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Regular Model Checking
, 2000
"... . We present regular model checking, a framework for algorithmic verification of infinitestate systems with, e.g., queues, stacks, integers, or a parameterized linear topology. States are represented by strings over a finite alphabet and the transition relation by a regular lengthpreserving re ..."
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Cited by 165 (25 self)
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. We present regular model checking, a framework for algorithmic verification of infinitestate systems with, e.g., queues, stacks, integers, or a parameterized linear topology. States are represented by strings over a finite alphabet and the transition relation by a regular lengthpreserving relation on strings. Major problems in the verification of parameterized and infinitestate systems are to compute the set of states that are reachable from some set of initial states, and to compute the transitive closure of the transition relation. We present two complementary techniques for these problems. One is a direct automatatheoretic construction, and the other is based on widening. Both techniques are incomplete in general, but we give sufficient conditions under which they work. We also present a method for verifying !regular properties of parameterized systems, by computation of the transitive closure of a transition relation. 1 Introduction This paper presents regular ...
Reducing model checking of the many to the few
 In 17th International Conference on Automated Deduction (CADE17
, 2000
"... Abstract. Systems with an arbitrary number of homogeneous processes occur in many applications. The Parametrized Model Checking Problem (PMCP) is to determine whether a temporal property is true for every size instance of the system. Unfortunately, it is undecidable in general. We are able to establ ..."
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Cited by 67 (6 self)
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Abstract. Systems with an arbitrary number of homogeneous processes occur in many applications. The Parametrized Model Checking Problem (PMCP) is to determine whether a temporal property is true for every size instance of the system. Unfortunately, it is undecidable in general. We are able to establish, nonetheless, decidability of the PMCP in quite a broad framework. We consider asynchronous systems comprised of an arbitrary number ¢ of homogeneous copies of a generic process template. The process template is represented as a synchronization skeleton while correctness properties are expressed using Indexed CTL* £ X. We reduce model checking for systems of arbitrary size ¢ to model checking for systems of size (up to) a small cutoff size ¤. This establishes decidability of PMCP as it is only necessary model check a finite number of relatively small systems. The results generalize to systems comprised of multiple heterogeneous classes of processes, where each class is instantiated by many homogenous copies of the class template (e.g., ¥ readers and ¢ writers). 1
Compositional Analysis for Verification of Parameterized Systems
 Theoretical Computer Science
, 2003
"... Many safetycritical systems that have been considered by the verification community are parameterized by the number of concurrent components in the system, and hence describe an infinite family of systems. Traditional model checking techniques can only be used to verify specific instances of this f ..."
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Cited by 20 (8 self)
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Many safetycritical systems that have been considered by the verification community are parameterized by the number of concurrent components in the system, and hence describe an infinite family of systems. Traditional model checking techniques can only be used to verify specific instances of this family. In this paper, we present a technique based on compositional model checking and program analysis for automatic verification of infinite families of systems. The technique views a parameterized system as an expression in a process algebra (CCS) and interprets this expression over a domain of formulas (modal mucalculus), considering a process as a property transformer. The transformers are constructed using partial model checking techniques. At its core, our technique solves the verification problem by finding the limit of a chain of formulas. We present a widening operation to find such a limit for properties expressible in a subset of modal mucalculus. We describe the verification of a number of parameterized systems using our technique to demonstrate its utility.
Rapid Parameterized Model Checking of Snoopy Cache Coherence Protocols
 In 9th International Conference on Tools and Algorithms for Construction and Analysis of Systems (TACAS
, 2003
"... Abstract. A new method is proposed for parameterized reasoning about snoopy cache coherence protocols. The method is distinctive for being exact (sound and complete), fully automatic (algorithmic), and tractably efficient. The states of most cache coherence protocols can be organized into a hierarch ..."
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Cited by 15 (2 self)
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Abstract. A new method is proposed for parameterized reasoning about snoopy cache coherence protocols. The method is distinctive for being exact (sound and complete), fully automatic (algorithmic), and tractably efficient. The states of most cache coherence protocols can be organized into a hierarchy reflecting how tightly a memory block in a given cache state is bound to the processor. A broad framework encompassing snoopy cache coherence protocols is proposed where the hierarchy implicit in the design of protocols is captured as a preorder. This history graph where a global concrete state is represented by an abstract state reflecting the occupied local states. The abstract graph also takes into account the history of local transitions of the protocol that were fired along the computation to get to the global state. This permits the abstract history graph to exactly capture the behaviour of systems with an arbitrary number of homogeneous processes. Although the worst case size of the abstract history graph can be exponential in the size of the transition diagram describing the protocol, the actual size of the abstract history graph is small for standard cache protocols. The method is applicable to all 8 of the most common snoopy cache protocols described in Handy’s book [19] from IllinoisMESI to Dragon. The experimental results for parameterized verification of each of those 8 protocols document the efficiency of this new method in practice, with each protocol being verified in just a fraction of a second. It is emphasized that this is parameterized verification. 1
Model Checking LargeScale and Parameterized Resource Allocation Systems
 In Proc. of TACAS'02, LNCS 2280
, 2002
"... Abstract. In this paper, techniques are proposed for limiting state explosion in the context of resource allocation problems. It is shown that given any system organized into a — possibly irregular — network of ¡ — possibly heterogeneous — processes, model checking over that system can be reduced b ..."
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Cited by 14 (3 self)
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Abstract. In this paper, techniques are proposed for limiting state explosion in the context of resource allocation problems. It is shown that given any system organized into a — possibly irregular — network of ¡ — possibly heterogeneous — processes, model checking over that system can be reduced by an efficient, fully automatic and exact method to model checking over a certain small system. These results are established for correctness properties expressed in LTL ¢ X. The precise size and topology of the small system are dependent on the large system, as well as the correctness specification. When the network is symmetric and the processes homogeneous, this new method provides an efficient solution to the Parameterized Model Checking Problem. As an application, it is shown how to efficiently verify a variety of solutions to the parameterized Dining Philosophers Problem. 1
Regular Model Checking
, 2000
"... We present regular model checking, a framework for algorithmic verification of infinitestate systems with, e.g., queues, stacks, integers, or a parameterized linear topology. States are represented by strings over a finite alphabet and the transition relation by a regular lengthpreserving relation ..."
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Cited by 12 (0 self)
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We present regular model checking, a framework for algorithmic verification of infinitestate systems with, e.g., queues, stacks, integers, or a parameterized linear topology. States are represented by strings over a finite alphabet and the transition relation by a regular lengthpreserving relation on strings. Both sets of states and the transition relation are represented by regular sets. Major problems in the verification of parameterized and infinitestate systems are to compute the set of states that are reachable from some set of initial states, and to compute the transitive closure of the transition relation. We present an automatatheoretic construction for computing a nonfinite composition of regular relations, e.g., the transitive closure of a relation. The method is incomplete in general, but we give sufficient conditions under which it works. We show how to reduce model checking of ωregular properties of parameterized systems into a nonfinite composition of regular relations. We also report on an implementation of regular model checking, based on a new package for nondeterministic finite automata.
Refactoring Design Models for Inductive Verification
 IN PROCEEDINGS OF INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON SOFTWARE TESTING AND ANALYSIS (ISSTA2002
, 2002
"... Systems composed of many identical processes can sometimes be verified inductively using a network invariant, but systems whose component processes vary in some systematic way are not amenable to direct application of that method. We ..."
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Cited by 2 (2 self)
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Systems composed of many identical processes can sometimes be verified inductively using a network invariant, but systems whose component processes vary in some systematic way are not amenable to direct application of that method. We