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Beyond HyperMinimisation  Minimising DBAs and DPAs is NPComplete
, 2010
"... In this paper we study the problem of minimising deterministic automata over finite and infinite words. Deterministic finite automata are the simplest devices to recognise regular languages, and deterministic Büchi, CoBüchi, and parity automata play a similar role in the recognition of ωregular la ..."
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In this paper we study the problem of minimising deterministic automata over finite and infinite words. Deterministic finite automata are the simplest devices to recognise regular languages, and deterministic Büchi, CoBüchi, and parity automata play a similar role in the recognition of ωregular languages. While it is well known that the minimisation of deterministic finite and weak automata is cheap, the complexity of minimising deterministic Büchi and parity automata has remained an open challenge. We establish the NPcompleteness of these problems. A second contribution of this paper is the introduction of almost equivalence, an equivalence class for strictly between language equivalence for deterministic Büchi or CoBüchi automata and language equivalence for deterministic finite automata. Two finite automata are almost equivalent if they, when used as a monitor, provide a different answer only a bounded number of times in any run, and we call the minimal such automaton relatively minimal. Minimisation of DFAs, hyperminimisation, relative minimisation, and the minimisation of deterministic Büchi (or CoBüchi) automata are operations of increasing reduction power, as the respective equivalence relations on automata become coarser from left to right. Besides being a natural equivalence relation for finite automata, almost equivalence is language preserving for weak automata, and can therefore also be viewed as a generalisation of language equivalence for weak automata to a more general class of automata. From the perspective of Büchi and CoBüchi automata, we gain a cheap algorithm for statespace reduction that also turns out to be beneficial for further heuristic or exhaustive statespace reductions put on top of it.
This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License. Learn with SAT to Minimize Büchi Automata
"... We describe a minimization procedure for nondeterministic Büchi automata (NBA). For an automaton A another automaton Amin with the minimal number of states is learned with the help of a SATsolver. This is done by successively computing automata A ′ that approximate A in the sense that they accept ..."
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We describe a minimization procedure for nondeterministic Büchi automata (NBA). For an automaton A another automaton Amin with the minimal number of states is learned with the help of a SATsolver. This is done by successively computing automata A ′ that approximate A in the sense that they accept a given finite set of positive examples and reject a given finite set of negative examples. In the course of the procedure these example sets are successively increased. Thus, our method can be seen as an instance of a generic learning algorithm based on a “minimally adequate teacher ” in the sense of Angluin. We use a SAT solver to find an NBA for given sets of positive and negative examples. We use complementation via construction of deterministic parity automata to check candidates computed in this manner for equivalence with A. Failure of equivalence yields new positive or negative examples. Our method proved successful on complete samplings of small automata and of quite some examples of bigger automata. We successfully ran the minimization on over ten thousand automata with mostly up to ten states, including the complements of all possible automata with two states and alphabet size three and discuss results and runtimes; single examples had over 100 states. 1