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Consensus and cooperation in networked multiagent systems
 Proceedings of the IEEE
, 2007
"... Summary. This paper provides a theoretical framework for analysis of consensus algorithms for multiagent networked systems with an emphasis on the role of directed information flow, robustness to changes in network topology due to link/node failures, timedelays, and performance guarantees. An ove ..."
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Cited by 807 (4 self)
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Summary. This paper provides a theoretical framework for analysis of consensus algorithms for multiagent networked systems with an emphasis on the role of directed information flow, robustness to changes in network topology due to link/node failures, timedelays, and performance guarantees. An overview of basic concepts of information consensus in networks and methods of convergence and performance analysis for the algorithms are provided. Our analysis framework is based on tools from matrix theory, algebraic graph theory, and control theory. We discuss the connections between consensus problems in networked dynamic systems and diverse applications including synchronization of coupled oscillators, flocking, formation control, fast consensus in smallworld networks, Markov processes and gossipbased algorithms, load balancing in networks, rendezvous in space, distributed sensor fusion in sensor networks, and belief propagation. We establish direct connections between spectral and structural properties of complex networks and the speed of information diffusion of consensus algorithms. A brief introduction is provided on networked systems with nonlocal information flow that are considerably faster than distributed systems with latticetype nearest neighbor interactions. Simulation results are presented that demonstrate the role of smallworld effects on the speed of consensus algorithms and cooperative control of multivehicle formations.
Randomized Gossip Algorithms
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION THEORY
, 2006
"... Motivated by applications to sensor, peertopeer, and ad hoc networks, we study distributed algorithms, also known as gossip algorithms, for exchanging information and for computing in an arbitrarily connected network of nodes. The topology of such networks changes continuously as new nodes join a ..."
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Cited by 532 (5 self)
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Motivated by applications to sensor, peertopeer, and ad hoc networks, we study distributed algorithms, also known as gossip algorithms, for exchanging information and for computing in an arbitrarily connected network of nodes. The topology of such networks changes continuously as new nodes join and old nodes leave the network. Algorithms for such networks need to be robust against changes in topology. Additionally, nodes in sensor networks operate under limited computational, communication, and energy resources. These constraints have motivated the design of “gossip ” algorithms: schemes which distribute the computational burden and in which a node communicates with a randomly chosen neighbor. We analyze the averaging problem under the gossip constraint for an arbitrary network graph, and find that the averaging time of a gossip algorithm depends on the second largest eigenvalue of a doubly stochastic matrix characterizing the algorithm. Designing the fastest gossip algorithm corresponds to minimizing this eigenvalue, which is a semidefinite program (SDP). In general, SDPs cannot be solved in a distributed fashion; however, exploiting problem structure, we propose a distributed subgradient method that solves the optimization problem over the network. The relation of averaging time to the second largest eigenvalue naturally relates it to the mixing time of a random walk with transition probabilities derived from the gossip algorithm. We use this connection to study the performance and scaling of gossip algorithms on two popular networks: Wireless Sensor Networks, which are modeled as Geometric Random Graphs, and the Internet graph under the socalled Preferential Connectivity (PC) model.
Gossipbased aggregation in large dynamic networks
 ACM TRANS. COMPUT. SYST
, 2005
"... As computer networks increase in size, become more heterogeneous and span greater geographic distances, applications must be designed to cope with the very large scale, poor reliability, and often, with the extreme dynamism of the underlying network. Aggregation is a key functional building block fo ..."
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Cited by 271 (43 self)
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As computer networks increase in size, become more heterogeneous and span greater geographic distances, applications must be designed to cope with the very large scale, poor reliability, and often, with the extreme dynamism of the underlying network. Aggregation is a key functional building block for such applications: it refers to a set of functions that provide components of a distributed system access to global information including network size, average load, average uptime, location and description of hotspots, and so on. Local access to global information is often very useful, if not indispensable for building applications that are robust and adaptive. For example, in an industrial control application, some aggregate value reaching a threshold may trigger the execution of certain actions; a distributed storage system will want to know the total available free space; loadbalancing protocols may benefit from knowing the target average load so as to minimize the load they transfer. We propose a gossipbased protocol for computing aggregate values over network components in a fully decentralized fashion. The class of aggregate functions we can compute is very broad and includes many useful special cases such as counting, averages, sums, products, and extremal values. The protocol is suitable for extremely large and highly dynamic systems due to its proactive structure—all nodes receive the aggregate value continuously, thus being able to track
The Peer Sampling Service: Experimental Evaluation of Unstructured GossipBased Implementations
 In Middleware ’04: Proceedings of the 5th ACM/IFIP/USENIX international conference on Middleware
, 2004
"... Abstract. In recent years, the gossipbased communication model in largescale distributed systems has become a general paradigm with important applications which include information dissemination, aggregation, overlay topology management and synchronization. At the heart of all of these protocols l ..."
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Cited by 187 (41 self)
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Abstract. In recent years, the gossipbased communication model in largescale distributed systems has become a general paradigm with important applications which include information dissemination, aggregation, overlay topology management and synchronization. At the heart of all of these protocols lies a fundamental distributed abstraction: the peer sampling service. In short, the aim of this service is to provide every node with peers to exchange information with. Analytical studies reveal a high reliability and efficiency of gossipbased protocols, under the (often implicit) assumption that the peers to send gossip messages to are selected uniformly at random from the set of all nodes. In practice—instead of requiring all nodes to know all the peer nodes so that a random sample could be drawn—a scalable and efficient way to implement the peer sampling service is by constructing and maintaining dynamic unstructured overlays through gossiping membership information itself. This paper presents a generic framework to implement reliable and efficient peer sampling services. The framework generalizes existing approaches and makes it easy to introduce new ones. We use this framework to explore and compare several implementations of our abstract scheme. Through extensive experimental analysis, we show that all of them lead to different peer sampling services none of which is uniformly random. This clearly renders traditional theoretical approaches invalid, when the underlying peer sampling service is based on a gossipbased scheme. Our observations also help explain important differences between design choices of peer sampling algorithms, and how these impact the reliability of the corresponding service. 1
Gossipbased Peer Sampling
, 2007
"... Gossipbased communication protocols are appealing in largescale distributed applications such as information dissemination, aggregation, and overlay topology management. This paper factors out a fundamental mechanism at the heart of all these protocols: the peersampling service. In short, this se ..."
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Cited by 161 (43 self)
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Gossipbased communication protocols are appealing in largescale distributed applications such as information dissemination, aggregation, and overlay topology management. This paper factors out a fundamental mechanism at the heart of all these protocols: the peersampling service. In short, this service provides every node with peers to gossip with. We promote this service to the level of a firstclass abstraction of a largescale distributed system, similar to a name service being a firstclass abstraction of a localarea system. We present a generic framework to implement a peersampling service in a decentralized manner by constructing and maintaining dynamic unstructured overlays through gossiping membership information itself. Our framework generalizes existing approaches and makes it easy to discover new ones. We use this framework to empirically explore and compare several implementations of the peersampling service. Through extensive simulation experiments we show that—although all protocols provide a good quality uniform random stream of peers to each node locally—traditional theoretical assumptions about the randomness of the unstructured overlays as a whole do not hold in any of the instances. We also show that different design decisions result in severe differences from the point of view of two crucial aspects: load balancing and fault tolerance. Our simulations are validated by means of a widearea implementation.
Quantized consensus
, 2007
"... We study the distributed averaging problem on arbitrary connected graphs, with the additional constraint that the value at each node is an integer. This discretized distributed averaging problem models several problems of interest, such as averaging in a network with finite capacity channels and loa ..."
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Cited by 144 (0 self)
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We study the distributed averaging problem on arbitrary connected graphs, with the additional constraint that the value at each node is an integer. This discretized distributed averaging problem models several problems of interest, such as averaging in a network with finite capacity channels and load balancing in a processor network. We describe simple randomized distributed algorithms which achieve consensus to the extent that the discrete nature of the problem permits. We give bounds on the convergence time of these algorithms for fully connected networks and linear networks.
Gossip algorithms for distributed signal processing
 PROCEEDINGS OF THE IEEE
, 2010
"... Gossip algorithms are attractive for innetwork processing in sensor networks because they do not require any specialized routing, there is no bottleneck or single point of failure, and they are robust to unreliable wireless network conditions. Recently, there has been a surge of activity in the co ..."
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Cited by 116 (30 self)
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Gossip algorithms are attractive for innetwork processing in sensor networks because they do not require any specialized routing, there is no bottleneck or single point of failure, and they are robust to unreliable wireless network conditions. Recently, there has been a surge of activity in the computer science, control, signal processing, and information theory communities, developing faster and more robust gossip algorithms and deriving theoretical performance guarantees. This paper presents an overview of recent work in the area. We describe convergence rate results, which are related to the number of transmittedmessages and thus the amount of energy consumed in the network for gossiping. We discuss issues related to gossiping over wireless links, including the effects of quantization and noise, and we illustrate the use of gossip algorithms for canonical signal processing tasks including distributed estimation, source localization, and compression.
Geographic Gossip: Efficient Aggregation for Sensor Networks
 in Proc. Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN
, 2006
"... Gossip algorithms for aggregation have recently received significant attention for sensor network applications because of their simplicity and robustness in noisy and uncertain environments. However, gossip algorithms can waste significant energy by essentially passing around redundant information m ..."
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Cited by 111 (5 self)
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Gossip algorithms for aggregation have recently received significant attention for sensor network applications because of their simplicity and robustness in noisy and uncertain environments. However, gossip algorithms can waste significant energy by essentially passing around redundant information multiple times. For realistic sensor network model topologies like grids and random geometric graphs, the inefficiency of gossip schemes is caused by slow mixing times of random walks on those graphs. We propose and analyze an alternative gossiping scheme that exploits geographic information. By utilizing a simple resampling method, we can demonstrate substantial gains over previously proposed gossip protocols. In particular, for random geometric graphs, our algorithm computes the true average to accuracy 1/n a using O(n 1.5 √ log n) radio transmissions, which reduces the energy consumption by a algorithms. q n factor over standard gossip log n
Consensus propagation
 IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
"... Abstract — We propose consensus propagation, an asynchronous distributed protocol for averaging numbers across a network. We establish convergence, characterize the convergence rate for regular graphs, and demonstrate that the protocol exhibits better scaling properties than pairwise averaging, an a ..."
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Cited by 89 (5 self)
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Abstract — We propose consensus propagation, an asynchronous distributed protocol for averaging numbers across a network. We establish convergence, characterize the convergence rate for regular graphs, and demonstrate that the protocol exhibits better scaling properties than pairwise averaging, an alternative that has received much recent attention. Consensus propagation can be viewed as a special case of belief propagation, and our results contribute to the belief propagation literature. In particular, beyond singlyconnected graphs, there are very few classes of relevant problems for which belief propagation is known to converge. Index Terms — belief propagation, distributed averaging, distributed consensus, distributed signal processing, Gaussian Markov random fields, messagepassing algorithms, maxproduct algorithm, minsum algorithm, sumproduct algorithm. I.