrites, and also comment on extensions to the LOTOS language.
Implementing CCS in Maude
 Formal Methods For Distributed System Development. FORTE/PSTV 2000 IFIP TC6 WG6.1 Joint International Conference on Formal Description Techniques for Distributed Systems and Communications Protocols (FORTE XIII) and Protocol Specification, Testing and Ver
, 2000
"... Abstract We explore the features of rewriting logic and the language Maude as a logical and semantic framework for representing both the semantics of CCS, and a modal logic for describing local capabilities of CCS processes. Although a rewriting logic representation of the CCS semantics was given pr ..."
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Cited by 18 (9 self)
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Abstract We explore the features of rewriting logic and the language Maude as a logical and semantic framework for representing both the semantics of CCS, and a modal logic for describing local capabilities of CCS processes. Although a rewriting logic representation of the CCS semantics was given previously, it cannot be directly executed in the default interpreter of Maude. Moreover, it cannot be used to answer questions such as which are the successors of a process after performing an action, which is used to define the semantics of the modal logic. Basically, the problems are the existence of new variables in the righthand side of the rewrite rules and the nondeterministic application of the semantic rules, inherent to CCS. We show how these problems can be solved by exploiting the reflective properties of rewriting logic, which allow controlling the rewriting process. This executable specification plus the reflective control of the rewriting process can be used to analyze CCS processes. 1.
Transactions and ZeroSafe Nets
 Advances in Petri Nets: Unifying Petri Nets, Lect. Notes in Comput. Sci. 2128
, 2001
"... When employing Petri nets to model distributed systems, one must be aware that the basic activities of each component can vary in duration and can involve smaller internal activities, i.e., that transitions are conceptually refined into transactions. We present an approach to the modeling of transac ..."
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Cited by 16 (8 self)
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When employing Petri nets to model distributed systems, one must be aware that the basic activities of each component can vary in duration and can involve smaller internal activities, i.e., that transitions are conceptually refined into transactions. We present an approach to the modeling of transactions based on zerosafe nets. They extend ordinary pt nets with a simple mechanism for transition synchronization. We show that the net theory developed under the two most diffused semantic interpretations (collective token and individual token philosophies) can be uniformly adapted to zerosafe nets. In particular, we show that each zerosafe net has associated two pt nets which represent the abstract counterparts of the modeled system according to the two philosophies. We show several applications of the framework, a distributed interpreter for zs nets based on classical net unfolding (here extended with a commit rule) and discuss some extensions to other net flavours.
Comparing Logics for Rewriting: Rewriting logic, action calculi and tile logic
 Theoretical Computer Science
, 2002
"... The large diffusion of concurrent and distributed systems has spawned in recent years a variety of new formalisms, equipped with features for supporting an easy specification of such systems. The aim of our paper is to analyze three proposals, namely rewriting logic, action calculi and tile logic, c ..."
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Cited by 15 (3 self)
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The large diffusion of concurrent and distributed systems has spawned in recent years a variety of new formalisms, equipped with features for supporting an easy specification of such systems. The aim of our paper is to analyze three proposals, namely rewriting logic, action calculi and tile logic, chosen among those formalisms designed for the description of rulebased systems. For each of these logics we first try to understand their foundations, then we briefly sketch some applications. The overall goal of our work is to find out a common layout where these logics can be recast, thus allowing for a comparison and an evaluation of their specific features.
Executable Tile Specifications for Process Calculi
, 1999
"... . Tile logic extends rewriting logic by taking into account sideeffects and rewriting synchronization. These aspects are very important when we model process calculi, because they allow us to express the dynamic interaction between processes and "the rest of the world". Since rewriting log ..."
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Cited by 14 (10 self)
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. Tile logic extends rewriting logic by taking into account sideeffects and rewriting synchronization. These aspects are very important when we model process calculi, because they allow us to express the dynamic interaction between processes and "the rest of the world". Since rewriting logic is the semantic basis of several language implementation efforts, an executable specification of tile systems can be obtained by mapping tile logic back into rewriting logic, in a conservative way. However, a correct rewriting implementation of tile logic requires the development of a metalayer to control rewritings, i.e., to discard computations that do not correspond to any deduction in tile logic. We show how such methodology can be applied to term tile systems that cover and extend a wideclass of SOS formats for the specification of process calculi. The wellknown casestudy of full CCS, where the term tile format is needed to deal with recursion (in the form of the replicator operator), is di...
Normal Forms for Partitions and Relations
 Recent Trends in Algebraic Development Techniques, volume 1589 of Lect. Notes in Comp. Science
, 1999
"... Recently there has been a growing interest towards algebraic structures that are able to express formalisms different from the standard, treelike presentation of terms. Many of these approaches reveal a specific interest towards their application in the "distributed and concurrent systems" ..."
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Cited by 14 (11 self)
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Recently there has been a growing interest towards algebraic structures that are able to express formalisms different from the standard, treelike presentation of terms. Many of these approaches reveal a specific interest towards their application in the "distributed and concurrent systems" field, but an exhaustive comparison between them is difficult because their presentations can be quite dissimilar. This work is a first step towards a unified view, which is able to recast all those formalisms into a more general one, where they can be easily compared. We introduce a general schema for describing a characteristic normal form for many algebraic formalisms, and show that those normal forms can be thought of as arrows of suitable concrete monoidal categories.
Tile Bisimilarity Congruences for Open Terms and Term Graphs
 in: Proc. CONCUR 2000, LNCS 1877 (2000
, 2000
"... The definition of sos formats ensuring that bisimilarity on closed terms is a congruence has received much attention in the last two decades. For dealing with open system specifications, the congruence is usually lifted from closed terms to open terms by instantiating the free variables in all possi ..."
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Cited by 13 (7 self)
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The definition of sos formats ensuring that bisimilarity on closed terms is a congruence has received much attention in the last two decades. For dealing with open system specifications, the congruence is usually lifted from closed terms to open terms by instantiating the free variables in all possible ways; the only alternatives considered in the literature relying on Larsen and Xinxin's context systems and Rensink's conditional transition systems. We propose a different approach based on tile logic, where both closed and open terms are managed analogously. In particular, we analyze the `bisimilarity as congruence' property for several tile formats that accomplish di erent concepts of subterm sharing.
An Interactive Semantics of Logic Programming
 THEORY AND PRACTICE OF LOGIC PROGRAMMING
, 2001
"... We apply to logic programming some recently emerging ideas from the field of reductionbased communicating systems, with the aim of giving evidence of the hidden interactions and the coordination mechanisms that rule the operational machinery of such a programming paradigm. The semantic framework we ..."
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Cited by 13 (6 self)
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We apply to logic programming some recently emerging ideas from the field of reductionbased communicating systems, with the aim of giving evidence of the hidden interactions and the coordination mechanisms that rule the operational machinery of such a programming paradigm. The semantic framework we have chosen for presenting our results is tile logic, which has the advantage of allowing a uniform treatment of goals and observations and of applying abstract categorical tools for proving the results. As main contributions, we mention the finitary presentation of abstract unification, and a concurrent and coordinated abstract semantics consistent with the most common semantics of logic programming. Moreover, the compositionality of the tile semantics is guaranteed by standard results, as it reduces to check that the tile systems associated to logic programs enjoy the tile decomposition property. An extension of the approach for handling constraint systems is also discussed.