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SemiSupervised Learning Literature Survey
, 2006
"... We review the literature on semisupervised learning, which is an area in machine learning and more generally, artificial intelligence. There has been a whole
spectrum of interesting ideas on how to learn from both labeled and unlabeled data, i.e. semisupervised learning. This document is a chapter ..."
Abstract

Cited by 757 (8 self)
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We review the literature on semisupervised learning, which is an area in machine learning and more generally, artificial intelligence. There has been a whole
spectrum of interesting ideas on how to learn from both labeled and unlabeled data, i.e. semisupervised learning. This document is a chapter excerpt from the author’s
doctoral thesis (Zhu, 2005). However the author plans to update the online version frequently to incorporate the latest development in the field. Please obtain the latest
version at http://www.cs.wisc.edu/~jerryzhu/pub/ssl_survey.pdf
MultiManifold SemiSupervised Learning
"... We study semisupervised learning when the data consists of multiple intersecting manifolds. We give a finite sample analysis to quantify the potential gain of using unlabeled data in this multimanifold setting. We then propose a semisupervised learning algorithm that separates different manifolds ..."
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Cited by 143 (8 self)
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We study semisupervised learning when the data consists of multiple intersecting manifolds. We give a finite sample analysis to quantify the potential gain of using unlabeled data in this multimanifold setting. We then propose a semisupervised learning algorithm that separates different manifolds into decision sets, and performs supervised learning within each set. Our algorithm involves a novel application of Hellinger distance and sizeconstrained spectral clustering. Experiments demonstrate the benefit of our multimanifold semisupervised learning approach. 1
Learning query intent from regularized click graphs
 In SIGIR 2008
, 2008
"... This work presents the use of click graphs in improving query intent classifiers, which are critical if vertical search and generalpurpose search services are to be offered in a unified user interface. Previous works on query classification have primarily focused on improving feature representation ..."
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Cited by 107 (12 self)
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This work presents the use of click graphs in improving query intent classifiers, which are critical if vertical search and generalpurpose search services are to be offered in a unified user interface. Previous works on query classification have primarily focused on improving feature representation of queries, e.g., by augmenting queries with search engine results. In this work, we investigate a completely orthogonal approach — instead of enriching feature representation, we aim at drastically increasing the amounts of training data by semisupervised learning with click graphs. Specifically, we infer class memberships of unlabeled queries from those of labeled ones according to their proximities in a click graph. Moreover, we regularize the learning with click graphs by contentbased classification to avoid propagating erroneous labels. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithms in two different applications, product intent and job intent classification. In both cases, we expand the training data with automatically labeled queries by over two orders of magnitude, leading to significant improvements in classification performance. An additional finding is that with a large amount of training data obtained in this fashion, classifiers using only query words/phrases as features can work remarkably well.
Domain Adaptation via Transfer Component Analysis
"... Domain adaptation solves a learning problem in a target domain by utilizing the training data in a different but related source domain. Intuitively, discovering a good feature representation across domains is crucial. In this paper, we propose to find such a representation through a new learning met ..."
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Cited by 101 (18 self)
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Domain adaptation solves a learning problem in a target domain by utilizing the training data in a different but related source domain. Intuitively, discovering a good feature representation across domains is crucial. In this paper, we propose to find such a representation through a new learning method, transfer component analysis (TCA), for domain adaptation. TCA tries to learn some transfer components across domains in a Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Space (RKHS) using Maximum Mean Discrepancy (MMD). In the subspace spanned by these transfer components, data distributions in different domains are close to each other. As a result, with the new representations in this subspace, we can apply standard machine learning methods to train classifiers or regression models in the source domain for use in the target domain. The main contribution of our work is that we propose a novel feature representation in which to perform domain adaptation via a new parametric kernel using feature extraction methods, which can dramatically minimize the distance between domain distributions by projecting data onto the learned transfer components. Furthermore, our approach can handle large datsets and naturally lead to outofsample generalization. The effectiveness and efficiency of our approach in are verified by experiments on two realworld applications: crossdomain indoor WiFi localization and crossdomain text classification. 1
Semisupervised discriminant analysis
 in Proc. of the IEEE Int’l Conf. on Comp. Vision (ICCV), Rio De Janeiro
, 2007
"... Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) has been a popular method for extracting features which preserve class separability. The projection vectors are commonly obtained by maximizing the between class covariance and simultaneously minimizing the within class covariance. In practice, when there is no suf ..."
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Cited by 99 (2 self)
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Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) has been a popular method for extracting features which preserve class separability. The projection vectors are commonly obtained by maximizing the between class covariance and simultaneously minimizing the within class covariance. In practice, when there is no sufficient training samples, the covariance matrix of each class may not be accurately estimated. In this paper, we propose a novel method, called Semisupervised Discriminant Analysis (SDA), which makes use of both labeled and unlabeled samples. The labeled data points are used to maximize the separability between different classes and the unlabeled data points are used to estimate the intrinsic geometric structure of the data. Specifically, we aim to learn a discriminant function which is as smooth as possible on the data manifold. Experimental results on single training image face recognition and relevance feedback image retrieval demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm. 1.
On Manifold Regularization
, 2005
"... We propose a family of learning algorithms based on a new form of regularization that allows us to exploit the geometry of the marginal distribution. We focus on a semisupervised framework that incorporates labeled and unlabeled data in a generalpurpose learner. Some transductive graph learni ..."
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Cited by 96 (0 self)
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We propose a family of learning algorithms based on a new form of regularization that allows us to exploit the geometry of the marginal distribution. We focus on a semisupervised framework that incorporates labeled and unlabeled data in a generalpurpose learner. Some transductive graph learning algorithms and standard methods including Support Vector Machines and Regularized Least Squares can be obtained as special cases. We utilize properties of Reproducing Kernel Hilbert spaces to prove new Representer theorems that provide theoretical basis for the algorithms. As a result (in contrast to purely graph based approaches) we obtain a natural outofsample extension to novel examples and are thus able to handle both transductive and truly semisupervised settings. We present experimental evidence suggesting that our semisupervised algorithms are able to use unlabeled data effectively. In the absence of labeled examples, our framework gives rise to a regularized form of spectral clustering with an outofsample extension.
Protovalue functions: A laplacian framework for learning representation and control in markov decision processes
 Journal of Machine Learning Research
, 2006
"... This paper introduces a novel spectral framework for solving Markov decision processes (MDPs) by jointly learning representations and optimal policies. The major components of the framework described in this paper include: (i) A general scheme for constructing representations or basis functions by d ..."
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Cited by 92 (11 self)
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This paper introduces a novel spectral framework for solving Markov decision processes (MDPs) by jointly learning representations and optimal policies. The major components of the framework described in this paper include: (i) A general scheme for constructing representations or basis functions by diagonalizing symmetric diffusion operators (ii) A specific instantiation of this approach where global basis functions called protovalue functions (PVFs) are formed using the eigenvectors of the graph Laplacian on an undirected graph formed from state transitions induced by the MDP (iii) A threephased procedure called representation policy iteration comprising of a sample collection phase, a representation learning phase that constructs basis functions from samples, and a final parameter estimation phase that determines an (approximately) optimal policy within the (linear) subspace spanned by the (current) basis functions. (iv) A specific instantiation of the RPI framework using leastsquares policy iteration (LSPI) as the parameter estimation method (v) Several strategies for scaling the proposed approach to large discrete and continuous state spaces, including the Nyström extension for outofsample interpolation of eigenfunctions, and the use of Kronecker sum factorization to construct compact eigenfunctions in product spaces such as factored MDPs (vi) Finally, a series of illustrative discrete and continuous control tasks, which both illustrate the concepts and provide a benchmark for evaluating the proposed approach. Many challenges remain to be addressed in scaling the proposed framework to large MDPs, and several elaboration of the proposed framework are briefly summarized at the end.
Graph regularized nonnegative matrix factorization for data representation
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE
, 2011
"... Matrix factorization techniques have been frequently applied in information retrieval, computer vision, and pattern recognition. Among them, Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (NMF) has received considerable attention due to its psychological and physiological interpretation of naturally occurring dat ..."
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Cited by 87 (4 self)
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Matrix factorization techniques have been frequently applied in information retrieval, computer vision, and pattern recognition. Among them, Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (NMF) has received considerable attention due to its psychological and physiological interpretation of naturally occurring data whose representation may be parts based in the human brain. On the other hand, from the geometric perspective, the data is usually sampled from a lowdimensional manifold embedded in a highdimensional ambient space. One then hopes to find a compact representation,which uncovers the hidden semantics and simultaneously respects the intrinsic geometric structure. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm, called Graph Regularized Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (GNMF), for this purpose. In GNMF, an affinity graph is constructed to encode the geometrical information and we seek a matrix factorization, which respects the graph structure. Our empirical study shows encouraging results of the proposed algorithm in comparison to the stateoftheart algorithms on realworld problems.
Semisupervised learning in gigantic image collections
 In Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 22
, 2009
"... With the advent of the Internet it is now possible to collect hundreds of millions of images. These images come with varying degrees of label information. “Clean labels” can be manually obtained on a small fraction, “noisy labels ” may be extracted automatically from surrounding text, while for mo ..."
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Cited by 77 (4 self)
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With the advent of the Internet it is now possible to collect hundreds of millions of images. These images come with varying degrees of label information. “Clean labels” can be manually obtained on a small fraction, “noisy labels ” may be extracted automatically from surrounding text, while for most images there are no labels at all. Semisupervised learning is a principled framework for combining these different label sources. However, it scales polynomially with the number of images, making it impractical for use on gigantic collections with hundreds of millions of images and thousands of classes. In this paper we show how to utilize recent results in machine learning to obtain highly efficient approximations for semisupervised learning. Specifically, we use the convergence of the eigenvectors of the normalized graph Laplacian to eigenfunctions of weighted LaplaceBeltrami operators. We combine this with a label sharing framework obtained from Wordnet to propagate label information to classes lacking manual annotations. Our algorithm enables us to apply semisupervised learning to a database of 80 million images with 74 thousand classes. 1.
Deep learning via semisupervised embedding
 International Conference on Machine Learning
, 2008
"... We show how nonlinear embedding algorithms popular for use with shallow semisupervised learning techniques such as kernel methods can be applied to deep multilayer architectures, either as a regularizer at the output layer, or on each layer of the architecture. This provides a simple alternative to ..."
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Cited by 66 (5 self)
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We show how nonlinear embedding algorithms popular for use with shallow semisupervised learning techniques such as kernel methods can be applied to deep multilayer architectures, either as a regularizer at the output layer, or on each layer of the architecture. This provides a simple alternative to existing approaches to deep learning whilst yielding competitive error rates compared to those methods, and existing shallow semisupervised techniques. 1.