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A Survey of Mobility Models for Ad Hoc Network Research
 WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS & MOBILE COMPUTING (WCMC): SPECIAL ISSUE ON MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKING: RESEARCH, TRENDS AND APPLICATIONS
, 2002
"... In the performance evaluation of a protocol for an ad hoc network, the protocol should be tested under realistic conditions including, but not limited to, a sensible transmission range, limited buffer space for the storage of messages, representative data traffic models, and realistic movements of t ..."
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Cited by 1213 (8 self)
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In the performance evaluation of a protocol for an ad hoc network, the protocol should be tested under realistic conditions including, but not limited to, a sensible transmission range, limited buffer space for the storage of messages, representative data traffic models, and realistic movements of the mobile users (i.e., a mobility model). This paper is a survey of mobility models that are used in the simulations of ad hoc networks. We describe several mobility models that represent mobile nodes whose movements are independent of each other (i.e., entity mobility models) and several mobility models that represent mobile nodes whose movements are dependent on each other (i.e., group mobility models). The goal of this paper is to present a number of mobility models in order to offer researchers more informed choices when they are deciding upon a mobility model to use in their performance evaluations. Lastly, we present simulation results that illustrate the importance of choosing a mobility model in the simulation of an ad hoc network protocol. Specifically, we illustrate how the performance results of an ad hoc network protocol drastically change as a result of changing the mobility model simulated.
Wireless mesh networks: a survey
 COMPUTER NETWORKS
, 2005
"... Wireless meshnet8Ex8 (WMNs)consist of meshrout6L and meshclient8 where meshroutfix have minimal mobilit and formtr backbone of WMNs. They provide netide access for bot mesh andconvent1)fi8 clientt TheintL gratLfl of WMNs wit ot8 net8866 such as t1Int6fiPx1 cellular, IEEE 802.11, IEEE 802.15, IEEE 8 ..."
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Cited by 687 (12 self)
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Wireless meshnet8Ex8 (WMNs)consist of meshrout6L and meshclient8 where meshroutfix have minimal mobilit and formtr backbone of WMNs. They provide netide access for bot mesh andconvent1)fi8 clientt TheintL gratLfl of WMNs wit ot8 net8866 such as t1Int6fiPx1 cellular, IEEE 802.11, IEEE 802.15, IEEE 802.16, sensor netsor1L ets can be accomplishedtccomp tc gatomp and bridging functng1 in t1 meshroutfijx Meshclient can be eit8fi st8fij1)6x or mobile, and can form aclient meshnet16S amongtng1fifiELj and wit meshroutLfifi WMNs are antLfifl1)6fl t resolvets limit18fiflfl andt significantfl improvetp performance of ad hocnetLEP8L wireless local area net1Pxx (WLANs), wireless personal areanet16fij (WPANs), and wirelessmetess1fifljfl areanet1LPS (WMANs). They are undergoing rapid progress and inspiring numerousdeploymentS WMNs will deliver wireless services for a largevariet ofapplicat6fifl in personal, local, campus, andmet8Lfix1)6fi areas. Despit recent advances in wireless mesh netjLfiP1)6 many research challenges remain in allprotjfiS layers. This paperpresent adetEfl81 stEonrecent advances and open research issues in WMNs. Syst1 architL881)6 andapplicat)68 of WMNs are described, followed by discussingts critssi factss influencingprotenc design.Theoret8fiL netore capacit and tdst1LLSjx tt1LL protLLSj for WMNs are exploredwit anobjectE1 t point out a number of open research issues. Finally,tnal beds,indust681 pract68 andcurrent strent actntx1) relatt t WMNs arehighlight8x # 2004 Elsevier B.V. Allrl rl KedI78 Wireless meshnet186flfl Ad hocnet8jEES Wireless sensornetor16fl Medium accessconts1fi Routs1 prots1fiS Transport protspor ScalabilitS Securiti Powermanagement andcontfi8fl Timingsynchronizat ion 13891286/$  seefront matt # 2004 Elsevier B.V. Allright reserved. doi:10....
Random Waypoint Considered Harmful
, 2003
"... This study examines the random waypoint model widely used in the simulation studies of mobile ad hoc networks. Our findings show that this model fails to provide a steady state in that the average nodal speed consistently decreases over time, and therefore should not be directly used for simulation. ..."
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Cited by 471 (2 self)
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This study examines the random waypoint model widely used in the simulation studies of mobile ad hoc networks. Our findings show that this model fails to provide a steady state in that the average nodal speed consistently decreases over time, and therefore should not be directly used for simulation. We show how unreliable results can be obtained by using this model. In particular, certain ad hoc routing metrics can drop by as much as 40% over the course of a 900second simulation using the random waypoint model. We give both an intuitive and a formal explanation for this phenomenon. We also propose a simple fix of the problem and discuss a few alternatives. Our modified random waypoint model is able to reach a steady state and simulation results are presented.
The Node Distribution of the Random Waypoint Mobility Model for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks
, 2003
"... The random waypoint model is a commonly used mobility model in the simulation of ad hoc networks. It is known that the spatial distribution of network nodes moving according to this model is, in general, nonuniform. However, a closedform expression of this distribution and an indepth investigation ..."
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Cited by 377 (10 self)
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The random waypoint model is a commonly used mobility model in the simulation of ad hoc networks. It is known that the spatial distribution of network nodes moving according to this model is, in general, nonuniform. However, a closedform expression of this distribution and an indepth investigation is still missing. This fact impairs the accuracy of the current simulation methodology of ad hoc networks and makes it impossible to relate simulationbased performance results to corresponding analytical results. To overcome these problems, we present a detailed analytical study of the spatial node distribution generated by random waypoint mobility. More specifically, we consider a generalization of the model in which the pause time of the mobile nodes is chosen arbitrarily in each waypoint and a fraction of nodes may remain static for the entire simulation time. We show that the structure of the resulting distribution is the weighted sum of three independent components: the static, pause, and mobility component. This division enables us to understand how the models parameters influence the distribution. We derive an exact equation of the asymptotically stationary distribution for movement on a line segment and an accurate approximation for a square area. The good quality of this approximation is validated through simulations using various settings of the mobility parameters. In summary, this article gives a fundamental understanding of the behavior of the random waypoint model.
Topology Control in Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks
 ACM Computing Surveys
, 2005
"... Topology Control (TC) is one of the most important techniques used in wireless ad hoc and sensor networks to reduce energy consumption (which is essential to extend the network operational time) and radio interference (with a positive effect on the network traffic carrying capacity). The goal of thi ..."
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Cited by 304 (4 self)
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Topology Control (TC) is one of the most important techniques used in wireless ad hoc and sensor networks to reduce energy consumption (which is essential to extend the network operational time) and radio interference (with a positive effect on the network traffic carrying capacity). The goal of this technique is to control the topology of the graph representing the communication links between network nodes with the purpose of maintaining some global graph property (e.g., connectivity), while reducing energy consumption and/or interference that are strictly related to the nodes ’ transmitting range. In this article, we state several problems related to topology control in wireless ad hoc and sensor networks, and we survey stateoftheart solutions which have been proposed to tackle them. We also outline several directions for further research which we hope will motivate researchers to undertake additional studies in this field.
Stochastic properties of the random waypoint mobility model
 Wireless Networks
"... Abstract  The random waypoint model is a commonly used mobility model for simulations of wireless communication networks. In this paper, we present analytical derivations of some fundamental stochastic properties of this model with respect to: (a) the length and duration of a movement epoch, (b) t ..."
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Cited by 202 (3 self)
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Abstract  The random waypoint model is a commonly used mobility model for simulations of wireless communication networks. In this paper, we present analytical derivations of some fundamental stochastic properties of this model with respect to: (a) the length and duration of a movement epoch, (b) the chosen direction angle at the beginning of a movement epoch, and (c) the cell change rate of the random waypoint mobility model when used within the context of cellular networks. Our results and methods can be used to compare the random waypoint model with other mobility models. The results on the movement epoch duration as well as on the cell change rate enable us to make a statement about the \degree of mobility " of a certain simulation scenario. The direction distribution explains in an analytical manner the eect that nodes tend to move back to the middle of the system area.
Stationary Distributions for the Random Waypoint Mobility Model
 IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing
, 2003
"... In simulations of mobile ad hoc networks, the probability distribution governing the movement of the nodes typically varies over time, and converges to a "steadystate" distribution, known in the probability literature as the stationary distribution. Some published simulation results ig ..."
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Cited by 188 (7 self)
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In simulations of mobile ad hoc networks, the probability distribution governing the movement of the nodes typically varies over time, and converges to a "steadystate" distribution, known in the probability literature as the stationary distribution. Some published simulation results ignore this initialization discrepancy. For those results that attempt to account for this discrepancy, the practice is to discard an initial sequence of observations from a simulation in the hope that the remaining values will closely represent the stationary distribution. This approach is inefficient and not always reliable. However, if the initial locations and speeds of the nodes are chosen from the stationary distribution, convergence is immediate and no data need be discarded. We derive the stationary distributions for location, speed, and pause time for the random waypoint mobility model. We then show how to implement the random waypoint mobility model in order to construct more efficient and reliable simulations for mobile ad hoc networks. Simulation results, which verify the correctness of our method, are included.
Manet simulation studies: The incredibles
 ACM SIGMOBILE Mobile Computing and Communications Review
, 2005
"... Simulation is the research tool of choice for a majority of the mobile ad hoc network (MANET) community. However, while the use of simulation has increased, the credibility of the simulation results has decreased. To determine the state of MANET simulation studies, we surveyed the 20002005 proceedi ..."
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Cited by 164 (0 self)
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Simulation is the research tool of choice for a majority of the mobile ad hoc network (MANET) community. However, while the use of simulation has increased, the credibility of the simulation results has decreased. To determine the state of MANET simulation studies, we surveyed the 20002005 proceedings of the ACM International Symposium on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing (MobiHoc). From our survey, we found significant shortfalls. We present the results of our survey in this paper. We then summarize common simulation study pitfalls found in our survey. Finally, we discuss the tools available that aid the development of rigorous simulation studies. We offer these results to the community with the hope of improving the credibility of MANET simulationbased studies. I.
Sound Mobility Models
 in ACM MobiCom
, 2003
"... and evaluation of mobile systems. By using mobility models that describe constituent movement, one can explore large systems, producing repeatable results for comparison between alternatives. Unfortunately, the vast majority of mobility modelsincluding all those in which nodal speed and distance ..."
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Cited by 147 (2 self)
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and evaluation of mobile systems. By using mobility models that describe constituent movement, one can explore large systems, producing repeatable results for comparison between alternatives. Unfortunately, the vast majority of mobility modelsincluding all those in which nodal speed and distance or destination are chosen independently su#er from decay ; average speed decreases until converging to some longterm average. Such decay provides an unsound basis for simulation studies that collect results averaged over time, complicating the experimental process.
Access and Mobility of Wireless PDA Users
"... In this paper, we analyze the mobility patterns of users of wireless handheld PDAs in a campus wireless network using an 11 week trace of wireless network activity. Our study has three goals. First, we characterize the highlevel mobility and access patterns of handheld PDA users and compare these c ..."
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Cited by 142 (4 self)
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In this paper, we analyze the mobility patterns of users of wireless handheld PDAs in a campus wireless network using an 11 week trace of wireless network activity. Our study has three goals. First, we characterize the highlevel mobility and access patterns of handheld PDA users and compare these characteristics to previous workload mobility studies focused on laptop users. Second, we develop two wireless network topology models for use in wireless mobility studies: an evolutionary topology model based on user proximity and a campus waypoint model that serves as a tracebased complement to the random waypoint model. Finally, we use our wireless network topology models as a case study to evaluate adhoc routing algorithms on the network topologies created by the access and mobility patterns of users of modern wireless PDAs.