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TABU SEARCH
"... Tabu Search is a metaheuristic that guides a local heuristic search procedure to explore the solution space beyond local optimality. One of the main components of tabu search is its use of adaptive memory, which creates a more flexible search behavior. Memory based strategies are therefore the hallm ..."
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Cited by 790 (44 self)
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Tabu Search is a metaheuristic that guides a local heuristic search procedure to explore the solution space beyond local optimality. One of the main components of tabu search is its use of adaptive memory, which creates a more flexible search behavior. Memory based strategies are therefore the hallmark of tabu search approaches, founded on a quest for "integrating principles, " by which alternative forms of memory are appropriately combined with effective strategies for exploiting them. In this chapter we address the problem of training multilayer feedforward neural networks. These networks have been widely used for both prediction and classification in many different areas. Although the most popular method for training these networks is backpropagation, other optimization methods such as tabu search have been applied to solve this problem. This chapter describes two training algorithms based on the tabu search. The experimentation shows that the procedures provide high quality solutions to the training problem, and in addition consume a reasonable computational effort.
Metaheuristics in combinatorial optimization: Overview and conceptual comparison
 ACM COMPUTING SURVEYS
, 2003
"... The field of metaheuristics for the application to combinatorial optimization problems is a rapidly growing field of research. This is due to the importance of combinatorial optimization problems for the scientific as well as the industrial world. We give a survey of the nowadays most important meta ..."
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Cited by 294 (16 self)
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The field of metaheuristics for the application to combinatorial optimization problems is a rapidly growing field of research. This is due to the importance of combinatorial optimization problems for the scientific as well as the industrial world. We give a survey of the nowadays most important metaheuristics from a conceptual point of view. We outline the different components and concepts that are used in the different metaheuristics in order to analyze their similarities and differences. Two very important concepts in metaheuristics are intensification and diversification. These are the two forces that largely determine the behaviour of a metaheuristic. They are in some way contrary but also complementary to each other. We introduce a framework, that we call the I&D frame, in order to put different intensification and diversification components into relation with each other. Outlining the advantages and disadvantages of different metaheuristic approaches we conclude by pointing out the importance of hybridization of metaheuristics as well as the integration of metaheuristics and other methods for optimization.
Iterated local search
 Handbook of Metaheuristics, volume 57 of International Series in Operations Research and Management Science
, 2002
"... Iterated Local Search has many of the desirable features of a metaheuristic: it is simple, easy to implement, robust, and highly effective. The essential idea of Iterated Local Search lies in focusing the search not on the full space of solutions but on a smaller subspace defined by the solutions th ..."
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Cited by 168 (14 self)
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Iterated Local Search has many of the desirable features of a metaheuristic: it is simple, easy to implement, robust, and highly effective. The essential idea of Iterated Local Search lies in focusing the search not on the full space of solutions but on a smaller subspace defined by the solutions that are locally optimal for a given optimization engine. The success of Iterated Local Search lies in the biased sampling of this set of local optima. How effective this approach turns out to be depends mainly on the choice of the local search, the perturbations, and the acceptance criterion. So far, in spite of its conceptual simplicity, it has lead to a number of stateoftheart results without the use of too much problemspecific knowledge. But with further work so that the different modules are well adapted to the problem at hand, Iterated Local Search can often become a competitive or even state of the art algorithm. The purpose of this review is both to give a detailed description of this metaheuristic and to show where it stands in terms of performance. O.M. acknowledges support from the Institut Universitaire de France. This work was partially supported by the “Metaheuristics Network”, a Research Training Network funded by the Improving Human Potential programme of the CEC, grant HPRNCT199900106. The information provided is the sole responsibility of the authors and does not reflect the Community’s opinion. The Community is not responsible for any use that might be made of data appearing in this publication. 1 1
Designing and reporting on computational experiments with heuristic methods
 JOURNAL OF HEURISTICS
, 1995
"... This report discusses the design of computational experiments to test heuristic methods and provides reporting guidelines for such experimentation. The goal is to promote thoughtful, wellplanned, and extensive testing of heuristics, full disclosure of experimental conditions, and integrity in and r ..."
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Cited by 142 (1 self)
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This report discusses the design of computational experiments to test heuristic methods and provides reporting guidelines for such experimentation. The goal is to promote thoughtful, wellplanned, and extensive testing of heuristics, full disclosure of experimental conditions, and integrity in and reproducibility of the reported results.
MAXMIN Ant System and Local Search for the Traveling Salesman Problem
 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON EVOLUTIONARY COMPUTATION (ICEC'97)
, 1997
"... Ant System is a general purpose algorithm inspired by the study of the behavior of Ant Colonies. It is based on a cooperative search paradigm that is applicable to the solution of combinatorial optimization problems. In this paper we introduce MAX MIN Ant System, an improved version of basic Ant S ..."
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Cited by 137 (15 self)
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Ant System is a general purpose algorithm inspired by the study of the behavior of Ant Colonies. It is based on a cooperative search paradigm that is applicable to the solution of combinatorial optimization problems. In this paper we introduce MAX MIN Ant System, an improved version of basic Ant System, and report our results for its application to symmetric and asymmetric instances of the well known Traveling Salesman Problem. We show how MAX MIN Ant System can be significantly improved extending it with local search heuristics. Our results clearly show that MAX MIN Ant System has the property of effectively guiding the local search heuristics towards promising regions of the search space by generating good initial tours. I. Introduction The Ant System algorithm, originally introduced in [3], [4], is a new cooperative search algorithm inspired by the behavior of real ants. Ants are able to find good solutions to shortest path problems between a food source and their home colony...
Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedures For The Steiner Problem In Graphs
 QUADRATIC ASSIGNMENT AND RELATED PROBLEMS, VOLUME 16 OF DIMACS SERIES ON DISCRETE MATHEMATICS AND THEORETICAL COMPUTER SCIENCE
, 1999
"... We describe four versions of a Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure (GRASP) for finding approximate solutions of general instances of the Steiner Problem in Graphs. Di#erent construction and local search algorithms are presented. Preliminary computational results with one of the versions ..."
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Cited by 121 (30 self)
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We describe four versions of a Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure (GRASP) for finding approximate solutions of general instances of the Steiner Problem in Graphs. Di#erent construction and local search algorithms are presented. Preliminary computational results with one of the versions on a variety of test problems are reported. On the majority of instances from the ORLibrary, a set of standard test problems, the GRASP produced optimal solutions. On those that optimal solutions were not found, the GRASP found good quality approximate solutions.
The Quadratic Assignment Problem: A Survey and Recent Developments
 In Proceedings of the DIMACS Workshop on Quadratic Assignment Problems, volume 16 of DIMACS Series in Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science
, 1994
"... . Quadratic Assignment Problems model many applications in diverse areas such as operations research, parallel and distributed computing, and combinatorial data analysis. In this paper we survey some of the most important techniques, applications, and methods regarding the quadratic assignment probl ..."
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Cited by 114 (16 self)
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. Quadratic Assignment Problems model many applications in diverse areas such as operations research, parallel and distributed computing, and combinatorial data analysis. In this paper we survey some of the most important techniques, applications, and methods regarding the quadratic assignment problem. We focus our attention on recent developments. 1. Introduction Given a set N = f1; 2; : : : ; ng and n \Theta n matrices F = (f ij ) and D = (d kl ), the quadratic assignment problem (QAP) can be stated as follows: min p2\Pi N n X i=1 n X j=1 f ij d p(i)p(j) + n X i=1 c ip(i) ; where \Pi N is the set of all permutations of N . One of the major applications of the QAP is in location theory where the matrix F = (f ij ) is the flow matrix, i.e. f ij is the flow of materials from facility i to facility j, and D = (d kl ) is the distance matrix, i.e. d kl represents the distance from location k to location l [62, 67, 137]. The cost of simultaneously assigning facility i to locat...
A genetic algorithm for the weight setting problem in OSPF routing
 Journal of Combinatorial Optimization
, 2002
"... Abstract. With the growth of the Internet, Internet Service Providers (ISPs) try to meet the increasing traffic demand with new technology and improved utilization of existing resources. Routing of data packets can affect network utilization. Packets are sent along network paths from source to desti ..."
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Cited by 108 (27 self)
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Abstract. With the growth of the Internet, Internet Service Providers (ISPs) try to meet the increasing traffic demand with new technology and improved utilization of existing resources. Routing of data packets can affect network utilization. Packets are sent along network paths from source to destination following a protocol. Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is the most commonly used intradomain Internet routing protocol (IRP). Traffic flow is routed along shortest paths, splitting flow at nodes with several outgoing links on a shortest path to the destination IP address. Link weights are assigned by the network operator. A path length is the sum of the weights of the links in the path. The OSPF weight setting (OSPFWS) problem seeks a set of weights that optimizes network performance. We study the problem of optimizing OSPF weights, given a set of projected demands, with the objective of minimizing network congestion. The weight assignment problem is NPhard. We present a genetic algorithm (GA) to solve the OSPFWS problem. We compare our results with the best known and commonly used heuristics for OSPF weight setting, as well as with a lower bound of the optimal multicommodity flow routing, which is a linear programming relaxation of the OSPFWS problem. Computational experiments are made on the AT&T Worldnet backbone with projected demands, and on twelve instances of synthetic networks. 1.
The ant colony optimization metaheuristic: Algorithms, applications, and advances
 Handbook of Metaheuristics
, 2002
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GRASP and path relinking for 2layer straight line crossing minimization
 INFORMS Journal on Computing
, 1999
"... ABSTRACT — In this paper, we develop a greedy randomized adaptive search procedure (GRASP) for the problem of minimizing straightline crossings in a 2layer graph. The procedure is fast and is particularly appealing when dealing with lowdensity graphs. When a modest increase in computational time ..."
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Cited by 102 (19 self)
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ABSTRACT — In this paper, we develop a greedy randomized adaptive search procedure (GRASP) for the problem of minimizing straightline crossings in a 2layer graph. The procedure is fast and is particularly appealing when dealing with lowdensity graphs. When a modest increase in computational time is allowed, the procedure may be coupled with a path relinking strategy to search for improved outcomes. Although the principles of path relinking have appeared in the tabu search literature, this search strategy has not been fully implemented and tested. We perform extensive computational experiments with more than 3,000 graph instances to first study the effect of changes in critical search parameters and then to compare the efficiency of alternative solution procedures. Our results indicate that graph density is a major influential factor on the performance of a solution procedure. Laguna and Martí / 2 The problem of minimizing straightline crossings in layered graphs has been the subject of study for at least 17 years, beginning with the Relative Degree Algorithm introduced by Carpano [2]. The problem consists of aligning the two shores V1 and V2 of a bipartite graph G = (V1, V2, E) on two parallel straight lines (layers) such that the number of crossing between the edges in E is minimized