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A Correctness Model for Pipelined Microprocessors
"... What does it mean for an instruction pipeline to be correct? We recently completed the specification and verification of a pipelined microprocessor called Uinta. Our proof makes no simplifying assumptions about data and control hazards. This paper presents the specification, describes the verific ..."
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Cited by 19 (1 self)
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What does it mean for an instruction pipeline to be correct? We recently completed the specification and verification of a pipelined microprocessor called Uinta. Our proof makes no simplifying assumptions about data and control hazards. This paper presents the specification, describes the verification, and discusses the effect of pipelining on the correctness model. 1 Introduction Much has been written over the years regarding the formal specification and verification of microprocessors. Most of these efforts have been directed at nonpipelined microprocessors [Gor83, Bow87, Hun87, CCLO88, Coh88, Joy88, Hun89, Win90, Her92, SWL93, Win94b]. The verification of pipelined microprocessors presents unique challenges. The correctness model is somewhat different than the standard correctness models used previously (see Section 7.1). Besides the correctness model, the concurrent operations inherent in a pipeline lead to hazards which must be considered in the proof. There are three typ...
A Correctness Proof for Pipelining in RISC Architectures
, 1996
"... We describe a technique for specifying and verifying the control of pipelined microprocessors which can be used where traditional or purely automatic methods do not scale up to complex commercial microprocessor design. We illustrate our approach through a formal specification of Hennessy's and ..."
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Cited by 8 (4 self)
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We describe a technique for specifying and verifying the control of pipelined microprocessors which can be used where traditional or purely automatic methods do not scale up to complex commercial microprocessor design. We illustrate our approach through a formal specification of Hennessy's and Patterson's RISC processor DLX [HP90] for which we prove the correctness of its pipelined model with respect to the sequential model. First we concentrate our attention on the provably correct refinement of the sequential ground model DLX to the pipelined parallel version DLX p in which structural hazards (resource conflicts) are eliminated. Then we extend the result to the model DLX data in which also data hazards for not jump instructions are treated. The next step consists of building the model DLX ctrl in which control hazards are eliminated. In the last step we define DLX pipe and prove that it refines DLX ctrl correctly and takes care also of data hazards relative to jump instruct...
Specifying InstructionSet Architectures in HOL: A Primer
, 1994
"... . This paper presents techniques for specifying microprocessor instruction set syntax and semantics in the HOL theorem proving system. The paper describes the use of abstract representations for operators and data, gives techniques for specifying instruction set syntax, outlines the use of recor ..."
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Cited by 5 (0 self)
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. This paper presents techniques for specifying microprocessor instruction set syntax and semantics in the HOL theorem proving system. The paper describes the use of abstract representations for operators and data, gives techniques for specifying instruction set syntax, outlines the use of records in specifying semantic domains, presents the creation of parameterized semantic frameworks, and shows how all of these can be used to create a semantics for a microprocessor instruction set. The verified microprocessor Uinta provides examples for each of these. 1 Introduction Much has been written over the years regarding the formal specification and verification of microprocessors [CCLO88, Bow87, Hun87, Coh88b, Coh88a, Gor83, Joy88, Hun89, Joy89, SB90, Her92, SWL93, TK93]. These efforts use many different proof systems and styles. We have verified a number of microprocessors in the HOL theorem proving system [Win90a, Win90b, Win94, WC94] and have developed techniques which clarify t...