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419
Focusing and Polarization in Linear, Intuitionistic, and Classical Logics
, 2009
"... A focused proof system provides a normal form to cutfree proofs in which the application of invertible and noninvertible inference rules is structured. Within linear logic, the focused proof system of Andreoli provides an elegant and comprehensive normal form for cutfree proofs. Within intuitioni ..."
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Cited by 68 (27 self)
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A focused proof system provides a normal form to cutfree proofs in which the application of invertible and noninvertible inference rules is structured. Within linear logic, the focused proof system of Andreoli provides an elegant and comprehensive normal form for cutfree proofs. Within intuitionistic and classical logics, there are various different proof systems in the literature that exhibit focusing behavior. These focused proof systems have been applied to both the proof search and the proof normalization approaches to computation. We present a new, focused proof system for intuitionistic logic, called LJF, and show how other intuitionistic proof systems can be mapped into the new system by inserting logical connectives that prematurely stop focusing. We also use LJF to design a focused proof system LKF for classical logic. Our approach to the design and analysis of these systems is based on the completeness of focusing in linear logic and on the notion of polarity that appears in Girard’s LC and LU proof systems.
Least and greatest fixed points in linear logic Extended Version
, 2007
"... david.baelde at enslyon.org dale.miller at inria.fr Abstract. The firstorder theory of MALL (multiplicative, additive linear logic) over only equalities is an interesting but weak logic since it cannot capture unbounded (infinite) behavior. Instead of accounting for unbounded behavior via the addi ..."
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Cited by 62 (14 self)
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david.baelde at enslyon.org dale.miller at inria.fr Abstract. The firstorder theory of MALL (multiplicative, additive linear logic) over only equalities is an interesting but weak logic since it cannot capture unbounded (infinite) behavior. Instead of accounting for unbounded behavior via the addition of the exponentials (! and?), we add least and greatest fixed point operators. The resulting logic, which we call µMALL = , satisfies two fundamental proof theoretic properties. In particular, µMALL = satisfies cutelimination, which implies consistency, and has a complete focused proof system. This second result about focused proofs provides a strong normal form for cutfree proof structures that can be used, for example, to help automate proof search. We then consider applying these two results about µMALL = to derive a focused proof system for an intuitionistic logic extended with induction and coinduction. The traditional approach to encoding intuitionistic logic into linear logic relies heavily on using the exponentials, which unfortunately weaken the focusing discipline. We get a better focused proof system by observing that certain fixed points satisfy the structural rules of weakening and contraction (without using exponentials). The resulting focused proof system for intuitionistic logic is closely related to the one implemented in Bedwyr, a recent model checker based on logic programming. We discuss how our proof theory might be used to build a computational system that can partially automate induction and coinduction. 1
Session Types as Intuitionistic Linear Propositions
"... Several type disciplines for πcalculi have been proposed in which linearity plays a key role, even if their precise relationship with pure linear logic is still not well understood. In this paper, we introduce a type system for the πcalculus that exactly corresponds to the standard sequent calculu ..."
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Cited by 61 (18 self)
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Several type disciplines for πcalculi have been proposed in which linearity plays a key role, even if their precise relationship with pure linear logic is still not well understood. In this paper, we introduce a type system for the πcalculus that exactly corresponds to the standard sequent calculus proof system for dual intuitionistic linear logic. Our type system is based on a new interpretation of linear propositions as session types, and provides the first purely logical account of all (both shared and linear) features of session types. We show that our type discipline is useful from a programming perspective, and ensures session fidelity, absence of deadlocks, and a tight operational correspondence between πcalculus reductions and cut elimination steps. 1
Noncommutativity and MELL in the Calculus of Structures
 OF LECTURE NOTES IN COMPUTER SCIENCE
, 2001
"... We introduce the calculus of structures: it is more general than the sequent calculus and it allows for cut elimination and the subformula property. We show a simple extension of multiplicative linear logic, by a selfdual noncommutative operator inspired by CCS, that seems not to be expressible in ..."
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Cited by 61 (24 self)
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We introduce the calculus of structures: it is more general than the sequent calculus and it allows for cut elimination and the subformula property. We show a simple extension of multiplicative linear logic, by a selfdual noncommutative operator inspired by CCS, that seems not to be expressible in the sequent calculus. Then we show that multiplicative exponential linear logic benefits from its presentation in the calculus of structures, especially because we can replace the ordinary, global promotion rule by a local version. These formal systems, for which we prove cut elimination, outline a range of techniques and properties that were not previously available. Contrarily to what happens in the sequent calculus, the cut elimination proof is modular.
A Judgmental Analysis of Linear Logic
, 2003
"... We reexamine the foundations of linear logic, developing a system of natural deduction following MartinL of's separation of judgments from propositions. Our construction yields a clean and elegant formulation that accounts for a rich set of multiplicative, additive, and exponential connectives ..."
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Cited by 60 (32 self)
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We reexamine the foundations of linear logic, developing a system of natural deduction following MartinL of's separation of judgments from propositions. Our construction yields a clean and elegant formulation that accounts for a rich set of multiplicative, additive, and exponential connectives, extending dual intuitionistic linear logic but differing from both classical linear logic and Hyland and de Paiva's full intuitionistic linear logic. We also provide a corresponding sequent calculus that admits a simple proof of the admissibility of cut by a single structural induction. Finally, we show how to interpret classical linear logic (with or without the MIX rule) in our system, employing a form of doublenegation translation.
A Brief Guide to Linear Logic
, 1993
"... An overview of linear logic is given, including an extensive bibliography and a simple example of the close relationship between linear logic and computation. ..."
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Cited by 53 (9 self)
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An overview of linear logic is given, including an extensive bibliography and a simple example of the close relationship between linear logic and computation.
Focusing the inverse method for linear logic
 Proceedings of CSL 2005
, 2005
"... 1.1 Quantification and the subformula property.................. 3 1.2 Ground forward sequent calculus......................... 5 1.3 Lifting to free variables............................... 10 ..."
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Cited by 52 (15 self)
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1.1 Quantification and the subformula property.................. 3 1.2 Ground forward sequent calculus......................... 5 1.3 Lifting to free variables............................... 10
Multimodal Linguistic Inference
, 1995
"... In this paper we compare grammatical inference in the context of simple and of mixed Lambek systems. Simple Lambek systems are obtained by taking the logic of residuation for a family of multiplicative connectives =; ffl; n, together with a package of structural postulates characterizing the resourc ..."
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Cited by 50 (8 self)
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In this paper we compare grammatical inference in the context of simple and of mixed Lambek systems. Simple Lambek systems are obtained by taking the logic of residuation for a family of multiplicative connectives =; ffl; n, together with a package of structural postulates characterizing the resource management properties of the ffl connective. Different choices for Associativity and Commutativity yield the familiar logics NL, L, NLP, LP. Semantically, a simple Lambek system is a unimodal logic: the connectives get a Kripke style interpretation in terms of a single ternary accessibility relation modeling the notion of linguistic composition for each individual system. The simple systems each have their virtues in linguistic analysis. But none of them in isolation provides a basis for a full theory of grammar. In the second part of the paper, we consider two types of mixed Lambek systems. The first type is obtained by combining a number of unimodal systems into one multimodal logic. The...
ACL  A Concurrent Linear Logic Programming Paradigm
 Proceedings of the 1993 International Logic Programming Symposium
, 1993
"... We propose a novel concurrent programming framework called ACL. ACL is a variant of linear logic programming, where computation is described in terms of bottomup proof search of some formula in linear logic. The whole linear sequent calculus is too nondeterministic to be interpreted as an operatio ..."
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Cited by 50 (5 self)
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We propose a novel concurrent programming framework called ACL. ACL is a variant of linear logic programming, where computation is described in terms of bottomup proof search of some formula in linear logic. The whole linear sequent calculus is too nondeterministic to be interpreted as an operational semantics for a realistic programming language. We restrict formulas and accordingly refine inference rules for those formulas, hence overcoming this problem. Don't care interpretation of nondeterminism in the resulting system yields a very clean and powerful concurrent programming paradigm based on messagepassing style communication. It is remarkable that each ACL inference rule has an exact correspondence to some operation in concurrent computation and that nondeterminism in proof search just corresponds to an inherent nondeterminism in concurrent computation, namely, nondeterminism on message arrival order. We demonstrate the power of our ACL framework by showing several programm...
Proof Search Issues In Some NonClassical Logics
, 1998
"... This thesis develops techniques and ideas on proof search. Proof search is used with one of two meanings. Proof search can be thought of either as the search for a yes/no answer to a query (theorem proving), or as the search for all proofs of a formula (proof enumeration). This thesis is an investig ..."
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Cited by 45 (2 self)
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This thesis develops techniques and ideas on proof search. Proof search is used with one of two meanings. Proof search can be thought of either as the search for a yes/no answer to a query (theorem proving), or as the search for all proofs of a formula (proof enumeration). This thesis is an investigation into issues in proof search in both these senses for some nonclassical logics. Gentzen systems are well suited for use in proof search in both senses. The rules of Gentzen sequent calculi are such that implementations can be directed by the top level syntax of sequents, unlike other logical calculi such as natural deduction. All the calculi for proof search in this thesis are Gentzen sequent calculi. In Chapter 2, permutation of inference rules for Intuitionistic Linear Logic is studied. A focusing calculus, ILLF, in the style of Andreoli ([And92]) is developed. This calculus allows only one proof in each equivalence class of proofs equivalent up to permutations of inferences. The issue here is both theorem proving and proof enumeration. For certain logics, normal natural deductions provide a prooftheoretic semantics. Proof enumeration is then the enumeration of all these deductions. Herbelin's cutfree LJT ([Her95], here called MJ) is a Gentzen system for intuitionistic logic allowing derivations that correspond in a 11 way to the normal natural deductions of intuitionistic logic. This calculus is therefore well suited to proof enumeration. Such calculi are called `permutationfree' calculi. In Chapter 3, MJ is extended to a calculus for an intuitionistic modal logic (due to Curry) called Lax Logic. We call this calculus PFLAX. The proof theory of MJ is extended to PFLAX. Chapter 4 presents work on theorem proving for propositional logics using a history mechanism f...