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228
Barrier coverage with wireless sensors
 In ACM MobiCom
, 2005
"... When a sensor network is deployed to detect objects penetrating a protected region, it is not necessary to have every point in the deployment region covered by a sensor. It is enough if the penetrating objects are detected at some point in their trajectory. If a sensor network guarantees that every ..."
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Cited by 133 (9 self)
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When a sensor network is deployed to detect objects penetrating a protected region, it is not necessary to have every point in the deployment region covered by a sensor. It is enough if the penetrating objects are detected at some point in their trajectory. If a sensor network guarantees that every penetrating object will be detected by at least £ distinct sensors before it crosses the barrier of wireless sensors, we say the network provides £barrier coverage. In this paper, we develop theoretical foundations for £barrier coverage. We propose efficient algorithms using which one can quickly determine, after deploying the sensors, whether the deployment region is £barrier covered. Next, we establish the optimal deployment pattern to achieve £barrier coverage when deploying sensors deterministically. Finally, we consider barrier coverage with high probability when sensors are deployed randomly. The major challenge, when dealing with probabilistic barrier coverage, is to derive critical conditions using which one can compute the minimum number of sensors needed to ensure barrier coverage with high probability. Deriving critical conditions for £barrier coverage is, however, still an open problem. We derive critical conditions for a weaker notion of barrier coverage, called weak £barrier coverage.
First Steps in Tropical Geometry
 CONTEMPORARY MATHEMATICS
"... Tropical algebraic geometry is the geometry of the tropical semiring (R, min, +). Its objects are polyhedral cell complexes which behave like complex algebraic varieties. We give an introduction to this theory, with an emphasis on plane curves and linear spaces. New results include a complete descr ..."
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Cited by 125 (10 self)
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Tropical algebraic geometry is the geometry of the tropical semiring (R, min, +). Its objects are polyhedral cell complexes which behave like complex algebraic varieties. We give an introduction to this theory, with an emphasis on plane curves and linear spaces. New results include a complete description of the families of quadrics through four points in the tropical projective plane and a counterexample to the incidence version of Pappus’ Theorem.
Designing localized algorithms for barrier coverage
 Proc. ACM MobiCom
, 2007
"... Global barrier coverage that requires much fewer sensors than full coverage, is known to be an appropriate model of coverage for movement detection applications such as intrusion detection. However, it has been proved that given a sensor deployment, sensors can not locally determine whether the depl ..."
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Cited by 67 (3 self)
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Global barrier coverage that requires much fewer sensors than full coverage, is known to be an appropriate model of coverage for movement detection applications such as intrusion detection. However, it has been proved that given a sensor deployment, sensors can not locally determine whether the deployment provides global barrier coverage, making it impossible to develop localized algorithms, thus limiting its use in practice. In this paper, we introduce the concept of local barrier coverage to address this limitation. Motivated by the observation that movements are likely to follow a shorter path in crossing a belt region, local barrier coverage guarantees the detection of all movements whose trajectory is confined to a slice of the belt region of deployment. We prove that it is possible for individual sensors to locally determine the existence of local barrier coverage, even when the region of deployment is arbitrarily curved. Although local barrier coverage does not always guarantee global barrier coverage, we show that for thin belt regions, local barrier coverage almost always provides global barrier coverage. To demonstrate that local barrier coverage can be used to design localized algorithms, we develop a novel sleepwakeup algorithm for maximizing the network lifetime, called Localized Barrier Coverage Protocol (LBCP). We show that LBCP provides close to optimal enhancement in network lifetime, while providing global barrier coverage most of the time. It outperforms an existing algorithm called Randomized Independent Sleeping (RIS) by up to 6 times.
Approximation algorithms for nonuniform buyatbulk network design problems
 Proc. of IEEE FOCS
"... Abstract. Buyatbulk network design problems arise in settings where the costs for purchasing or installing equipment exhibit economies of scale. The objective is to build a network of cheapest cost to support a given multicommodity flow demand between node pairs. We present approximation algorith ..."
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Cited by 56 (13 self)
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Abstract. Buyatbulk network design problems arise in settings where the costs for purchasing or installing equipment exhibit economies of scale. The objective is to build a network of cheapest cost to support a given multicommodity flow demand between node pairs. We present approximation algorithms for buyatbulk network design problems with costs on both edges and nodes of an undirected graph. Our main result is the first polylogarithmic approximation ratio for the nonuniform problem that allows different cost functions on each edge and node; the ratio we achieve is O(log4 h) where h is the number of demand pairs. In addition we present an O(log h) approximation for the single sink problem. Polylogarithmic ratios for some related problems are also obtained. Our algorithm for the multicommodity problem is obtained via a reduction to the single source problem using the notion of junction trees. We believe that this presents a simple yet useful general technique for network design problems. Key words. Nonuniform buyatbulk, network design, approximation algorithm, concave cost, network flow, economies of scale AMS subject classifications. 68Q25, 68W25, 90C27, 90C59 1. Introduction. Network
Edgecut bounds on network coding rates
 J. Network and Systems Management
, 2006
"... AbstractActive networks are network architectures with processors that are capable of executing code carried by the packets passing through them. A critical network management concern is the optimization of such networks and tight bounds on their performance serve as useful design benchmarks. A ne ..."
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Cited by 47 (4 self)
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AbstractActive networks are network architectures with processors that are capable of executing code carried by the packets passing through them. A critical network management concern is the optimization of such networks and tight bounds on their performance serve as useful design benchmarks. A new bound on communication rates is developed that applies to network coding, which is a promising active network application that has processors transmit packets that are general functions, for example a bitwise XOR, of selected received packets. The bound generalizes an edgecut bound on routing rates by progressively removing edges from the network graph and checking whether certain strengthened dseparation conditions are satised. The bound improves on the cutset bound and its efcacy is demonstrated by showing that routing is rateoptimal for some commonly cited examples in the networking literature. Index Terms Network capacity, network coding, active networks, dseparation 1.
Computing common intervals of K permutations, with applications to modular decomposition of graphs
, 2008
"... We introduce a new approach to compute the common intervals of K permutations based on a very simple and general notion of generators of common intervals. This formalism leads to simple and efficient algorithms to compute the set of all common intervals of K permutations, that can contain a quadrat ..."
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Cited by 37 (17 self)
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We introduce a new approach to compute the common intervals of K permutations based on a very simple and general notion of generators of common intervals. This formalism leads to simple and efficient algorithms to compute the set of all common intervals of K permutations, that can contain a quadratic number of intervals, as well as a linear space basis of this set of common intervals. Finally, we show how our results on permutations can be used for computing the modular decomposition of graphs.
From convex optimization to randomized mechanisms: Toward optimal combinatorial auctions
 In Proceedings of the 43rd annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing (STOC
, 2011
"... We design an expected polynomialtime, truthfulinexpectation, (1 − 1/e)approximation mechanism for welfare maximization in a fundamental class of combinatorial auctions. Our results apply to bidders with valuations that are matroid rank sums (MRS), which encompass mostconcreteexamplesofsubmodular ..."
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Cited by 35 (11 self)
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We design an expected polynomialtime, truthfulinexpectation, (1 − 1/e)approximation mechanism for welfare maximization in a fundamental class of combinatorial auctions. Our results apply to bidders with valuations that are matroid rank sums (MRS), which encompass mostconcreteexamplesofsubmodularfunctionsstudiedinthiscontext,includingcoveragefunctions, matroid weightedrank functions, and convex combinations thereof. Our approximation factor is the best possible, even for known and explicitly given coverage valuations, assuming P ̸ = NP. Ours is the first truthfulinexpectation and polynomialtime mechanism to achieve a constantfactor approximation for an NPhard welfare maximization problem in combinatorial auctions with heterogeneous goods and restricted valuations. Our mechanism is an instantiation of a new framework for designing approximation mechanisms based on randomized rounding algorithms. A typical such algorithm first optimizes over a fractional relaxation of the original problem, and then randomly rounds the fractional solution to an integral one. With rare exceptions, such algorithms cannot be converted into truthful mechanisms. The highlevel idea of our mechanism design framework is to optimize directly
Strong barrier coverage of wireless sensor networks
 in Proc. of The ACM International Symposium on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing (MobiHoc
, 2008
"... Constructing sensor barriers to detect intruders crossing a randomlydeployed sensor network is an important problem. Early results have shown how to construct sensor barriers to detect intruders moving along restricted crossing paths in rectangular areas. We present a complete solution to this prob ..."
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Cited by 35 (8 self)
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Constructing sensor barriers to detect intruders crossing a randomlydeployed sensor network is an important problem. Early results have shown how to construct sensor barriers to detect intruders moving along restricted crossing paths in rectangular areas. We present a complete solution to this problem for sensors that are distributed according to a Poisson point process. In particular, we present an efficient distributed algorithm to construct sensor barriers on long strip areas of irregular shape without any constraint on crossing paths. Our approach is as follows: We first show that in a rectangular area of width w and length ℓ with w = Ω(log ℓ), if the sensor density reaches a certain value, then there exist, with high probability, multiple disjoint sensor barriers across the entire length of the area such that intruders cannot cross the area undetected. On the other hand, if w = o(log ℓ), then with high probability there is a crossing path not covered by any sensor regardless of the sensor density. We then devise, based on this result, an efficient distributed algorithm to construct multiple disjoint barriers in a large sensor network to cover a long boundary area of an irregular shape. Our algorithm approximates the area by dividing it into horizontal rectangular segments interleaved by vertical thin strips. Each segment and vertical strip independently computes the barriers in its own area. Constructing “horizontal ” barriers in each segment connected by“vertical ” barriers in neighboring vertical strips, we achieve continuous barrier coverage for the whole region. Our approach significantly reduces delay, communication overhead, and computation costs compared to centralized approaches. Finally, we implement our algorithm and carry out a number of experiments to demonstrate the effectiveness of constructing barrier coverage.
BeliefPropagation for Weighted bMatchings on Arbitrary Graphs and its Relation to Linear Programs with Integer Solutions
 in arXiv, http://www.arxiv.org/abs/0709.1190v1
, 2007
"... We consider the general problem of finding the minimum weight bmatching on arbitrary graphs. We prove that, whenever the linear programming (LP) relaxation of the problem has no fractional solutions, then the belief propagation (BP) algorithm converges to the correct solution. This result is notabl ..."
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Cited by 29 (1 self)
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We consider the general problem of finding the minimum weight bmatching on arbitrary graphs. We prove that, whenever the linear programming (LP) relaxation of the problem has no fractional solutions, then the belief propagation (BP) algorithm converges to the correct solution. This result is notable in several regards: (1) It is one of a very small number of proofs showing correctness of BP without any constraint on the graph structure. (2) Instead of showing that BP leads to a PTAS, we give a finite bound for the number of iterations after which BP has converged to the exact solution. (3) Variants of the proof work for both synchronous and asynchronous BP; to the best of our knowledge, it is the first proof of convergence and correctness of an asynchronous BP algorithm for a combinatorial optimization problem. (4) It works for both ordinary bmatchings and the more difficult case of perfect bmatchings. (5) Together with the recent work of Sanghavi, Malioutov and Wilskly [41] they are the first complete proofs showing that tightness of LP implies correctness of BP. 1