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114
Decoding by Linear Programming
, 2004
"... This paper considers the classical error correcting problem which is frequently discussed in coding theory. We wish to recover an input vector f ∈ Rn from corrupted measurements y = Af + e. Here, A is an m by n (coding) matrix and e is an arbitrary and unknown vector of errors. Is it possible to rec ..."
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Cited by 1400 (17 self)
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This paper considers the classical error correcting problem which is frequently discussed in coding theory. We wish to recover an input vector f ∈ Rn from corrupted measurements y = Af + e. Here, A is an m by n (coding) matrix and e is an arbitrary and unknown vector of errors. Is it possible to recover f exactly from the data y? We prove that under suitable conditions on the coding matrix A, the input f is the unique solution to the ℓ1minimization problem (‖x‖ℓ1:= i xi) min g∈R n ‖y − Ag‖ℓ1 provided that the support of the vector of errors is not too large, ‖e‖ℓ0: = {i: ei ̸= 0}  ≤ ρ · m for some ρ> 0. In short, f can be recovered exactly by solving a simple convex optimization problem (which one can recast as a linear program). In addition, numerical experiments suggest that this recovery procedure works unreasonably well; f is recovered exactly even in situations where a significant fraction of the output is corrupted. This work is related to the problem of finding sparse solutions to vastly underdetermined systems of linear equations. There are also significant connections with the problem of recovering signals from highly incomplete measurements. In fact, the results introduced in this paper improve on our earlier work [5]. Finally, underlying the success of ℓ1 is a crucial property we call the uniform uncertainty principle that we shall describe in detail.
Using linear programming to decode binary linear codes
 IEEE TRANS. INFORM. THEORY
, 2005
"... A new method is given for performing approximate maximumlikelihood (ML) decoding of an arbitrary binary linear code based on observations received from any discrete memoryless symmetric channel. The decoding algorithm is based on a linear programming (LP) relaxation that is defined by a factor grap ..."
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Cited by 184 (10 self)
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A new method is given for performing approximate maximumlikelihood (ML) decoding of an arbitrary binary linear code based on observations received from any discrete memoryless symmetric channel. The decoding algorithm is based on a linear programming (LP) relaxation that is defined by a factor graph or paritycheck representation of the code. The resulting “LP decoder” generalizes our previous work on turbolike codes. A precise combinatorial characterization of when the LP decoder succeeds is provided, based on pseudocodewords associated with the factor graph. Our definition of a pseudocodeword unifies other such notions known for iterative algorithms, including “stopping sets, ” “irreducible closed walks, ” “trellis cycles, ” “deviation sets, ” and “graph covers.” The fractional distance ��— ™ of a code is introduced, which is a lower bound on the classical distance. It is shown that the efficient LP decoder will correct up to ��— ™ P I errors and that there are codes with ��— ™ a @ I A. An efficient algorithm to compute the fractional distance is presented. Experimental evidence shows a similar performance on lowdensity paritycheck (LDPC) codes between LP decoding and the minsum and sumproduct algorithms. Methods for tightening the LP relaxation to improve performance are also provided.
Graphcover decoding and finitelength analysis of messagepassing iterative decoding of LDPC codes
 IEEE TRANS. INFORM. THEORY
, 2005
"... The goal of the present paper is the derivation of a framework for the finitelength analysis of messagepassing iterative decoding of lowdensity paritycheck codes. To this end we introduce the concept of graphcover decoding. Whereas in maximumlikelihood decoding all codewords in a code are comp ..."
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Cited by 114 (16 self)
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The goal of the present paper is the derivation of a framework for the finitelength analysis of messagepassing iterative decoding of lowdensity paritycheck codes. To this end we introduce the concept of graphcover decoding. Whereas in maximumlikelihood decoding all codewords in a code are competing to be the best explanation of the received vector, under graphcover decoding all codewords in all finite covers of a Tanner graph representation of the code are competing to be the best explanation. We are interested in graphcover decoding because it is a theoretical tool that can be used to show connections between linear programming decoding and messagepassing iterative decoding. Namely, on the one hand it turns out that graphcover decoding is essentially equivalent to linear programming decoding. On the other hand, because iterative, locally operating decoding algorithms like messagepassing iterative decoding cannot distinguish the underlying Tanner graph from any covering graph, graphcover decoding can serve as a model to explain the behavior of messagepassing iterative decoding. Understanding the behavior of graphcover decoding is tantamount to understanding
Error Correction via Linear Programming
, 2005
"... Suppose we wish to transmit a vector f ∈ Rn reliably. A frequently discussed approach consists in encoding f with an m by n coding matrix A. Assume now that a fraction of the entries of Af are corrupted in a completely arbitrary fashion. We do not know which entries are affected nor do we know how t ..."
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Cited by 106 (6 self)
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Suppose we wish to transmit a vector f ∈ Rn reliably. A frequently discussed approach consists in encoding f with an m by n coding matrix A. Assume now that a fraction of the entries of Af are corrupted in a completely arbitrary fashion. We do not know which entries are affected nor do we know how they are affected. Is it possible to recover f exactly from the corrupted mdimensional vector y? This paper proves that under suitable conditions on the coding matrix A, the input f is the unique solution to the ℓ1minimization problem (�x�ℓ1: = i xi) min �y − Ag�ℓ1 g∈Rn provided that the fraction of corrupted entries is not too large, i.e. does not exceed some strictly positive constant ρ ∗ (numerical values for ρ ∗ are given). In other words, f can be recovered exactly by solving a simple convex optimization problem; in fact, a linear program. We report on numerical experiments suggesting that ℓ1minimization is amazingly effective; f is recovered exactly even in situations where a very significant fraction of the output is corrupted.
On the stopping distance and the stopping redundancy of codes
 IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory
, 2006
"... Abstract — It is now well known that the performance of a linear code C under iterative decoding on a binary erasure channel (and other channels) is determined by the size of the smallest stopping set in the Tanner graph for C. Several recent papers refer to this parameter as the stopping distance s ..."
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Cited by 60 (2 self)
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Abstract — It is now well known that the performance of a linear code C under iterative decoding on a binary erasure channel (and other channels) is determined by the size of the smallest stopping set in the Tanner graph for C. Several recent papers refer to this parameter as the stopping distance s of C. This is somewhat of a misnomer since the size of the smallest stopping set in the Tanner graph for C depends on the corresponding choice of a paritycheck matrix. It is easy to see that s � d, whered is the minimum Hamming distance of C, and we show that it is always possible to choose a paritycheck matrix for C (with sufficiently many dependent rows) such that s = d. We thus introduce a new parameter, termed the stopping redundancy of C, defined as the minimum number of rows in a paritycheck matrix H for C such that the corresponding stopping distance s(H) attains its largest possible value, namely s(H) =d. We then derive general bounds on the stopping redundancy of linear codes. We also examine several simple ways of constructing codes from other codes, and study the effect of these constructions on the stopping redundancy. Specifically, for the family of binary ReedMuller codes (of all orders), we prove that their stopping redundancy is at most a constant times their conventional redundancy. We show that the stopping redundancies of the binary and ternary extended Golay codes are at most 34 and 22, respectively. Finally, we provide upper and lower bounds on the stopping redundancy of MDS codes. I.
Highly Robust Error Correction by Convex Programming
, 2006
"... This paper discusses a stylized communications problem where one wishes to transmit a realvalued signal x ∈ R n (a block of n pieces of information) to a remote receiver. We ask whether it is possible to transmit this information reliably when a fraction of the transmitted codeword is corrupted by ..."
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Cited by 48 (2 self)
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This paper discusses a stylized communications problem where one wishes to transmit a realvalued signal x ∈ R n (a block of n pieces of information) to a remote receiver. We ask whether it is possible to transmit this information reliably when a fraction of the transmitted codeword is corrupted by arbitrary gross errors, and when in addition, all the entries of the codeword are contaminated by smaller errors (e.g. quantization errors). We show that if one encodes the information as Ax where A ∈ R m×n (m ≥ n) is a suitable coding matrix, there are two decoding schemes that allow the recovery of the block of n pieces of information x with nearly the same accuracy as if no gross errors occur upon transmission (or equivalently as if one has an oracle supplying perfect information about the sites and amplitudes of the gross errors). Moreover, both decoding strategies are very concrete and only involve solving simple convex optimization programs, either a linear program or a secondorder cone program. We complement our study with numerical simulations showing that the encoder/decoder pair performs remarkably well.
R.Koetter, Towards LowComplexity LinearProgramming Decoding
 Proc. 4th Int. Symposium on Turbo Codes and Related Topics
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On the Relationship between Linear Programming Decoding and MinSum Algorithm Decoding
, 2004
"... We are interested in the characterization of the decision regions when decoding a lowdensity paritycheck code with the minsum algorithm. Observations made in [1] and experimental evidence suggest that these decision regions are tightly related to the decision regions obtained when decoding the co ..."
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Cited by 35 (8 self)
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We are interested in the characterization of the decision regions when decoding a lowdensity paritycheck code with the minsum algorithm. Observations made in [1] and experimental evidence suggest that these decision regions are tightly related to the decision regions obtained when decoding the code with the linear programming decoder. We introduce a family of quadratic programming decoders that aims at explaining this behavior. Moreover, we also point out connections to electrical networks.
Structure of pseudocodewords in Tanner graphs
 Proceedings of 2004 International Symposium on Information Theory and its Applications, p. CDROM
, 2004
"... This papers presents a detailed analysis of pseudocodewords of Tanner graphs. Pseudocodewords arising on the iterative decoder’s computation tree are distinguished from pseudocodewords arising on finite degree lifts. Lower bounds on the minimum pseudocodeword weight are presented for the BEC, BSC, a ..."
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Cited by 31 (4 self)
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This papers presents a detailed analysis of pseudocodewords of Tanner graphs. Pseudocodewords arising on the iterative decoder’s computation tree are distinguished from pseudocodewords arising on finite degree lifts. Lower bounds on the minimum pseudocodeword weight are presented for the BEC, BSC, and AWGN channel. Some structural properties of pseudocodewords are examined, and pseudocodewords and graph properties that are potentially problematic with minsum iterative decoding are identified. An upper bound on the minimum degree lift needed to realize a particular irreducible liftrealizable pseudocodeword is given in terms of its maximal component, and it is shown that all irreducible liftrealizable pseudocodewords have components upper bounded by a finite value t that is dependent on the graph structure. Examples and different Tanner graph representations of individual codes are examined and the resulting pseudocodeword distributions and iterative decoding performances are analyzed. The results obtained provide some insights in relating the structure of the Tanner graph to the pseudocodeword distribution and suggest ways of designing Tanner graphs with good minimum pseudocodeword weight. Index Terms Low density parity check codes, pseudocodewords, iterative decoding, minsum iterative decoder.