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Gravitational Radiation from PostNewtonian Sources and Inspiralling Compact Binaries, Living Rev
 Rel
"... The article reviews the current status of a theoretical approach to the problem of the emission of gravitational waves by isolated systems in the context of general relativity. Part A of the article deals with general postNewtonian sources. The exterior field of the source is investigated by means ..."
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The article reviews the current status of a theoretical approach to the problem of the emission of gravitational waves by isolated systems in the context of general relativity. Part A of the article deals with general postNewtonian sources. The exterior field of the source is investigated by means of a combination of analytic postMinkowskian and multipolar approximations. The physical observables in the farzone of the source are described by a specific set of radiative multipole moments. By matching the exterior solution to the metric of the postNewtonian source in the nearzone we obtain the explicit expressions of the source multipole moments. The relationships between the radiative and source moments involve many nonlinear multipole interactions, among them those associated with the tails (and tailsoftails) of gravitational waves. Part B of the article is devoted to the application to compact binary systems. We present the equations of binary motion, and the associated Lagrangian and Hamiltonian, at the third postNewtonian (3PN) order beyond the Newtonian acceleration. The gravitationalwave energy flux, taking consistently into account the relativistic corrections in the binary moments as well as the various tail effects, is derived through 3.5PN order with respect to the quadrupole formalism. The binary’s orbital phase, whose prior knowledge is crucial for searching and analyzing the signals from inspiralling compact binaries, is deduced from an energy balance argument. 1 1
Gravitational wave astronomy
 Class. Quantum Grav
, 1999
"... Gravity is one of the fundamental forces of Nature, and it is the dominant force in most astronomical systems. In common with all other phenomena, gravity must obey the principles of Special Relativity. In particular, gravitational forces must not be transmitted or communicated faster than light. Th ..."
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Gravity is one of the fundamental forces of Nature, and it is the dominant force in most astronomical systems. In common with all other phenomena, gravity must obey the principles of Special Relativity. In particular, gravitational forces must not be transmitted or communicated faster than light. This means that when the gravitational field of an object changes, the changes ripple outwards through space and take a finite time to reach other objects. These ripples are called gravitational radiation or gravitational waves. 1 In Einstein’s theory of gravitation (see General Relativity and Gravitation), as in many other modern theories of gravity (see Nongeneral Relativity Theories of Gravity), gravitational waves travel at exactly the speed of light. Different theories make different predictions, however, about details, such as their strength and polarization. There is strong indirect observational evidence (see Binary Stars as a Probe of General Relativity, HulseTaylor Pulsar) that gravitational waves follow the predictions of general relativity, and instruments now under construction are expected to make the first direct detections of them in the first years of the 21st century. These instruments and plans for future instruments in space are described in the article Gravitational Radiation Detection on Earth and in Space. Detectors must look for gravitational radiation from astronomical systems, because it is not possible to generate detectable levels of radiation in the laboratory. It follows that gravitational wave detection is also a branch of observational astronomy. The most striking aspect of gravitational waves is their weakness. A comparison with the energy in light ∗ To be published in the Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Astrophysics
Gravitational waves from coalescing binaries and Doppler experiments, in preparation
"... Doppler tracking of interplanetary spacecraft provides the only method presently available for broadband searches of low frequency gravitational waves ( ∼ 10 −5 − 1Hz). The instruments have a peak sensitivity around the reciprocal of the roundtrip lighttime T ( ∼ 10 3 − 10 4 sec) of the radio lin ..."
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Doppler tracking of interplanetary spacecraft provides the only method presently available for broadband searches of low frequency gravitational waves ( ∼ 10 −5 − 1Hz). The instruments have a peak sensitivity around the reciprocal of the roundtrip lighttime T ( ∼ 10 3 − 10 4 sec) of the radio link connecting the Earth to the spaceprobe and therefore are particularly suitable to search for coalescing binaries containing massive black holes in galactic nuclei. A number of Doppler experiments – the most recent involving the probes ULYSSES, GALILEO and MARS OBSERVER – have been carried out so far; moreover, in 20022004 the CASSINI spacecraft will perform three 40 days data acquisition runs with expected sensitivity about twenty times better than that achieved so far. Central aims of this paper are: (i) to explore, as a function of the relevant instrumental and astrophysical parameters, the Doppler output produced by inspiral signals – sinusoids of increasing frequency and amplitude (the socalled
Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology with . . .
, 2009
"... Gravitational wave detectors are already operating at interesting sensitivity levels, and they have an upgrade path that should result in secure detections by 2014. We review the physics of gravitational waves, how they interact with detectors (bars and interferometers), and how these detectors oper ..."
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Gravitational wave detectors are already operating at interesting sensitivity levels, and they have an upgrade path that should result in secure detections by 2014. We review the physics of gravitational waves, how they interact with detectors (bars and interferometers), and how these detectors operate. We study the most likely sources of gravitational waves and review the data analysis methods that are used to extract their signals from detector noise. Then we consider the consequences of gravitational wave detections and observations for physics, astrophysics, and cosmology.
Tetrad Gravity: III) Asyptotic . . .
, 1999
"... After a review on asymptotic flatness, a general discussion of asymptotic weak and strong Poincaré charges in metric gravity is given with special emphasis on the boundary conditions needed to define the proper Hamiltonian gauge transformations and to get a differentiable Dirac Hamiltonian. Lapse an ..."
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After a review on asymptotic flatness, a general discussion of asymptotic weak and strong Poincaré charges in metric gravity is given with special emphasis on the boundary conditions needed to define the proper Hamiltonian gauge transformations and to get a differentiable Dirac Hamiltonian. Lapse and shift functions are parametrized in a way which allows to identify their asymptotic parts with the lapse and shift functions of Minkowski spacelike hyperplanes. After having added the strong (surface integrals) Poincaré charges to the Dirac Hamiltonian, it becomes the sum of a differentiable Hamiltonian and of the weak (volume integrals) Poincaré charges. By adding the ten Dirac extra variables at spatial infinity, which identify special families of foliations with leaves asymptotic (in a directionindependent way) to Minkowski spacelike hyperplanes, metric gravity is extended to englobe Dirac’s ten extra first class constraints which identify the weak Poincaré charges with the momenta conjugate to the extra variables. This opens the path to a consistent
in relativity Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology with Gravitational Waves
, 2009
"... Gravitational wave detectors are already operating at interesting sensitivity levels, and they have an upgrade path that should result in secure detections by 2014. We review the physics of gravitational waves, how they interact with detectors (bars and interferometers), and how these detectors oper ..."
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Gravitational wave detectors are already operating at interesting sensitivity levels, and they have an upgrade path that should result in secure detections by 2014. We review the physics of gravitational waves, how they interact with detectors (bars and interferometers), and how these detectors operate. We study the most likely sources of gravitational waves and review the data analysis methods that are used to extract their signals from detector noise. Then we consider the consequences of gravitational wave detections and observations for physics, astrophysics, and cosmology. This review is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercialNoDerivs 3.0 Germany License.
A Consistency Condition for the Double Series Approximation Method.
, 1996
"... The double series approximation method of Bonnor is a means for examining the gravitational radiation from an axisymmetric isolated source that undergoes a finite period of oscillation. It involves an expansion of the metric as a double Taylor series. Here we examine the integration procedure tha ..."
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The double series approximation method of Bonnor is a means for examining the gravitational radiation from an axisymmetric isolated source that undergoes a finite period of oscillation. It involves an expansion of the metric as a double Taylor series. Here we examine the integration procedure that is used to form an algorithmic solution to the field equations and point out the possibility of the expansion method breaking down and predicting a singularity along the axis of symmetry. We derive a condition on the solutions obtained by the double series method that must be satisfied to avoid this singularity. We then consider a source with only a quadrupole moment and verify that to fourth order in each of the expansion parameters, this condition is satisfied. This is a reassuring test of the consistency of the expansion procedure. We do, however, find that the imposition of this condition makes a physical interpretation of any but the lowest order solutions very difficult. The...
5 INTRODUCTION TO THE ANALYSIS OF LOWFREQUENCY GRAVITATIONAL WAVE DATA ∗
, 1997
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Mile End Road,
, 2008
"... The double series approximation method of Bonnor is a means for examining the gravitational radiation from an axisymmetric isolated source that undergoes a finite period of oscillation. It involves an expansion of the metric as a double Taylor series. Here we examine the integration procedure that i ..."
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The double series approximation method of Bonnor is a means for examining the gravitational radiation from an axisymmetric isolated source that undergoes a finite period of oscillation. It involves an expansion of the metric as a double Taylor series. Here we examine the integration procedure that is used to form an algorithmic solution to the field equations and point out the possibility of the expansion method breaking down and predicting a singularity along the axis of symmetry. We derive a condition on the solutions obtained by the double series method that must be satisfied to avoid this singularity. We then consider a source with only a quadrupole moment and verify that to fourth order in each of the expansion parameters, this condition is satisfied. This is a reassuring test of the consistency of the expansion procedure. We do, however, find that the imposition of this condition makes a physical interpretation of any but the lowest order solutions very difficult. The most obvious decomposition of the solution into a series of independent physical effects is shown not to be valid. 1 Introduction. In 1959 Bonnor introduced the doubles series method as a means for looking at the gravitational radiation from an isolated source that oscillates for a finite period [1]. This involved expanding the metric as a double power series in two parameters
Graviational radiation from . . .
 LIVING REVIEWS IN RELATIVITY
, 2002
"... The article reviews the current status of a theoretical approach to the problem of the emission of gravitational waves by isolated systems in the context of general relativity. Part A of the article deals with general postNewtonian sources. The exterior field of the source is investigated by means ..."
Abstract
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The article reviews the current status of a theoretical approach to the problem of the emission of gravitational waves by isolated systems in the context of general relativity. Part A of the article deals with general postNewtonian sources. The exterior field of the source is investigated by means of a combination of analytic postMinkowskian and multipolar approximations. The physical observables in the farzone of the source are described by a specific set of radiative multipole moments. By matching the exterior solution to the metric of the postNewtonian source in the nearzone we obtain the explicit expressions of the source multipole moments. The relationships between the radiative and source moments involve many nonlinear multipole interactions, among them those associated with the tails (and tailsoftails) of gravitational waves. Part B of the article is devoted to the application to compact binary systems. We present the equations of binary motion, and the associated Lagrangian and Hamiltonian, at the third postNewtonian (3PN) order beyond the Newtonian acceleration. The gravitationalwave energy flux, taking consistently into account the relativistic corrections in the binary moments as well as the various tail effects, is derived through 3.5PN order with respect to the quadrupole formalism. The binary’s orbital phase, whose prior knowledge is crucial for searching and analyzing the signals from inspiralling compact binaries, is deduced from an energy balance argument.