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401
Enhanced hypertext categorization using hyperlinks
, 1998
"... A major challenge in indexing unstructured hypertext databases is to automatically extract metadata that enables structured search using topic taxonomies, circumvents keyword ambiguity, and improves the quality of search and profilebased routing and filtering. Therefore, an accurate classifier is ..."
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Cited by 453 (8 self)
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A major challenge in indexing unstructured hypertext databases is to automatically extract metadata that enables structured search using topic taxonomies, circumvents keyword ambiguity, and improves the quality of search and profilebased routing and filtering. Therefore, an accurate classifier is an essential component of a hypertext database. Hyperlinks pose new problems not addressed in the extensive text classification literature. Links clearly contain highquality semantic clues that are lost upon a purely termbased classifier, but exploiting link information is nontrivial because it is noisy. Naive use of terms in the link neighborhood of a document can even degrade accuracy. Our contribution is to propose robust statistical models and a relaxation labeling technique for better classification by exploiting link information in a small neighborhood around documents. Our technique also adapts gracefully to the fraction of neighboring documents having known topics. We experimented with preclassified samples from Yahoo! â and the US Patent Database2. In previous work, we developed a text classifier that misclassified only 13 % of the documents in the wellknown Reuters benchmark; this was comparable to the best results ever obtained. This classifier misclassified 36 % of the patents, indicating that classifying hypertext can be more difficult than classifying text. Naively using terms in neighboring documents increased error to 38%; our hypertext classifier reduced it to 21%. Results with the Yahoo! sample were more dramatic: the text classifier showed 68% error, whereas our hypertext classifier reduced this to only 21%.
Machine Transliteration
 Computational Linguistics
, 1997
"... It is challenging to translate names and technical terms across languages with different alphabets and sound inventories. These items are commonly transliterated, i.e., replaced with approximate phonetic equivalents. ..."
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Cited by 191 (9 self)
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It is challenging to translate names and technical terms across languages with different alphabets and sound inventories. These items are commonly transliterated, i.e., replaced with approximate phonetic equivalents.
Coordinated Target Assignment and Intercept for Unmanned Air Vehicles
, 2002
"... This paper presents an endtoend solution to the battlefield scenario where M unmanned air vehicles are assigned to strike N known targets, in the presence of dynamic threats. The problem is decomposed into the subproblems of (1) cooperative target assignment, (2) coordinated UAV intercept, (3) pat ..."
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Cited by 155 (16 self)
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This paper presents an endtoend solution to the battlefield scenario where M unmanned air vehicles are assigned to strike N known targets, in the presence of dynamic threats. The problem is decomposed into the subproblems of (1) cooperative target assignment, (2) coordinated UAV intercept, (3) path planning, and (4) feasible trajectory generation. The design technique is based on a hierarchical approach to coordinated control. Detailed simulation results are presented.
Rethinking Virtual Network Embedding: Substrate Support for Path Splitting and Migration
"... Network virtualization is a powerful way to run multiple architectures or experiments simultaneously on a shared infrastructure. However, making efficient use of the underlying resources requires effective techniques for virtual network embedding—mapping each virtual network to specific nodes and li ..."
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Cited by 110 (0 self)
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Network virtualization is a powerful way to run multiple architectures or experiments simultaneously on a shared infrastructure. However, making efficient use of the underlying resources requires effective techniques for virtual network embedding—mapping each virtual network to specific nodes and links in the substrate network. Since the general embedding problem is computationally intractable, past research restricted the problem space to allow efficient solutions, or focused on designing heuristic algorithms. In this paper, we advocate a different approach: rethinking the design of the substrate network to enable simpler embedding algorithms and more efficient use of resources, without restricting the problem space. In particular, we simplify virtual link embedding by: i) allowing the substrate network to split a virtual link over multiple substrate paths and ii) employing path migration to periodically reoptimize the utilization of the substrate network. We also explore nodemapping algorithms that are customized to common classes of virtualnetwork topologies. Our simulation experiments show that path splitting, path migration, and customized embedding algorithms enable a substrate network to satisfy a much larger mix of virtual networks.
Vickrey Prices and Shortest Paths: What is an edge worth?
 In Proceedings of the 42nd Symposium on the Foundations of Computer Science, IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos
, 2001
"... We solve a shortest path problem that is motivated by recent interest in pricing networks or other computational resources. Informally, how much is an edge in a network worth to a user who wants to send data between two nodes along a shortest path? If the network is a decentralized entity, such as t ..."
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Cited by 99 (5 self)
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We solve a shortest path problem that is motivated by recent interest in pricing networks or other computational resources. Informally, how much is an edge in a network worth to a user who wants to send data between two nodes along a shortest path? If the network is a decentralized entity, such as the Internet, in which multiple selfinterested agents own different parts of the network, then auctionbased pricing seems appropriate. A celebrated result from auction theory shows that the use of Vickrey pricing motivates the owners of the network resources to bid truthfully. In Vickrey's scheme, each agent is compensated in proportion to the marginal utility he brings to the auction. In the context of shortest path routing, an edge's utility is the value by which it lowers the length of the shortest paththe difference between the shortest path lengths with and without the edge. Our problem is to compute these marginal values for all the edges of the network efficiently. The na ve method requires solving the singlesource shortest path problem up to n times, for an nnode network. We show that the Vickrey prices for all the edges can be computed in the same asymptotic time complexity as one singlesource shortest path problem. This solves an open problem posed by Nisan and Ronen [12]. 1.
Autonomous Vehicle Technologies for Small Fixed Wing UAVs
 AIAA JOURNAL OF AEROSPACE COMPUTING, INFORMATION, AND COMMUNICATION
, 2003
"... Autonomous unmanned air vehicle flight control systems require robust path generation to account for terrain obstructions, weather, and moving threats such as radar, jammers, and unfriendly aircraft. In this paper, we outline a feasible, hierarchal approach for realtime motion planning of small aut ..."
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Cited by 97 (28 self)
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Autonomous unmanned air vehicle flight control systems require robust path generation to account for terrain obstructions, weather, and moving threats such as radar, jammers, and unfriendly aircraft. In this paper, we outline a feasible, hierarchal approach for realtime motion planning of small autonomous fixedwing UAVs. The approach divides the trajectory generation into four tasks: waypoint path planning, dynamic trajectory smoothing, trajectory tracking, and lowlevel autopilot compensation. The waypoint path planner determines the vehicle 's route without regard for the dynamic constraints of the vehicle. This results in a significant reduction in the path search space, enabling the generation of complicated paths that account for popup and dynamically moving threats. Kinematic constraints are satisfied using a trajectory smoother which has the same kinematic structure as the physical vehicle. The third step of the approach uses a novel tracking algorithm to generate a feasible state trajectory that can be followed by a standard autopilot. MonteCarlo simulations were done to analyze the performance and feasibility of the approach and determine realtime computation requirements. A planar version of the algorithm has also been implemented and tested in a lowcost microcontroller. The paper describes a custom UAV built to test the algorithms.
SEMIRING FRAMEWORKS AND ALGORITHMS FOR SHORTESTDISTANCE PROBLEMS
, 2002
"... We define general algebraic frameworks for shortestdistance problems based on the structure of semirings. We give a generic algorithm for finding singlesource shortest distances in a weighted directed graph when the weights satisfy the conditions of our general semiring framework. The same algorit ..."
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Cited by 90 (20 self)
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We define general algebraic frameworks for shortestdistance problems based on the structure of semirings. We give a generic algorithm for finding singlesource shortest distances in a weighted directed graph when the weights satisfy the conditions of our general semiring framework. The same algorithm can be used to solve efficiently classical shortest paths problems or to find the kshortest distances in a directed graph. It can be used to solve singlesource shortestdistance problems in weighted directed acyclic graphs over any semiring. We examine several semirings and describe some specific instances of our generic algorithms to illustrate their use and compare them with existing methods and algorithms. The proof of the soundness of all algorithms is given in detail, including their pseudocode and a full analysis of their running time complexity.
Nearest Common Ancestors: A survey and a new distributed algorithm
, 2002
"... Several papers describe linear time algorithms to preprocess a tree, such that one can answer subsequent nearest common ancestor queries in constant time. Here, we survey these algorithms and related results. A common idea used by all the algorithms for the problem is that a solution for complete ba ..."
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Cited by 89 (11 self)
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Several papers describe linear time algorithms to preprocess a tree, such that one can answer subsequent nearest common ancestor queries in constant time. Here, we survey these algorithms and related results. A common idea used by all the algorithms for the problem is that a solution for complete balanced binary trees is straightforward. Furthermore, for complete balanced binary trees we can easily solve the problem in a distributed way by labeling the nodes of the tree such that from the labels of two nodes alone one can compute the label of their nearest common ancestor. Whether it is possible to distribute the data structure into short labels associated with the nodes is important for several applications such as routing. Therefore, related labeling problems have received a lot of attention recently.
MultiConstrained Optimal Path Selection
, 2001
"... Providing qualityofservice (QoS) guarantees in packet networks gives rise to several challenging issues. One of them is how to determine a feasible path that satisfies a set of constraints while maintaining high utilization of network resources. The latter objective implies the need to impose an a ..."
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Cited by 80 (1 self)
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Providing qualityofservice (QoS) guarantees in packet networks gives rise to several challenging issues. One of them is how to determine a feasible path that satisfies a set of constraints while maintaining high utilization of network resources. The latter objective implies the need to impose an additional optimality requirement on the feasibility problem. This can be done through a primary cost function (e.g., administrative weight, hopcount) according to which the selected feasible path is optimal. In general, multiconstrained path selection, with or without optimization, is an NPcomplete problem that cannot be exactly solved in polynomial time. Heuristics and approximation algorithms with polynomialand pseudopolynomialtime complexities are often used to deal with this problem. However, existing solutions suffer either from excessive computational complexities that cannot be used for online network operation or from low performance. Moreover, they only deal with special cases of the problem (e.g., two constraints without optimization, one constraint with optimization, etc.). For the feasibility problem under multiple constraints, some researchers have recently proposed a nonlinear cost function whose minimization provides a continuous spectrum of solutions ranging from a generalized linear approximation (GLA) to an asymptotically exact solution. In this paper, we propose an efficient heuristic algorithm for the most general form of the problem. We first formalize the theoretical properties of the above nonlinear cost function. We then introduce our heuristic algorithm (H MCOP), which attempts to minimize both the nonlinear cost function (for the feasibility part) and the primary cost function (for the optimality part). We prove that H MCOP guarantees at least t...
An Overview of Probabilistic Tree Transducers for Natural Language Processing
, 2005
"... Probabilistic finitestate string transducers (FSTs) are extremely popular in natural language processing, due to powerful generic methods for applying, composing, and learning them. Unfortunately, FSTs are not a good fit for much of the current work on probabilistic modeling for machine translati ..."
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Cited by 76 (7 self)
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Probabilistic finitestate string transducers (FSTs) are extremely popular in natural language processing, due to powerful generic methods for applying, composing, and learning them. Unfortunately, FSTs are not a good fit for much of the current work on probabilistic modeling for machine translation, summarization, paraphrasing, and language modeling. These methods operate directly on trees, rather than strings. We show that tree acceptors and tree transducers subsume most of this work, and we discuss algorithms for realizing the same benefits found in probabilistic string transduction.