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33
Modeling Agents as Qualitative Decision Makers
 Artificial Intelligence
, 1997
"... We investigate the semantic foundations of a method for modeling agents as entities with a mental state which was suggested by McCarthy and by Newell. Our goals are to formalize this modeling approach and its semantics, to understand the theoretical and practical issues that it raises, and to addres ..."
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Cited by 51 (0 self)
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We investigate the semantic foundations of a method for modeling agents as entities with a mental state which was suggested by McCarthy and by Newell. Our goals are to formalize this modeling approach and its semantics, to understand the theoretical and practical issues that it raises, and to address some of them. In particular, this requires specifying the model's parameters and how these parameters are to be assigned (i.e., their grounding). We propose a basic model in which the agent is viewed as a qualitative decision maker with beliefs, preferences, and decision strategy; and we show how these components would determine the agent's behavior. We ground this model in the agent's interaction with the world, namely, in its actions. This is done by viewing model construction as a constraint satisfaction problem in which we search for a model consistent with the agent's behavior and with our general background knowledge. In addition, we investigate the conditions under which a mental st...
From decision theory to decision aiding methodology (my very personal version of this history and some related reflections)
, 2003
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On the Axiomatization of Qualitative Decision Criteria
 Journal of the ACM
, 1997
"... Qualitative decision tools have been used in AI and CS in various contexts. However, their adequacy is unclear. Following Brafman and Tennenholtz, we use the axiomatic approach to investigate the adequacy and usefulness of various decision rules. We present constructive representation theorems for a ..."
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Cited by 23 (2 self)
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Qualitative decision tools have been used in AI and CS in various contexts. However, their adequacy is unclear. Following Brafman and Tennenholtz, we use the axiomatic approach to investigate the adequacy and usefulness of various decision rules. We present constructive representation theorems for a number of qualitative decision criteria, including minmax regret , competitive ratio, and maximax , and characterize conditions under which a maximin agent can be ascribed qualitative beliefs. Introduction Decision theory plays a central role in various disciplines, including mathematical economics, game theory, operations research, industrial engineering, and statistics. It is widely recognized by now that decision making is crucial to AI as well, since artificial agents are, in fact, automated decision makers (RN95). However, many decision making techniques found in the AI literature are quite different from those found in other fields. Work in other disciplines has mostly adopted the v...
A Possibilistic Logic Machinery for Qualitative Decision
 In AAAI Spring Symposium on Qualitative Preferences in Deliberation and Practical Reasoning
, 1997
"... This paper describes a logical machinery for computing decisions, where the available knowledge on the state of the world is described by a possibilistic propositional logic base (i.e., a collection of logical statements associated with qualitative certainty levels) , and where the preferences ..."
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Cited by 20 (5 self)
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This paper describes a logical machinery for computing decisions, where the available knowledge on the state of the world is described by a possibilistic propositional logic base (i.e., a collection of logical statements associated with qualitative certainty levels) , and where the preferences of the user are also described by another possibilistic logic base whose formula weights are interpreted in terms of priorities. The computed decisions are in agreement with a qualitative counterpart to von Neumann and Morgenstern theory of decision under uncertainty, recently proposed by two of the authors. Two attitudes are allowed for the decision maker : a pessimistic riskaverse one (one looks for the decision(s) which, for highly plausible states of the world, entail the satisfaction of at least high priority goals), and an optimistic one (what can be inferred plausibly about the consequences of the decision should be consistent with the preferences having high priority). 1.
A qualitative linear utility theory for Spohn’s theory of epistemic beliefs
 In UAI
, 2000
"... In this paper, we formulate a qualitative “linear” utility theory for lotteries in which uncertainty is expressed qualitatively using a Spohnian disbelief function. We argue that a rational decision maker facing an uncertain decision problem in which the uncertainty is expressed qualitatively should ..."
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Cited by 18 (4 self)
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In this paper, we formulate a qualitative “linear” utility theory for lotteries in which uncertainty is expressed qualitatively using a Spohnian disbelief function. We argue that a rational decision maker facing an uncertain decision problem in which the uncertainty is expressed qualitatively should behave so as to maximize “qualitative expected utility.” Our axiomatization of the qualitative utility is similar to the axiomatization developed by von Neumann and Morgenstern for probabilistic lotteries. We compare our results with other recent results in qualitative decision making. 1
Hidden uncertainty in the logical representation of desires
 In Proceedings of Eighteenth International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI’03
, 2003
"... In this paper we introduce and study a logic of desires. The semantics of our logic is defined by means of two ordering relations representing preference and normality as in Boutilier’s logic QDT. However, the desires are interpreted in a different way: “in context A, I desire B ” is interpreted as ..."
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Cited by 16 (1 self)
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In this paper we introduce and study a logic of desires. The semantics of our logic is defined by means of two ordering relations representing preference and normality as in Boutilier’s logic QDT. However, the desires are interpreted in a different way: “in context A, I desire B ” is interpreted as “the best among the most normal A ∧ B worlds are preferred to the most normal A ∧ ¬B worlds”. We study the formal properties of these desires, illustrate their expressive power on several classes of examples and position them with respect to previous work in qualitative decision theory. 1
Using possibilistic logic for modeling qualitative decision: ATMSbased algorithms
, 1999
"... This paper describes a logical machinery for computing decisions, where the available knowledge on the state of the world is described by a possibilistic propositional logic base (i.e., a collection of logical statements associated with qualitative certainty levels), and where the preferences of the ..."
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Cited by 14 (6 self)
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This paper describes a logical machinery for computing decisions, where the available knowledge on the state of the world is described by a possibilistic propositional logic base (i.e., a collection of logical statements associated with qualitative certainty levels), and where the preferences of the user are also described by another possibilistic logic base whose formula weights are interpreted in terms of priorities. Two attitudes are allowed for the decision maker: a pessimistic riskaverse one and an optimistic one. The computed decisions are in agreement with a qualitative counterpart to the classical theory of expected utility, recently developed by three of the authors. A link is established between this logical view of qualitative decision making and an ATMSbased computation procedure. Efficient algorithms for computing pessimistic and optimistic optimal decisions are finally given in this logical setting (using some previous work of the fourth author).
Possibility theory for reasoning about uncertain soft constraints
 In ECSQARU05, volume 3571 of LNCS
, 2005
"... constraints ..."
Preferencebased search in state space graphs
 In Proceedings of AAAI02
, 2002
"... The aim of this paper is to introduce a general framework for preferencebased search in state space graphs with a focus on the search of the preferred solutions. After introducing a formal definition of preferencebased search problems, we introduce the PBA ∗ algorithm, a generalization of the A ∗ ..."
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Cited by 11 (5 self)
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The aim of this paper is to introduce a general framework for preferencebased search in state space graphs with a focus on the search of the preferred solutions. After introducing a formal definition of preferencebased search problems, we introduce the PBA ∗ algorithm, a generalization of the A ∗ algorithm, designed to process quasitransitive preference relations defined over the set of solutions. Then, considering a particular subclass of preference structures characterized by two axioms called Weak Preadditivity and Monotonicity, weestablish termination, completeness and admissibility results for PBA ∗.Wealsoshowthat previous generalizations of A ∗ are particular instances of PBA ∗.Theinterest of our algorithm is illustrated on a preferencebased web access problem.
Bipolar preference problems
 Proc. ECAI 2006 (poster paper), Riva del Garda, August 28September
"... Reallife problems present several kinds of preferences. In this paper we focus on problems with both positive and negative preferences, that we call bipolar problems. Although seemingly specular notions, these two kinds of preferences should be dealt differently to ..."
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Cited by 11 (6 self)
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Reallife problems present several kinds of preferences. In this paper we focus on problems with both positive and negative preferences, that we call bipolar problems. Although seemingly specular notions, these two kinds of preferences should be dealt differently to