Results 1  10
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97
Approximation metrics for discrete and continuous systems
 IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
, 2005
"... Established system relationships for discrete systems, such as language inclusion, simulation, and bisimulation, require system observations to be identical. When interacting with the physical world, modeled by continuous or hybrid systems, exact relationships are restrictive and not robust. In thi ..."
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Cited by 105 (16 self)
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Established system relationships for discrete systems, such as language inclusion, simulation, and bisimulation, require system observations to be identical. When interacting with the physical world, modeled by continuous or hybrid systems, exact relationships are restrictive and not robust. In this paper, we develop the first framework of system approximation that applies to both discrete and continuous systems by developing notions of approximate language inclusion, approximate simulation, and approximate bisimulation relations. We define a hierarchy of approximation pseudometrics between two systems that quantify the quality of the approximation, and capture the established exact relationships as zero sections. Our approximation framework is compositional for a synchronous composition operator. Algorithms are developed for computing the proposed pseudometrics, both exactly and approximately. The exact algorithms require the generalization of the fixed point algorithms for computing simulation and bisimulation relations, or dually, the solution of a static game whose cost is the socalled branching distance between the systems. Approximations for the pseudometrics can be obtained by considering Lyapunovlike functions called simulation and bisimulation functions. We illustrate our approximation framework in reducing the complexity of safety verification problems for both deterministic and nondeterministic continuous systems.
Safety verification of hybrid systems by constraint propagation based abstraction refinement
, 2005
"... This paper deals with the problem of safety verification of nonlinear hybrid systems. We start from a classical method that uses interval arithmetic to check whether trajectories can move over the boundaries in a rectangular grid. We put this method into an abstraction refinement framework and impr ..."
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Cited by 75 (11 self)
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This paper deals with the problem of safety verification of nonlinear hybrid systems. We start from a classical method that uses interval arithmetic to check whether trajectories can move over the boundaries in a rectangular grid. We put this method into an abstraction refinement framework and improve it by developing an additional refinement step that employs interval constraint propagation to add information to the abstraction without introducing new grid elements. Moreover, the resulting method allows switching conditions, initial states and unsafe states to be described by complex constraints instead of sets that correspond to grid elements. Nevertheless, the method can be easily implemented since it is based on a welldefined set of constraints, on which one can run any constraint propagation based solver. Tests of such an implementation are promising.
Approximately bisimilar symbolic models for nonlinear control systems
 In 46th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control
, 2007
"... Abstract. Control systems are usually modeled by differential equations describing how physical phenomena can be influenced by certain control parameters or inputs. Although these models are very powerful when dealing with physical phenomena, they are less suitable to describe software and hardware ..."
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Cited by 52 (19 self)
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Abstract. Control systems are usually modeled by differential equations describing how physical phenomena can be influenced by certain control parameters or inputs. Although these models are very powerful when dealing with physical phenomena, they are less suitable to describe software and hardware interfacing the physical world. For this reason there is a growing interest in describing control systems through symbolic models that are abstract descriptions of the continuous dynamics, where each “symbol ” corresponds to an “aggregate ” of states in the continuous model. Since these symbolic models are of the same nature of the models used in computer science to describe software and hardware, they provide a unified language to study problems of control in which software and hardware interact with the physical world. Furthermore the use of symbolic models enables one to leverage techniques from supervisory control and algorithms from game theory for controller synthesis purposes. In this paper we show that every incrementally globally asymptotically stable nonlinear control system is approximately equivalent (bisimilar) to symbolic model. The approximation error is a design parameter in the construction of the symbolic model and can be rendered as small as desired. We also show that for digital control systems, and under the stronger assumption of incremental input–to–state stability, the symbolic models can be constructed through a suitable quantization of the inputs. 1.
Symbolic models for nonlinear control systems using approximate bisimulation
, 2007
"... Symbolic models for nonlinear control systems using approximate bisimulation Abstract — Control systems are usually modeled by differential equations describing how physical phenomena can be influenced by certain control parameters or inputs. Although these models are very powerful when dealing with ..."
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Cited by 45 (13 self)
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Symbolic models for nonlinear control systems using approximate bisimulation Abstract — Control systems are usually modeled by differential equations describing how physical phenomena can be influenced by certain control parameters or inputs. Although these models are very powerful when dealing with physical phenomena, they are less suitable to describe software and hardware interfacing the physical world. This has spurred a recent interest in describing control systems through symbolic models that are abstract descriptions of the continuous dynamics, where each “symbol” corresponds to an “aggregate” of continuous states in the continuous model. Since these symbolic models are of the same nature of the models used in computer science to describe software and hardware, they provided a unified language to study problems of control in which software and hardware interact with the physical world. In this paper we show that every incrementally globally asymptotically stable nonlinear control system is approximately equivalent (bisimilar) to symbolic model with a precision that can be chosen a–priori. We also show that for digital controlled systems, in which inputs are piecewise–constant, and under the stronger assumption of incremental input–to–state stability, the symbolic models can be obtained, based on a suitable quantization of the inputs.
Robust Test Generation and Coverage for Hybrid Systems
, 2007
"... Testing is an important tool for validation of the system design and its implementation. Modelbased test generation allows to systematically ascertain whether the system meets its design requirements, particularly the safety and correctness requirements of the system. In this paper, we develop a fr ..."
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Cited by 42 (13 self)
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Testing is an important tool for validation of the system design and its implementation. Modelbased test generation allows to systematically ascertain whether the system meets its design requirements, particularly the safety and correctness requirements of the system. In this paper, we develop a framework for generating tests from hybrid systems’ models. The core idea of the framework is to develop a notion of robust test, where one nominal test can be guaranteed to yield the same qualitative behavior with any other test that is close to it. Our approach offers three distinct advantages. 1) It allows for computing and formally quantifying the robustness of some properties, 2) it establishes a method to quantify the test coverage for every test case, and 3) the procedure is parallelizable and therefore, very scalable. We demonstrate our framework by generating tests for a navigation benchmark application.
Efficient computation of reachable sets of linear timeinvariant systems with inputs
 in HSCC’06, vol. 3927 in LNCS
, 2006
"... Abstract. This work is concerned with the problem of computing the set of reachable states for linear timeinvariant systems with bounded inputs. Our main contribution is a novel algorithm which improves significantly the computational complexity of reachability analysis. Algorithms to compute over ..."
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Cited by 38 (7 self)
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Abstract. This work is concerned with the problem of computing the set of reachable states for linear timeinvariant systems with bounded inputs. Our main contribution is a novel algorithm which improves significantly the computational complexity of reachability analysis. Algorithms to compute over and underapproximations of the reachable sets are proposed as well. These algorithms are not subject to the wrapping effect and therefore our approximations are tight. We show that these approximations are useful in the context of hybrid systems verification and control synthesis. The performance of a prototype implementation of the algorithm confirms its qualities and gives hope for scaling up verification technology for continuous and hybrid systems. 1
Systematic simulation using sensitivity analysis
 IN HSCC
, 2007
"... In this paper we propose a new technique for verification by simulation of continuous and hybrid dynamical systems with uncertain initial conditions. We provide an algorithmic methodology that can, in most cases, verify that the system avoids a set of bad states by conducting a finite number of sim ..."
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Cited by 37 (4 self)
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In this paper we propose a new technique for verification by simulation of continuous and hybrid dynamical systems with uncertain initial conditions. We provide an algorithmic methodology that can, in most cases, verify that the system avoids a set of bad states by conducting a finite number of simulation runs starting from a finite subset of the set of possible initial conditions. The novelty of our approach consists in the use of sensitivity analysis, developed and implemented in the context of numerical integration, to efficiently characterize the coverage of sampling trajectories.
Approximate simulation relations for hybrid systems
, 2006
"... Approximate simulation relations have recently been introduced as a powerful tool for the approximation of discrete and continuous systems. In this paper, we extend this notion to hybrid systems. Using the socalled simulation functions, we develop a computationally effective characterization of ap ..."
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Cited by 34 (1 self)
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Approximate simulation relations have recently been introduced as a powerful tool for the approximation of discrete and continuous systems. In this paper, we extend this notion to hybrid systems. Using the socalled simulation functions, we develop a computationally effective characterization of approximate simulation relations which can be used for hybrid systems approximation. An example of application in the context of safety verification is shown.
Formal verification of hybrid systems
, 2011
"... In formal verification, a designer first constructs a model, with mathematically precise semantics, of the system under design, and performs extensive analysis with respect to correctness requirements. The appropriate mathematical model for embedded control systems is hybrid systems that combines th ..."
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Cited by 34 (0 self)
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In formal verification, a designer first constructs a model, with mathematically precise semantics, of the system under design, and performs extensive analysis with respect to correctness requirements. The appropriate mathematical model for embedded control systems is hybrid systems that combines the traditional statemachine based models for discrete control with classical differentialequations based models for continuously evolving physical activities. In this article, we briefly review selected existing approaches to formal verification of hybrid systems, along with directions for future research.